Heraklion Archaeological Museum

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Heraklion Archaeological Museum
Archäologisches Museum Iraklio 02.jpg
Established 1883
Location Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Type Archaeological museum
Website Website

Coordinates: 35°20′22″N 25°8′14″E / 35.33944°N 25.13722°E / 35.33944; 25.13722

The Heraklion Archaeological Museum is a museum located in Heraklion on Crete. It is one of the greatest museums in Greece[1] and the best in the world for Minoan art, as it contains the most notable and complete collection of artifacts of the Minoan civilization of Crete.[citation needed]

Overview[edit]

The bull leaper (c.1500 BC), an ivory figurine from the palace of Knossos.
Minoan jewelry.
Kamares style vases from Phaistos and Knossos.
Bronze dagger from Malia.
The Snake Goddess or a priestess performing a ritual (MM III).

The museum began in 1883 as a simple collection of antiquities.[citation needed] A dedicated building was constructed from 1904 to 1912 at the instigation of two Cretan archaeologists, Iosif Hatzidakis and Stefanos Xanthoudidis. After three destructive earthquakes in 1926, 1930, and 1935, the museum nearly collapsed. The director of the Heraklion Museum was then Spyridon Marinatos, who made great efforts to find funds and persuade the locals and the central government alike that a new solid building was needed. In 1935, Marinatos succeeded in engaging Patroklos Karantinos to build a sturdy structure that has withstood both natural disasters and the bombing that accompanied the German invasion in 1941. Although the museum was damaged during World War II, the collection survived intact and again became accessible to the public in 1952. A new wing was added in 1964.

The Herakleion Archaeological Museum is one of the largest and most important museums in Greece, and among the most important museums in Europe. It houses representative artifacts from all the periods of Cretan prehistory and history, covering a chronological span of over 5,500 years from the Neolithic period to Roman times. The singularly important Minoan collection contains unique examples of Minoan art, many of them true masterpieces. The Herakleion Museum is rightly considered as the museum of Minoan culture par excellence worldwide.

The museum, located in the town centre, was built between 1937 and 1940 by architect Patroklos Karantinos on a site previously occupied by the Roman Catholic monastery of Saint-Francis which was destroyed by earthquake in 1856. The museum's antiseismic building is an important example of modernist architecture and was awarded a Bauhaus commendation. Karantinos applied the principles of modern architecture to the specific needs of a museum by providing good lighting from the skylights above and along the top of the walls, and facilitating the easy flow of large groups of people. He also anticipated future extensions to the museum. The colours and construction materials, such as the veined polychrome marbles, recall certain Minoan wall-paintings which imitate marble revetment. The two-storeyed building has large exhibition spaces, laboratories, a drawing room, a library, offices and a special department, the so-called Scientific Collection, where numerous finds are stored and studied. The museum shop, run by the Archaeological Receipts Fund, sells museum copies, books, postcards and slides. There is also a cafe.

The Herakleion Archaeological Museum is a Special Regional Service of the Ministry of Culture and its purpose is to acquire, safeguard, conserve, record, study, publish, display and promote Cretan artefacts from the Prehistoric to the Late Roman periods. The museum organizes temporary exhibitions in Greece and abroad, collaborates with scientific and scholarly institutions, and houses a variety of cultural events.

Collections[edit]

Room I[edit]

Covers findings from 6000 BCE to the pre-Palatial period, including:

  • Neolithic fertility goddess
  • Vasiliki ware
  • stone jars from the island of Mochlos
  • miniature clay sculptures

Room II[edit]

Covers findings from 2000 BCE to 1700 BCE in Knossos, Malia and several peak sanctuaries, including:

  • Kamares ware pottery
  • glazed plaques of Minoan houses (aka the "Town Mosaic")
  • peak sanctuary figurines

Room III[edit]

Room IV[edit]

Covers findings from 1700 BCE to 1450 BCE, including:

  • bull's head rhyton from Knossos
  • snake goddess figurines
  • tools and weapons, mostly cast in bronze
  • cups with Linear A inscriptions

Room V[edit]

Covers findings from 1450 BCE to 1400 BCE, including:

  • Egyptian trade objects
  • clay model of a house
  • examples of a Linear A and Linear B scripts

Room VI[edit]

Covers findings from cemeteries at Knossos, Phaistos and Archanes, including:

Room VII[edit]

Covers findings from 1700 BCE to 1300 BCE from smaller villas and sacred caves, including:

Room VIII - Zakros[edit]

Covers findings from 1700 BCE to 1450 BCE from the palace of Zakros, including:

  • rock crystal rhyton
  • bull's head rhyton
  • pottery with floral and marine motifs

Room IX[edit]

Covers findings from 1700 BCE to 1450 BCE in eastern Crete, including:

Room X - Mycenaean[edit]

Covers findings from 1400 BCE to 1100 BCE, including:

  • clay figurines
  • clay sculpture of dancers with a lyre player

Room XI - Dorian[edit]

Covers findings from 1100 BCE to 900 BCE during the arrival of the Dorian Greeks, including:

  • weapons and tools, mostly of iron
  • clay fertility figurines
  • votive offerings

Room XII[edit]

Covers findings up to 650 BCE, including:

  • pottery decorated with griffins
  • artefacts and figurines from Kato Syme

Room XIII - Larnakes[edit]

Minoan larnakes (clay coffins) are on display here.

Room XIV - Hall of the Frescoes[edit]

Room XV & Room XVI[edit]

  • More frescoes, including the famous "La Parisienne"

Room XX - Classical Greek, Greco-Roman[edit]

Sculptures from Classical Greek and Greco-Roman periods

Visitor information[edit]

The museum is open April–September, Monday 12–7pm Tuesday–Sunday 8am–7pm, October–March daily 8am–5pm.

As of 2012, the museum has been closed to the public since 2006 for building renovatation, but an exhibition of highlights from the collection is now open in a temporary exhibition space behind the museum.

Notable artifacts[edit]

Renovation[edit]

This museum has been closed for renovations since November 2006. A temporary exhibition is now open within the museum where all the main artifacts (including the Phaistos Disk, Snake Goddess, Bull-Leaping and King of the Lillies Frescoes) are displayed. The temporary exhibition includes approximately 450 items in chronological order with the explanatory plaques and context plaques.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]