|This article currently links to a large number of disambiguation pages (or back to itself) (check | fix). (May 2013)|
|Born||Henryk Adam Aleksandra Pius Sienkiewicz
5 May 1846
Wola Okrzejska, Congress Poland
|Died||15 November 1916
|Notable work(s)||Janko Muzykant
Ogniem i mieczem
W pustyni i w puszczy
|Notable award(s)||Nobel Prize in Literature
Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (Polish pronunciation: [ˈxɛnrɨk ˈadam alɛˈksandɛr ˈpʲus ɕɛŋˈkʲevʲit͡ʂ]; also known as "Litwos" [ˈlitfɔs]; May 5, 1846 – November 15, 1916) was a Polish journalist and Nobel Prize-winning novelist. A Polish szlachcic (noble) of the Oszyk coat of arms, he was one of the most popular Polish writers at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, and received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1905 for his "outstanding merits as an epic writer."
Born into an impoverished noble family in Russian-ruled Poland, Sienkiewicz is best remembered for his historical novels. Many of his novels were first serialized in newspapers, and even today are still in print. In Poland, he is best known for his historical novels "With Fire and Sword", "The Deluge", and "Fire in the Steppe" (The Trilogy) set during the 17th-century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, while internationally he is best known for Quo Vadis, set in Nero's Rome. The Trilolgy and Quo Vadis have been filmed, the latter several times, with the 1951 version receiving most international recognition.
Early years 
Sienkiewicz was born on 5 May 1846 in Wola Okrzejska, a village in eastern Poland, that was part of the Russian Empire at the time. His was an impoverished noble family, on his father's side deriving from Tatars who had settled in Lithuania. His parents were Józef Sienkiewicz (1813–1896) and Stefania (née Cieciszowska), (1820–1873). He had five siblings: older brother Kazimierz, and four sisters - Aniela, Helena, Zofia and Maria. His family used the Oszyk coat of arms. Wola Okrzejska belonged to the writer's maternal grandmother, Felicjana Cieciszowska. His family moved several times and young Henryk spend his childhood on family estates in Grabowce Górne, Wężyczyn and Burzec. In September 1858 he begun his education in Warsaw, where his family would finally settle in 1861, having bought a kamienica building in the Praga district. He received relatively poor grades in fields other than liberal arts, namely Polish language and history.
Because of the hard financial times, the nineteen-year-old Sienkiewicz took up a job as a tutor in the Weyher family in Płońsk. During this period he probably wrote his first novel, Ofiara (Sacrifice), although it is assumed he destroyed the manuscript of this never published work. He also worked on his publicized novel Na marne (In Vain). In addition, he finished his extramural classes in secondary school and in 1866 received the secondary school diploma. At first he tried to study medicine and later law at the Warsaw University, but soon he ended up transferring to the Institute of Philology and History where he acquired a thorough knowledge of literature and Old Polish. Little is known about this period of his life, other than he moved out from his parents house, worked part time as a tutor, and was very impoverished. His material situation improved somewhat when he became a tutor at the princely Wornonieccy family in 1868.
In 1867 he wrote a rhyming piece Sielanka Młodości, which he submitted for publication in Tygodnik Ilustrowany (Illustrated Weekly) but it was rejected. In 1869 Sienkiewicz debuted as a journalist. Przegląd Tygodniowy (The Weekly Review) printed his review of a play on 18 April 1869, and shortly afterward Tygodnik Ilustrowany printed his essay about Mikołaj Sęp-Sarzyński. He finished his studies in 1871, although he failed to receive a diploma as he did not pass the Greek language test. Sienkiewicz also wrote for Gazeta Polska (The Polish Gazette) and Niwa under the pen name "Litwos". In 1873 he started to write a column "Bez tytułu" ("Without a Title") in Gazeta Polska, in 1874 a column "Sprawy bieżące" ("Current Issues") for Niwa, and in 1875 the column "Chwila obecna" ("The Present Moment"). He also collaborated on a Polish translation of Victor Hugo's novel Ninety-Three, published in Poland in 1874. In June of that year he became one of the co-owners of Niwa magazine (he would sell his share in 1878).
In the meantime he deputed as a fiction writer with the short novel Na marne (In Vain) published in the magazine Wieniec in 1872. This was followed by the stories Humoreski z teki Woroszyłły (Humorous Writings from the Woroszyłła's Folder, 1872), Stary Sługa (The Old Servant, 1875), Hania (1876) and Selim Mirza (1877). The last three works are known as the Little Trilogy. Thanks to those publications he became a prominent figure in the Warsaw's journalist-literary world, and would attend the popular dinner parties hosted by the actress Helena Modrzejewska.
