Herbert Marshall

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Herbert Marshall
Foreign Correspondent trailer 18 Marshall crop.jpg
Marshall in the trailer of Foreign Correspondent (1940)
Born Herbert Brough Falcon Marshall
(1890-05-23)23 May 1890
London, England, United Kingdom
Died 22 January 1966(1966-01-22) (aged 75)
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
Years active 1911–1965
Spouse(s) Mollie Maitland (m. 1915–28) (divorced)
Edna Best (m. 1928–40) (divorced) 1 child
Lee Russell (m. 1940–47) (divorced) 1 child
Boots Mallory (m. 1947–58) (her death)
Dee Anne Kahmann (m. 1960–66) (his death)

Herbert Brough Falcon Marshall (23 May 1890 – 22 January 1966) was an English stage, screen, and radio actor who, in spite of losing a leg during World War I, starred in many popular and well-regarded Hollywood films in the 1930s and 1940s. After a successful theatrical career in the United Kingdom and North America, he became an in-demand Hollywood leading man, frequently appearing in romantic melodramas and occasional comedies. In his later years, he turned to character acting.

The son of actors, Marshall is best remembered for roles in Ernst Lubitsch's Trouble in Paradise (1932), Alfred Hitchcock's Foreign Correspondent (1940), William Wyler's The Letter (1940) and The Little Foxes (1941), Albert Lewin's The Moon and Sixpence (1942), Edmund Goulding's The Razor's Edge (1946), and Kurt Neumann's The Fly (1958). He appeared onscreen with many of the most prominent leading ladies of Hollywood's Golden Age, including Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, and Bette Davis.

From 1944 to 1952, Marshall starred in his own radio series, The Man Called 'X'. Often praised for the quality of his voice, he made numerous radio guest appearances and hosted several shows. He performed on television as well. The actor, known for his charm, married five times and periodically appeared in gossip columns because of his sometimes turbulent private life. During World War II, he worked on the rehabilitation of injured troops, especially aiding amputees like himself. Marshall received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960.

Early years and World War I[edit]

Marshall was born in London in 1890, as the only child of stage actors Percy F. Marshall and Ethel May Turner. Theatrical critics praised his father for his comic flair[1] and "rich voice."[2] In addition to acting, Percy wrote and directed some plays in which he appeared.[2][3] Most popular in the 1880s and 1890s, Marshall's father retired from acting in 1922 and died on 28 December 1927 at the age of 68.[4] Marshall later recalled: "My father was a grand actor—better than I can ever dream of being."[5] His mother was the sister[4] of journalist and drama critic, Leopold Godfrey-Turner (born Leopold McClintock Turner).[6] Marshall's grandfather, Godfrey Wordsworth Turner,[6] wrote several books and articles on art and travel.[7] In an article about his love of the theatre, he noted that one of his uncles was an actor.[8] Godfrey was also the grandnephew of influential businessman Edward Wollstonecraft,[9] who was the nephew of women's rights activist and author Mary Wollstonecraft and first cousin of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, who wrote the horror classic, Frankenstein.

"[Leopold 'Bogey' Godfrey-Turner] had a lavish joy in life, an embattled mind, keen wit, sensitive appreciations and a gallant soul...Uncle Bogey had lost his first-born son in the war...He proved to me that a man may face utter desolation without whimpering. By his fine courage and by his gorgeous humor, which not even grief could crucify, he showed me how a man may know irreparable loss and still inherit the earth. When I learned to walk again, I returned to London, healed in spirit if not in body, and all because of Uncle Bogey".[10]

—Herbert Marshall recalling the inspiring example of his uncle after World War I

As a boy, Herbert's mother gave him the nickname "Bart" because she feared he would be known as "Bertie," a name then in vogue that she disliked.[5] His family, friends, and personal acquaintances continued to call him Bart for the rest of his life. He was also periodically referred to by his nickname in the press. While introduced by his given name, he was usually addressed as Bart on the radio.[11] His parents gave him the middle name, Brough (pronounced /ˈbrʌf/ bruf), after his godfather, comedic Shakespearean actor Lionel Brough.[5]

As a child, Marshall was primarily raised by his three maternal aunts, while his parents toured in theatrical productions.[5] During school vacations, however, they took him with them. These early experiences initially gave him a negative view of the theatre:

I used to tour the provinces in England with my mother and father, you know, when I was a small lad. And I was often tired and cold, there seemed to me to be so much heartache and poverty and disappointment that the glamour and applause and tinsel of the theatre escaped me, quite...No, I had no reason to love the theatre...I spent most of my time trying to forget those tired faces which the footlights served only to illumine, mockingly.[5]

