Heraldic Visitations were tours of inspection undertaken by Kings of Arms (or more often by junior officers of arms, acting as the Kings' deputies) in England, Wales and Ireland. Their purpose was to regulate and register the coats of arms of nobility and gentry and boroughs, and to record pedigrees. They took place from 1530 to 1688, and their records provide important source material for genealogists.
Visitations in England and Wales
Process of visitations
By the fifteenth century, the use and abuse of coats of arms was becoming widespread in England. One of the duties conferred on William Bruges, the first Garter Principal King of Arms was to survey and record the armorial bearings and pedigrees of those using coats of arms and correct irregularities. The officers of arms of England made occasional tours of various parts of the country to enquire about matters armorial during the fifteenth century. It was not until the sixteenth century that the process began in earnest.
The first provincial visitations were carried out under warrant granted by Henry VIII to Thomas Benolt, Clarenceux King of Arms dated 6 April 1530. He was commissioned to travel throughout his province and was given authority to enter all homes and churches. Upon entering these premises, he was authorized to "put down or otherwise deface at his discretion...those arms unlawfully used". He was also required to enquire into all those using the titles of knight, esquire, or gentleman and decided if they were being lawfully used.
By this writ, Henry VIII also compelled the sheriffs and mayors of each county or city visited by the officers of arms to give aid and assistance in gathering the needed information. When a King of Arms, or his deputy, visited a county, his presence was proclaimed by presenting the Royal Commission and the local gentry and nobility were required to provide evidence of their right to bear arms. The Sheriff would collect from the bailiff of each hundred within his county a list of all people using titles or arms. These were summoned to the visitation and the hope was that none would escape the enquiry. The people that were summoned were to bring their arms, and proof of their right to use the arms. Their ancestry would also be recorded. Where an official grant of arms had been made, this was recorded. Other ancient arms, many of which predated the establishment of the College of Arms, were confirmed. The officer would record the information clearly and make detailed note that could be entered into the records of the College of Arms when the party returned to London. These volumes now make up the Library of Visitation Books at the College, which contain a wealth of information about all armigerous people from the period. If the officers of arms were not presented with sufficient proof of the right to use a coat of arms, they were also empowered to deface monuments which bore these arms and to force persons bearing such arms to sign a disclaimer that they would cease using them.
The visitations were not popular with the landed gentry who were required to present proof of their gentility. Members of this class grew in power after the installation of William III in 1688, and further commissions to carry out visitations were not issued by William or his successors. This cessation of the visitations did not have much effect on those counties far removed from London. Over the period of visitations many of these counties were rarely visited. Those closer to London were more frequently subject to inspection. Also, there was never a systematic visitation of Wales. There were four visitations in the principality, and on 9 June 1551, Fulk ap Hywel, Lancaster Herald of Arms in Ordinary was given a commission to visit all of Wales. This was not carried out, however, as he was degraded and executed for counterfeiting the seal of Clarenceux King of Arms. This is regrettable, since no visitation of all Wales was ever made by the officers of arms.
The original notebooks of the heralds during the visitations were retained by the College of Arms and have been used as the basis for other manuscript copies which have been published by various groups. The only definitive records of the visitations are difficult to examine as they form part of the library of the College of Arms. These published sources do provide a great amount of detail on the subject. Many have been published by the Harleian Society, some by county record societies, and a few have been printed privately. Many of the manuscripts on which these published copies are based can be found today in the British Library in London.
Lists of visitations
Visitations were conducted by or in the name of the two provincial Kings of Arms, Clarenceux and Norroy, within their respective provinces. In the following lists, the Deputies are the officers of arms who actually carried out the visitations. Where no Deputy is named, the visitation was conducted by the King of Arms in person.
The Southern Province, the jurisdiction of Clarenceux King of Arms, comprised that part of England south of the River Trent, i.e. the counties of Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Kent, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Middlesex, Monmouthshire, Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire, Rutland, Shropshire, Somerset, Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex, Warwickshire, Wiltshire, Worcestershire, and the City of London; and South Wales.
The Northern Province, the jurisdiction of Norroy King of Arms, comprised that part of England north of the River Trent, i.e. the counties of Cheshire, Cumberland, Derbyshire, Durham, Lancashire, Northumberland, Nottinghamshire, Staffordshire, Westmorland and Yorkshire; and North Wales. The Trent ran through Staffordshire, and the county was therefore technically divided between the two provinces; but for the purposes of visitation it was generally treated (sometimes through a process of deputation) as falling under the jurisdiction of Norroy.