Travels abroad 
In 1874 he was briefly engaged to Maria Kellerówna, and traveled abroad, visiting Brussels and Paris. Shortly after his return, his fiancee's parents cancelled their engagement. In 1876 he went to the United States with the Helena Modrzejewska and her husband. He traveled through London to New York and then to San Francisco, staying for some time in California. His travels were financed by Gazeta Polska in exchange for his series of travel essays; thus during this period he wrote Listy z podróży (Letters From a Journey), or Listy Litwosa z Podróży (Litwos' Letters From a Journey) which were published in Gazeta Polska in the years 1876-1878, and republished as a book in 1880. He also published other articles in Przegląd Tygodniowy and Przewodnik Naukowy i Literacki, discussing the situation of American Polonia. He would briefly live in the town of Anaheim, and later, in Anaheim Landing. He hunted, visited native American camps, and traveled in the nearby mountains (the ranges of Santa Ana Mountains, Sierra Madre Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains), and visited the other locations such as the Mojave Desert, the Yosemite Valley and the silver mine in Virginia City, Nevada. He witnessed Modrzejewska's US debut in the California Theatre on 20 August 1877, which he reviewed for Gazeta Polska, and on 8 September that year published an article Poland and Russia in the Daily Evening Post (translated by Modrzejeska).
He also continued writing fiction, and published Szkice węglem (Sketches in Charcoal) in 1877 in Gazeta Polska. While in America he also wrote a play, 'Na przebój, soon retitled Na jedną kartę (A Single Page), which was later staged at Lviv (1879) and to a better reception, in Warsaw (1881). He also wrote another play, this one for Modrzejewska, and aiming at the American public, Z walki tutejszych partii (From the Fights of the Local Parties), but it was never published or performed, and the manuscript is considered lost.
In 1878 Henryk Sienkiewicz returned to Europe, leaving the US on 24 March that year. First, he stayed in London and then went to Paris for a year, delaying his return to Poland due to rumors of possible conscription to the Imperial Russian Army on the eve of a predicted new war with Turkey.
Return to Poland 
In April 1879 he returned to the Polish lands, arriving in Lviv (Lwów). There Sienkiewicz gave a lecture, "Z Nowego Jorku do Kalifornii" ("From New York to California"), through it was not very well attended. His subsequent lectures in Szczawnica and Krynica, in July-August that year, and in Warsaw and Poznań on the following year, were much more successful. In late summer 1879 he went to Venice and Rome, which he toured for the next few weeks, returning to Warsaw on November 7. There he met Maria Szetkiewicz, whom he married on 18 August 1881. The marriage is reported to be a happy one. They had two children, Henryk Józef (1882–1959) and Jadwiga Maria (1883–1969). The marriage did not last long, however, because Maria died of tuberculosis on 18 August 1885.
In 1879 the first collected edition of his works was published, in four tomes; the series would continue up to 1917, ending with 17 tomes total. He also continued to publish journalistic pieces, mainly in Gazeta Polska and Niwa. In 1881 he published a favorable review of the first collected edition of Prus' works.
In 1880 Sienkiewicz wrote a historical novella, Niewola tatarska (Tartar Captivity). By the end of 1881 Sienkiewicz became a chief editor of a new Warsaw newspaper Słowo (The Word). This significantly improved his financial situation. The year 1882 would saw him heavily engaged in the running of the newspaper, where he published a number of columns and short stories. Soon, however, he would lose interest in the journalist aspect, and decided to focus more on his literary career. He would pay less and less attention to that position, and he would resign it in 1887, remaining however an editor of the literary section of the paper until 1892.
From 1883 he would increasingly shift his focus from short forms to historical novels. He began work on another historical novel, Ogniem i Mieczem (With Fire and Sword). The novel, initially entitled Wilcze gniazdo (Wolf's Lair) appeared in installments in Słowo from May 1883 to March 1884. It also ran simultaneously in the Kraków newspaper, Czas.