Marshall graduated from St. Mary's College in Old Harlow, Essex, England and worked for a time as an accounting clerk. After being fired for the slow speed of his calculations, he took a job as an assistant business manager of a theatre troupe run by a friend of his father's.[12] He later had a series of different backstage jobs at various theatres and acting companies.[13] When a troupe he worked for reformed, he was laid off.[14] He then tried his hand at acting. In a 1935 interview, he claimed that he only became an actor out of necessity because he did not know how to do anything else.[15] To another reporter, he recollected how he had initially vowed never to go on the stage.[16]

Marshall and Miriam Hopkins in a publicity photo for Trouble in Paradise (1932)

War injury[edit]

During the First World War, Marshall served in the London Scottish Regiment with fellow actors Basil Rathbone, Ronald Colman and Claude Rains.[17] He later recalled his time on the Western Front: "I knew terrific boredom. There was no drama lying in the trenches 10 months. I must have felt fear, but I don't remember it. I was too numb to recall any enterprise on my part."[12] In 1915 he was shot in the right knee[18] by a sniper at Arras, France.[19] After a succession of operations, doctors were forced to amputate his leg near the hip.[20] Marshall remained hospitalized for thirteen months.[21] He later recalled in private that after his injury, he had initially over-dramatized his loss and was wrapped up in self-pity and bitterness. Before long, however, he decided he wanted to return to the theatre and learned how to walk well with a prosthetic leg in order to do so.[22] While he was recovering at St. Thomas' in London, King George V visited the hospital. When asked to pick which of the actor's legs he thought was artificial, the king chose the wrong one.[23] Throughout his career, Marshall largely managed to hide the fact that he had a prosthetic limb, although it was occasionally reported in the press.

Marshall suffered from his war injury for the rest of his life, both from phantom pain[24] common to amputees and from the prosthesis.[25] One friend remembered that he kept holes in his pants pockets so that he could inconspicuously loosen a strap on his prosthetic leg in order to ease his discomfort.[26] The pain in his leg became more pronounced later in life, including bothering him on film shoots in ways noticeable to others and exacerbating his usually very slight limp.[27]

Career[edit]

Theatre[edit]

Marshall had a long and varied stage career, appearing with such notables as Sir Nigel Playfair, Sir Gerald du Maurier, Noël Coward, Gertrude Lawrence, Edna Best (his second wife), Cathleen Nesbitt, Mabel Terry-Lewis, Marie Löhr, Madge Titheradge, and Edmund Gwenn (his future film and radio co-star).[28][29] While his stage debut is usually listed as The Adventure of Lady Ursula (1911),[30] some sources place it in 1909.[31][32] Furthermore, Marshall remembered playing a footman alongside Eric Blore in Robert Courtneidge's The Arcadians;[33][34] his mention of Blore would add an appearance in November 1910.[35][36] In 1913, he made his London debut in the role of Tommy in Brewster's Millions. Actor-manager Cyril Maude was so impressed with his performance that he recruited Marshall for his US and Canadian tour of Grumpy. When war was declared, the company returned to London and the 24-year-old enlisted.[37]

Following the Armistice, Marshall joined Nigel Playfair's repertory troupe, appearing in Make Believe (December 1918), The Younger Generation (1919), and Abraham Lincoln (1919).[38] In 1920, he made his first known appearance opposite Edna Best in Brown Sugar.[39] He also appeared in John Ferguson and the Shakespearean plays, The Merchant of Venice and As You Like It. Marshall recalled, "Jacques in As You Like It has given me more pleasure than any part I have played".[40] The following year, he toured North America with Australian star Marie Löhr[41] and starred in A Safety Match in London.[42][43] By 1922, Marshall was making regular appearances on both sides of the Atlantic, debuting on Broadway in The Voice From the Minaret and starring in Coward's The Young Idea (with then-wife Maitland)[44][45] and The Queen Was in the Parlour.[46] Among his other successes were Aren't We All? (1923), The Pelican (1924–25), Lavender Ladies (1925), Interference (1927–28), S.O.S. (1928), and Tomorrow and Tomorrow (1931). His greatest hits with Edna Best were the aforementioned Brown Sugar, The Charming People (1925–26), The High Road (1928–29), Michael and Mary (1930), The Swan (1930), and There's Always Juliet (1931–32).[47][48][49]

Marshall and Frank Morgan in The Good Fairy (1935)

Movies[edit]

In 1927, Marshall debuted onscreen opposite Pauline Frederick in the British silent film Mumsie.[50] He made his first Hollywood appearance as the murdered lover in The Letter two years later. After The Letter, in Britain once again, he notably starred in Alfred Hitchcock's Murder! (1930). The following year, he returned to Hollywood to make Secrets of a Secretary for Paramount Studios.[51] After a few additional British films in the early 1930s, he primarily made movies in the United States for the remainder of his life. As a Hollywood leading man, the suave, gentlemanly actor played romantic roles opposite such stars as Claudette Colbert, Marlene Dietrich, Greta Garbo, Barbara Stanwyck, Katharine Hepburn, Joan Crawford, and Bette Davis throughout the 1930s and into the 1940s.