|Year||County or area visited||Norroy King of Arms||Deputy or Deputies||Notes|
|1530||Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Lancashire||Thomas Tonge|
|1532||Lancashire and part of Cheshire||Thomas Tonge||William Fellow, Lancaster Herald|
|1552||Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland and Cumberland||William Harvey|
|1558||Northumberland, Durham, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cumberland and Cheshire||Lawrence Dalton||Conducted by Dalton in person, accompanied by William Colbarne, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, probably his nephew. Of uncertain authority, as Dalton had not yet been formally created Norroy|
|1569||Derbyshire||William Flower||Robert Glover, Somerset Herald||Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy|
|1569||Nottinghamshire||William Flower||Robert Glover, Somerset Herald||Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy|
|1575||County Durham||William Flower||Robert Glover, Somerset Herald||Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy|
|1575||Yorkshire and Northumberland||William Flower||Robert Glover, Somerset Herald||Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy|
|1580||Cheshire||William Flower||Robert Glover, Somerset Herald||Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy|
|1583||Staffordshire||William Flower||Robert Glover, Somerset Herald||Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy|
|1584–5||Yorkshire||William Flower||Robert Glover, Somerset Herald||Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy|
|1611||Derbyshire||Sir Richard St George||Conducted by St George in person, accompanied by Nicholas Charles, Lancaster Herald, and Henry St George, Rouge Rose Pursuivant-Extraordinary (Sir Richard's son)|
|1612||Yorkshire||Sir Richard St George|
|1613||Lancashire||Sir Richard St George|
|1614||Cheshire||Sir Richard St George||Conducted by St George in person, accompanied by Henry St George, Bluemantle Pursuivant, his son|
|1614||Nottinghamshire||Sir Richard St George|
|1614||Staffordshire||Sir Richard St George|
|1615||County Durham||Sir Richard St George|
|1615||Northumberland||Sir Richard St George||Conducted by St George in person, accompanied by Henry St George, Bluemantle Pursuivant, his son|
|1634||Derbyshire||[Sir William le Neve]||Henry Chitting, Chester Herald, and Thomas Thompson, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant||Although undertaken during le Neve's kingship, this visitation was conducted under a joint commission granted in 1633 to Sir John Borough, Norroy 1623–33 and Garter King of Arms 1633–43, and Sir Richard St George, Clarenceux King of Arms 1623–35|
|1662–4||[Shropshire]||William Dugdale||Conducted by Dugdale as deputy to Sir Edward Bysshe, Clarenceux, as the county lay within the Southern Province.|
|1666||County Durham||William Dugdale|
|1670||Flintshire||William Dugdale||Robert Chaloner, Lancaster Herald, and Francis Sandford, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant||Conducted under a deputation to visit North Wales, granted in 1670|
- This list is incomplete, you can help by expanding it
- Cornwall: Vivian, John Lambrick, (1830-1896) (ed.), The Visitation of the County of Cornwall, in the Year 1620 by Saint-George, Sir Henry, (1581-1644); Lennard, Samson, (d. 1633); (1874) (see also: Cornish heraldry)
- Devon: Vivian, Lt.Col. J.L., (Ed.) The Visitation of the County of Devon: Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1531, 1564 & 1620, Exeter, 1895. (see also: Devon heraldry)
- Gloucestershire: Maclean, Sir John & Heane, W.C., (Eds.) The Visitation of the County of Gloucester taken in the year 1623 by Henry Chitty and John Phillipot as deputies to William Camden, Clarenceux King of Arms, with pedigrees from the Heralds' Visitations of 1569 and 1582-3 and sundry miscellaneous pedigrees, London, 1885.
Visitations in Ireland
Since the practices of Ulster King of Arms so closely followed those of the English College of Arms, it is hardly surprising that the Irish officers of arms undertook heraldic visitations in their province. The purpose behind these visitations was twofold: to prevent the assumption of arms by unqualified people, and to record the arms of the gentry that were unknown to Ulster office. The first visitation was held by Nicholas Narbon, the second Ulster King of Arms, in 1569. He was authorized to reform practices which were contrary to good armorial practice. He conducted six visitations (Dublin in 1568–1573, Drogheda and Ardee in 1570, Dublin in 1572, Swords in 1572, Cork in 1574, and Limerick in 1574). One of his successors, Daniel Molyneux had the commission renewed, and mounted several visitations. Although Molyneux's last visitation–of Wexford–was the last proper visitation, two other expeditions occurred after 1618 by subsequent Ulster Kings of Arms. The visitations were not very extensive. The officers would not often be found in the disturbed countryside. Thus the visitations are confined to areas under firm control of the Dublin administration.
Today, the original visitation and related manuscripts are in the custody of the Chief Herald of Ireland. Copies are also deposited at the College of Arms in London.
Visitations in Scotland
The 1672 Act of Parliament that created the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland gave Lord Lyon King of Arms the authority to visit any part of Scotland to execute his statutory duties. Such visits have been made in the past, however these visits are not organized information-gathering exercises in specific regions. Scottish heraldry, with its compulsory matriculations, is much more regulated and each generation must lodge an updated genealogy with Lyon Court in order to lawfully bear arms. Therefore the control of heraldry in Scotland is such that periodic inspections have never been necessary.
- Image legend, 28 October 2006, "Data for the visitations by the King of Arms taken from Burke's Landed Gentry, 1937 edition."
- Stephen Friar, Ed. A Dictionary of Heraldry. (Harmony Books, New York: 1987).
- Julian Franklyn. Shield and Crest: An Account of the Art and Science of Heraldry. (MacGibbon & Kee, London: 1960), 386.
- J.L. Vivian, Ed. The Visitations of Cornwall, Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1530, 1573, &1620. (William Pollard and Co., Exeter: 1887), 248.
- Anthony Wagner. The Records and Collections of the College of Arms. (London: 1952), 24.
- Michael Powell Siddons. Visitations by the Heralds in Wales. (The Harleian Society, London: 1996), v.
- Listings are based on Wagner 1952, pp. 66–77.
- Listings are based on Wagner 1952, pp. 77–84.