Hepatocyte growth factor

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Hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)
Protein HGF PDB 1bht.png
PDB rendering based on 1bht.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
External IDs OMIM142409 MGI96079 HomoloGene503 ChEMBL: 5479 GeneCards: HGF Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE HGF 209960 at tn.png
PBB GE HGF 209961 s at tn.png
PBB GE HGF 210998 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3082 15234
Ensembl ENSG00000019991 ENSMUSG00000028864
UniProt P14210 Q08048
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000601 NM_001289458
RefSeq (protein) NP_000592 NP_001276387
Location (UCSC) Chr 7:
81.33 – 81.4 Mb
Chr 5:
16.55 – 16.62 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts on haemopoietic progenitor cells. It has been shown to have a major role in embryonic organ development, specifically in myogenesis, in adult organ regeneration and in wound healing.[1]


Hepatocyte growth factor regulates cell growth, cell motility, and morphogenesis by activating a tyrosine kinase signaling cascade after binding to the proto-oncogenic c-Met receptor.[2] Hepatocyte growth factor is secreted by mesenchymal cells and acts as a multi-functional cytokine on cells of mainly epithelial origin. Its ability to stimulate mitogenesis, cell motility, and matrix invasion gives it a central role in angiogenesis, tumorogenesis, and tissue regeneration.[3]


It is secreted as a single inactive polypeptide and is cleaved by serine proteases into a 69-kDa alpha-chain and 34-kDa beta-chain. A disulfide bond between the alpha and beta chains produces the active, heterodimeric molecule. The protein belongs to the plasminogen subfamily of S1 peptidases but has no detectable protease activity.[3]

Clinical significance[edit]

Human HGF plasmid DNA therapy of cardiomyocytes is being examined as a potential treatment for coronary artery disease as well as treatment for the damage that occurs to the heart after myocardial infarction.[4][5]

HGF may further play a role as an indicator for prognosis of chronicity for Chikungunya virus induced arthralgia. High HGF levels correlate with high rates of recovery.[6]


Hepatocyte growth factor has been shown to interact with C-Met.[2][7][8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gallagher, J.T., Lyon, M. (2000). "Molecular structure of Heparan Sulfate and interactions with growth factors and morphogens". In Iozzo, M, V. Proteoglycans: structure, biology and molecular interactions. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, New York. pp. 27–59. 
  2. ^ a b Bottaro DP, Rubin JS, Faletto DL, Chan AM, Kmiecik TE, Vande Woude GF, Aaronson SA (February 1991). "Identification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor as the c-met proto-oncogene product". Science 251 (4995): 802–4. doi:10.1126/science.1846706. PMID 1846706. 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: HGF hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)". 
  4. ^ Yang, Z. J.; Zhang, Y. R.; Chen, B.; Zhang, S. L.; Jia, E. Z.; Wang, L. S.; Zhu, T. B.; Li, C. J.; Wang, H.; Huang, J.; Cao, K. J.; Ma, W. Z.; Wu, B.; Wang, L. S.; Wu, C. T. (2008). "Phase I clinical trial on intracoronary administration of Ad-hHGF treating severe coronary artery disease". Molecular Biology Reports 36 (6): 1323–1329. doi:10.1007/s11033-008-9315-3. PMID 18649012. 
  5. ^ Hahn, W.; Pyun, W. B.; Kim, D. S.; Yoo, W. S.; Lee, S. D.; Won, J. H.; Shin, G. J.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, S. (2011). "Enhanced cardioprotective effects by coexpression of two isoforms of hepatocyte growth factor from naked plasmid DNA in a rat ischemic heart disease model". The Journal of Gene Medicine 13 (10): 549–555. doi:10.1002/jgm.1603. PMID 21898720. 
  6. ^ Chow A, Her Z, Ong EK, Chen JM, Dimatatac F, Kwek DJ, Barkham T, Yang H, Rénia L, Leo YS, Ng LF (January 2011). "Persistent arthralgia induced by Chikungunya virus infection is associated with interleukin-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor". J. Infect. Dis. 203 (2): 149–57. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiq042. PMC 3071069. PMID 21288813. 
  7. ^ Comoglio PM (1993). "Structure, biosynthesis and biochemical properties of the HGF receptor in normal and malignant cells". EXS 65: 131–65. PMID 8380735. 
  8. ^ Naldini L, Weidner KM, Vigna E, Gaudino G, Bardelli A, Ponzetto C, Narsimhan RP, Hartmann G, Zarnegar R, Michalopoulos GK (October 1991). "Scatter factor and hepatocyte growth factor are indistinguishable ligands for the MET receptor". EMBO J. 10 (10): 2867–78. PMC 452997. PMID 1655405. 

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