The 1932 film, Blonde Venus, brought him to fame among the general American public. Later that same year, he played Gaston Monescu, a sophisticated thief involved in a love triangle in Ernst Lubitsch's suggestive light comedy, Trouble in Paradise. In interviews, Marshall expressed a preference for playing this sort of witty comedic role.[52] He discussed his two most famous early films in a 1935 interview:

I am strongly of the belief that if there had been another 'Blond Venus'—my first picture (sic), with the acute direction of von Sternberg—I would have been thrown off the screen! By the grace of God and Lubitsch, against the wishes of his company, I was next cast in a good role in 'Trouble in Paradise' for which Lubitsch seemed to think me peculiarly suited and would have been very unhappy if he had had anyone else.[12]

Marshall, who often played kind and proper husbands betrayed by their wives, told several reporters that he was tired of such "gentleman" roles.[12][52] Although another cuckolded husband, he appreciated his part in The Painted Veil (1934) with Garbo because his character was able to show "intestinal fortitude."[53] For the rest of the 1930s, he continued to be typecast in romantic melodramas, including The Dark Angel (1935) with Fredric March and Merle Oberon, Angel (1937) with Marlene Dietrich, and Always Goodbye (1938) with Barbara Stanwyck, although he also appeared in the screwball comedies If You Could Only Cook (1935), The Good Fairy (1935), and Breakfast for Two (1937), as well as the musical Mad About Music (1938).

Marshall in the trailer for The Letter (1940)

By mid-decade, the press noted how popular he was as a romantic actor.[54][55][56] Syndicated columnist Edwin Schallert wrote: "The demand for Herbert Marshall's talents continues to spread far and wide. Even the newer and younger leading women, it is felt, need to have his proficient romanticism displayed in their pictures."[55] Another reporter referred to him as the current "vogue in leading men" and noted that the top actresses often asked for him to appear with them.[12]

Besides his early romantic roles, Marshall was especially associated with the onscreen works of British author W. Somerset Maugham. In addition to performances in both filmed versions of Maugham's The Letter, Marshall also starred in adaptions of The Painted Veil (1934), The Moon and Sixpence (1942), and The Razor's Edge (1946). In the latter two, he portrayed the author himself, first as Maugham stand-in Geoffrey Wolfe and later as Maugham (formally), serving as both a narrator and a character within the film.[57]

In 1941, he starred as Bette Davis's maltreated, principled husband, Horace Giddens, in The Little Foxes, which received nine Academy Award nominations including one for Best Picture. The movie's review in Variety noted, "Marshall turns in one of his top performances in the exacting portrayal of a suffering, dying man."[58] Over the course of the 1940s, he began to move into character roles, including parts in such classics as Foreign Correspondent (1940), The Enchanted Cottage (1945), Duel in the Sun (1946), and The Secret Garden (1949). Also in the immediate post-war years, he appeared in the film noirs, Crack-Up (1946), Ivy (1947), High Wall (1947), The Underworld Story (1950), and Angel Face (1953). During the 1950s and 1960s, he periodically performed in historical films, including The Virgin Queen (1955) with Bette Davis, science-fiction movies, foremost The Fly (1958) with Vincent Price, and crime thrillers, like Midnight Lace (1960) with Doris Day and Rex Harrison.

Radio and television[edit]

In 1936, Marshall began lending his talents to radio, appearing on such programs as Lux Radio Theatre (at least nineteen appearances), The Screen Guild Theatre (at least sixteen appearances), The Jell-O Program (three appearances, including one as host), The Burns and Allen Show (two appearances), Birds Eye Open House, The Pepsodent Show, and Hollywood Star Time (taking over as host of Hollywood Star Time in October 1946). He made radio history in July 1940 as the narrator of "The Lodger", the first audition show of the Suspense series. (Marshall subsequently made twenty appearances on the program.) But his most famous role was as globetrotting intelligence agent Ken Thurston in The Man Called 'X' (1944–52).[59] The series, which was first aired on CBS as a summer replacement for the Lux Radio Theatre, introduced Thurston as an employee of an agency known only as "The Bureau". His boss, dubbed "The Chief", tasked him with dealing with some of the world's most hardened, sophisticated criminals, including smugglers, murderers, black marketeers, saboteurs, kidnappers, various types of thieves, corrupt politicians, and rogue scientists.[60] Thurston's sidekick/nemesis Egon Zellschmidt was played by character actor Hans Conried during the first season. From 1945-52, Russian comic and musician Leon Belasco appeared in the same role as Pegon Zellschmidt. The show was broadcast not only for the sake of entertainment but it also "alerted an anxious war-weary world to the inherent dangers of resting on its laurels during the brief peace after war." [61]