He soon began writing the second volume of his Trilogy – Potop ("The Deluge"). Potop was printed in Słowo (from December 1884 to September 1886). From 1884 he accompanied his wife Maria to foreign sanatoriums. After Maria's death, Sienkiewicz would keep traveling around Europe, leaving his children with his wife parents, through he would often return to Poland, particularly staying for significant periods in Warsaw and Kraków from the 1890s. After his return to Warsaw in 1887 the third volume of what would be known as The Trilogy, Pan Wołodyjowski ("Mr. Wołodyjowski") appeared. That novel was published in Słowo from May 1887 to May 1888. The Trilogy established Sienkiewicz's position in the Polish society as the most popular contemporary writer.
Sienkiewicz was given 15 thousand rubles in recognition of his achievements from an unknown admirer who signed himself as Michał Wołodyjowski (the name of the character in the Trilogy). Sienkiewicz used this money to open the scholarship fund, named after his wife, and supervised by the Academy of Learning, designed for artists endangered by tuberculosis.
In 1886 he went to Constantinopole; in 1888 he visited Spain. At the end of 1890 he went to Africa which resulted in the writing of Listy z Afryki (Letters from Africa, first published in Słowo in 1891-1892 then collected in a book in 1893). The period at the turn of the 1880s and 1890s was associated with intensive work on several novels. In 1891 a book edition of the novel Bez dogmatu (Without Dogma) was published. Earlier, from 1889 to 1890, the novel was printed in installments in Słowo. In 1892 Sienkiewicz signed an agreement for another novel - Rodzina Połanieckich (Children of the Soil), and the book came out in print in 1894, published in installments in Gazeta Polska from 1893.
Later years 
Sienkiewicz would have several romances, and in 1892 Maria Romanowska-Wołodkowicz, the stepdaughter of a wealthy Odessan, entered the writer's life. Sienkiewicz and Romanowska became engaged in that city in 1893 and their wedding took place in Kraków on November 11 that year. Just two weeks later, however, the bride soon left the author, which Sienkiewicz blamed in "in-laws intrigues"; on 13 December 1895 Sienkiewicz obtained papal consent to dissolution of the marriage. In 1904 he would marry again, this time to marria Maria Babska.
Sienkiewicz involved himself in social matters, using his growing international fame to influence public opinion. In particular, he would be critical of the German government's policies (Germanization, Kulturkampf) towards the Poles living in Germany. In 1901 he made an appeal in a cause of children in Września (the Września children strike). He would also, if more cautiously, criticize the Russian government, and demand reforms for the Congress Poland state. He had some ties with the Polish right wing endecja politicians, and was critical of the socialist movement, through he was mostly a moderate, and he never became a politician himself, declining any proposals to became a deputy to State Duma of the Russian Empire. In cultural matters, he was also involved in raising of the Adam Mickiewicz Monument, Kraków and later, Adam Mickiewicz Monument, Warsaw. He supported educational organizations, and was one of the founders of the Polska Macierz Szkolna organization. By 1908 thanks to profits from numerous publication of his works he was described as "reasonably wealthy"; he would often use his new wealth to support struggling writers. He was involved in gathering funds for social welfare projects (such as food or starvation relief), and in construction of a turbeculosis sanatorium in Zakopane.
In February 1895 Sienkiewicz wrote the first chapters of Quo Vadis. The novel started appearing in print in March 1895 in several Polish newspapers: in Gazeta Polska in Warsaw, Czas in Kraków and in Dziennik Poznański in Poznań (Greater Poland region). It was finished by March 1896. The book edition appeared later that year, and gained international renown. From February 1897 he begun serializing his new novel Krzyżacy (The Teutonic Knights, or "The Knights of the Cross"); the serialization would be finished in 1900 and the book edition would appear this year.
In 1900 Sienkiewicz celebrated an anniversary of his artistic work. Special events were held throughout a number of Polish cities, including Kraków, Lwów and Poznań. On the occasion a citizenship committee of Polish people presented him with an estate at Oblęgorek and he went on to open a school for children there.
In 1905 he won a Nobel Prize for lifetime achievement as an epic writer. In the acceptance speech Sienkiewicz said that this honour was particularly valuable for a son of Poland, saying "She was pronounced dead - yet here is a proof that She lives on". He also added, "She was pronounced defeated - and here is proof that She is victorious".
His social and political activities resulted in his diminishing output on the literary field. He wrote a new historical novel, Na polu chwały (On the Field of Glory), that was intended as the beginning of a trilogy; it wasn't well received, criticized for being a lesser copy of The Trilogy, and was never continued. Similarly his contemporary novel Vortices (Wiry, 1910), in which Sienkiewicz attempted to criticize some of his political opponents, received mostly critical, polemical and politicized response. His 1910 his novel for young people, W pustyni i w puszczy (In Desert and Wilderness) appeared in installments in the newspaper, Kurier Warszawski; finished by 1911. was much better received, and became widely popular among children and young adults.
After the outbreak of World War I, Sienkiewicz met in Oblęgorek with a Polish Legion's cavalry unit under Bolesław Wieniawa-Długoszowski. Shortly afterward he left for Switzerland. Together with Ignacy Paderewski and Erazm Piltz he established an organization for war relief on the Polish lands. Other than activism in the field of war relief, Sienkiewicz avoided politics, through shortly before his death he expressed support for the Act of 5th November.
Death and funeral 
He died on November 15, 1916, in Vevey, where he was buried on November 22. The cause of death was an ischaemic heart disease. His funeral was widely attended, including by the representatives of both the Central Nations and the Entente Powers, and an address from Pope Benedict XV was read.
In 1924, after Poland had regained its independence, the writer's ashes were repatriated to Warsaw, Poland, and placed in the crypt of St. John's Cathedral. During the transit of the coffin a number of cities through which it was passing held solemn memorial ceremonies. In Poland, thousands accompanied the coffin in Warsaw, and the Polish president Stanisław Wojciechowski gave a speech.
In his first works (such as the 1872 Humoreski z teki Woroszyłły ) Sienkiewicz showed himself to be a strong supporter of the Polish positivism, endorsing constructive, practical characters such as an engineer. His Little Trilogy (Stary Sługa, 1875, Hania, 1876 and Selim Mirza, 1877) showed his interest in history of Poland as a setting, and are seen as mature literary works, displaying his artful control over elements of humor and drama. Thematically, his early work focused on three issues: the oppression and poverty of peasantry (ex. Szkice węglem, 1877), the Polish patriotic criticism of the partitioning powers (ex. Z pamiętnika korepetytora, Janko Muzykant, 1879), and his voyage to the United States (Za chelebem, 1880). His most common motive was the plight of the powerless - impoverished peasants, schoolchildren, emigrants.
His Latarnik (1881) has been described as one of the best Polish novels. His 1882 stories Bartek Zwycięzca and Sachem which focused on the allegory between the tragic fates of their heroes and that of the occupied Polish nation. His With Fire and Sword (1883-1884) was enthusiastically received by readers (as were the next two volumes of what became known as the The Trilogy), although the critical reception was rather lukewarm. While the critics generally praised his style, they noted that some of the historical facts and events were misrepresented and distorted. The Trilogy merged elements of an epic and a historical novel, infused with specific elements of Sienkiewicz's style. The patriotic nature of The Trilogy also worried the censors, and the Warsaw's Russian censor I. Jankiul warned Sienkiewicz that he would not allow the publication of any further Sienkiewicz works dealing with the Polish history.
His Bez dogmatu (Without Dogma 1889-1990) was a notable artistic experiment, a self-analytical novel written in the form of a fictional diary. His works of that era took a strong stance critical of decadent and naturalism philosophies. He expressed his opinions on naturalism and writing in general early on in O naturaliźmie w powieści (Naturalism in the Novel, 1881). In 1893 he wrote that novels should strengthen and ennoble life, rather than sabotage and vilify it. Later, from early 1900s, he would become of the Young Poland movement in the Polish literature.
Those themes formed a major message in his novel Quo Vadis (1896). The triumph of spiritual Christianity over the materialist Rome was a critique of materialism and decadentism, and also an allegory to the strength of the Polish spirit.
His The Teutonic Knights would return to the history of Poland. Describing the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, a Polish victory over the Germans in the Polish-Teutonic War, the book had significant contemporary political context, due to the ongoing attempts of Germanization (Kulturkampf) in the German partition lands of Poland.
It is often erroneously said that Sienkiewicz received his Nobel Prize for Quo vadis. While Quo vadis is the novel that brought him international fame, the Nobel Prize does not name any particular novel, instead citing "his outstanding merits as an epic writer".
Sienkiewicz would often carry out significant historical research for his novels, but he would be selective in which elements of his findings would make it to the novels; for example he would prioritize Polish military victories over defeats.
Thoughout his life Sienkiewicz wrote a diary, but he manuscript has been lost.
During his liftime, around the turn of the century, Sienkiewicz became the most popular writer in Poland, and one of the most popular in Germany, France, Russia, and the English speaking countries. The Trilogy was translated into numerous foreign languages; With Fire and Sword saw at least 26 different foreign translations during his lifetime. The novel Quo Vadis also gained wide recognition and became extremely popular, its at least 40 different language translations, including English language editions in the range of one million copies cementing Sienkiewicz's international fame. However, as Russia (whose Sienkiewicz was a citizen of) was not a signatory to the Berne Convention, he only rarely received any royalties from those translations.
Already during his lifetime his works were adapted for stages (theatrical, operatic, musical) and for the emerging film industry. A number of writers and poets have dedicated his works to him, or used him or his works as an inspiration. Numerous painters have created works inspired by Sienkiewicz's novels, and their works were gathered in Sienkiewicz themed albums and exhibitions. The names of his characters would be given to industrial products. The wide popularity of Quo Vadis at that time in France, where it was the bestselling book of 1900, was shown by the fact that the horses competing in one of the Grand Prix de Paris events were given names of the characters from the book. To avoid journalists and fans, Sienkiewicz at times decided to travel under a false name.
Sienkiewicz became a member of many international organizations and societies, including the Polish Academy of Learning, Russian Academy of Sciences, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Royal Czech Society of Sciences, Italian Academy of Arcadia. Sienkiewicz was a knight of the French Légion d'honneur. He received the honorary doctorate of the Jagiellonian University in 1900, Lwów University in 1911, and the honorary citizenship of Lwów in 1902. In 1905 he received the most prestigious award in the word of literature, the Nobel Prize.
Named after Sienkiewicz, in Poland, are numerous streets and plazas (the first street to bear his name was one in Lwów, named after him during his lifetime in 1907). Named after him is Białystok's Osiedle Sienkiewicza; city parks in Wrocław and Łódź; and over 70 schools in Poland. There are statues of Sienkiewicz in a number of Polish towns (the first one was constructed in Zbaraż, now in Ukraine). A Sienkiewcz Mound is located in Wola Okrzejska. He has been featured on a number of stamps.
There are three museums dedicated to him in Poland. First one was the Museum of Henryk Sienkiewicz in Oblęgorek opened in 1958. The second one, opened in 1966, is located in Wola Okrzejska. Third one, from 1978, is in Poznań.
Outside Poland the popularity of his works would decline from the interbellum on, with the exception of Quo Vadis, which retained relative fame thanks to several international film adaptations. In Poland his works are still widely read and known, and he is seen as a classic author, whose works are often required readings for Polish schoolchildren. His works have also been adpopted for Polish films and television series.
His works would be subject to ongoing critical analysis, with first books analyzing his works published still during his lifetime. Several biographies of him have been published as well. He has been subject to some criticism, both during his lifetime and afterward, particularly from the "high-end criticics" who viewed his works as too simplistic; a view expressed notably by Witold Gombrowicz who described Sienkiewicz as "first-rate second-rate writer." Nonetheless Polish historian of literature Henryk Markiewicz, writing the 1997 entry on Sienkiewicz for the Polski Słownik Biograficzny, noted that Sienkiewicz is the most internationally famous Polish writer, the most successful Polish historical fiction writer, master of Polish prose, and an author of widely read and influential books on Poland.
Selected works 
- The Trilogy (Trylogia), comprising:
- With Fire and Sword (Ogniem i mieczem, 1884), which took place during the 17th century Cossack revolt known as the Khmelnytsky Uprising; made into a movie with the same title. A video game based on the novel, Mount&Blade: With Fire & Sword, has been released by Turkish studio TaleWorlds.;
- The Deluge, (Potop, 1886), describing the Swedish invasion of Poland known as The Deluge; made into a movie with the same title;
- Fire in the Steppe (Pan Wołodyjowski, 1888), which took place during wars with the Ottoman Empire in the late 17th century; made into a film titled Colonel Wolodyjowski.
- The Teutonic Knights, also translated as The Knights of the Cross, ISBN 0-7818-0433-7 (Krzyżacy, 1900, relating to the Battle of Grunwald); made into a movie with the same title in 1960 by Aleksander Ford.
- Quo Vadis (1895) The story of St. Peter in Rome during the reign of Emperor Nero.
- On the Field of Glory (1906) The story of King John III Sobieski and the Battle of Vienna.
- In Desert and Wilderness (W pustyni i w puszczy, 1912).
- The Polaniecki Family (Rodzina Połanieckich, 1894). aka Children of the Soil
- Without Dogma (Bez dogmatu, 1891).
- Vortices (Wiry, 1910).
- Yanko the Musician and other stories (1893)
- Lillian Morris and other stories (1894)
- Hania and other stories (1897)
- Let Us Follow Him and other stories (1897, unauthorized)
- Sielanka, a forest picture, and other stories (1898)
- On the Bright Shore (1898)
- In Vain (1899)
- Life and Death and other legends and stories (1904)
- So Runs the World (criticism, a story, and two short dramas, "Whose Fault?" and "Win or Lose")
See also 
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.203
- Lockert, Lacy (1919). "Henryk Sienkiewicz". The Sewanee Review 27 (3): 257–283. JSTOR 27533215.
- Andrzej Kulikowski. Heraldyka szlachecka. 1990. p. 89. Quote: "Rodzina Sienkiewiczów vel Sieńkiewiczów wywodzi się z tatarów zawołżańskich, zapisani do tzw. Chorągwi juszyńskiej - były to dolne szczeble w drabinie hierarchicznej utytułowanych rodów tatarskich. Według dokumentu wydanego w Radomiu 6 lutego 1782 protoplastą tej rodziny był Piotr Oszyk Sienkiewicz".
- Jan Ciechanowicz. Rody rycerskie Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego. 2001. p. 72. Quote: "Sienkiewicz herbu Oszyk, 1775 nobilitowany: Sienkiewicze trockie, podolskie, Królestwo Polskie. Gałąź rodziny tatarskiej osiadłej na Litwie, przyjęła chrzest i uzyskała nobilitację z herbem Oszyk w osobie Michała Sienkiewicza. Z tej rodziny: Henryk 1847-1916, powieściopisarz"
- Stefan Majchrowski (1966). Pan Sienkiewicz. Ludowa Spóldzielnia Wydawnicza. p. 456. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- Władysław Studencki (1967). Szkice literackie: wielcy i mali. pp. 66–67. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.204
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.205
- Ewa Ihnatowicz (2000). Literatura polska drugiej połowy XIX wieku (1864-1914). Wydawn. Trio. p. 73. ISBN 978-83-85660-87-3. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Ireneusz Rębosz; Paweł Pierściński; Maryla Janudi (1996). Henryk Sienkiewicz i jego Oblęgorek. Wydawn. Voyager. p. iv. ISBN 978-83-85496-39-7. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- Janina Kulczycka-Saloni (1960). Henryk Sienkiewicz. Państwowe Zakłady Wydawn. Szkolnych. p. 19. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.206
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.207
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.208
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.210
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.212
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.211
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.209
- Wychowanie, przedezkolne w Polsco w latach 1918-1939. Zaklad Narodowy im.Ossolińskich. 1967. p. 129. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Polish American Studies. Polish-American Historical Association. 2005. p. 76. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Sylwia Wilczak. "Quo Vadis Noblowska Pomyłka". Archiwum.wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- "The Nobel Peace Prize 1983. Lech Wałęsa. Acceptance Speech". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.213
- Henryk Markiewicz, Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tome XXXVII, 1997, p.214
- Henryk Sienkiewicz at Find a Grave
- Henryk Sienkiewicz (1 November 1998). Quo Vadis: A Narrative of the Time of Nero. Regnery Gateway. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-89526-345-2. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "The Nobel Prize in Literature 1905". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Janina Kulczycka-Saloni (1966). Henryk Sienkiewicz: Materiały zebrała i Wstępem opatrzyła Janina Kulczycka-Saloni. Państwowe Zakłady Wydawn. Szkołnych. p. 67. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- "MUZEUM HENRYKA SIENKIEWICZA W WOLI OKRZEJSKIEJ". Muzeum Sienkiewicza.pl. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- "With Fire & Sword". TaleWorlds Entertainment. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Henryk Sienkiewicz|
- Works by Henryk Sienkiewicz at Project Gutenberg
- Works by Henryk Sienkiewicz on Open Library at the Internet Archive
- Works of Henryk Sienkiewicz at the Internet Archive
- (Polish) Works of Henryk Sienkiewicz at Polish Wikisource
- Biography at the Polish American Center
- the Henryk Sienkiewicz Museum in Oblegorek
- Henryk Sienkiewicz at culture.pl