Beginning in 1950, Marshall performed periodically on television, including two appearances on Alfred Hitchcock Presents and several adaptations of plays and movies, such as The Philadelphia Story and Now, Voyager. In the 1950s, he hosted a series of half-hour dramatic stories entitled The Unexpected (a.k.a. Times Square Playhouse). He appeared as the "mystery guest" on an episode of the popular game show What's My Line? in November 1954. His most notable guest role in the '60s was as Father Anthony on 77 Sunset Strip.

Marshall in Duel in the Sun (1946)

World War II[edit]

During World War II, Marshall made numerous appearances on the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS), hosting Front Line Theatre/The Globe Theatre[62] and guest-starring on Command Performance and Mail Call, among other programs. He was also one of the leaders of a Hollywood British committee that helped organize the community's contributions to British war relief.[63] In 1940, Marshall co-starred with Rosalind Russell in Noël Coward's Still Life (from Tonight at 8:30) at the El Capitan. The proceeds went to the British Red Cross.[64][65] In 1943, he appeared briefly in the RKO film, Forever and a Day. The profits from the movie funded a variety of war charities.[66] That same year, Marshall penned a public letter of encouragement to his Hollywood colleagues serving overseas.[67] He also performed in the short film, The Shining Future (1944), later condensed and renamed Road to Victory, which was intended to sell Canadian war bonds. Marshall and twenty-five other actors each received a plaque from a representative of the Canadian government for their participation in the movie.[68]

Work with amputees[edit]

Using his own money for travel, Marshall visited many military hospitals during the war. In particular, he focused on encouraging soldiers with amputations to keep a positive attitude and not to think of themselves as handicapped or limited. Despite his usual reluctance to discuss his own injury, he talked freely about his personal experiences in order to give these amputees tips on how to use and adjust to their new artificial limbs.[22][66] Although mostly kept private, a 1945 article in Motion Picture Magazine reported, against Marshall's wishes, on his work at military hospitals. The author, Patty De Roulf, insisted that his story needed to be told to help injured veterans and their families and to show that "Marshall is doing one of the finest war jobs any human being can do." She interviewed one young officer, who recalled:

Herbert Marshall gave me back my life. When I found out I had a metal claw instead of a hand, I was completely broken...Then one day, while I was in the hospital, we were told Herbert Marshall, the movie star, was coming to talk to us. I was disgusted with the idea. A collar ad, I thought, coming to give us a Pollyanna speech!

It turned out to be anything but that. Mr. Marshall talked real sense into us. He followed it up with demonstrations, actually showing us what he could do. Before he left, we were convinced that if he had been able to lead a normal life, we could do the same.

The article also quoted a veteran with a double amputation (left leg and right foot), who praised Marshall for showing him how to dance with a prosthetic leg. He considered the actor's advice and example to be his Ten Commandments.[22] General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Head of the Allied Forces in Europe, noted in private that, of all the movie stars he met in Europe during the war, he was most impressed with Marshall and Madeleine Carroll (who worked as a nurse at field hospitals).[69]

Personal life[edit]

Marshall, a quiet-spoken man who was one of the pillars of the Hollywood British community,[70] was widely respected and well-liked due to his talent and professionalism,[71][72] pleasant and easygoing demeanor,[73][74] sensitivity,[75][76] gentlemanly and courteous manner,[77][78] witty sense of humor,[79][80] and his "very great personal charm".[81] Among the affable actor's many friends in the British community were Edmund Goulding, Eric Blore, Ronald Colman, Clive Brook, Merle Oberon, Sir C. Aubrey Smith, David Niven, Basil Rathbone, Sir Cedric Harwicke, and Brian Aherne. Other friends included Raymond Massey, Rod La Rocque, Vilma Bánky, Kay Francis, Mary Astor, Irving Thalberg, Norma Shearer, Joan Crawford, Melvyn Douglas, Bette Davis, and Grace Moore. Although popular and likeable, Marshall suffered from bouts of depression through much of his life.[24][82] In his free time, he especially enjoyed sketching[22] and fishing.[52]

"His first charm is that he is a thoroughly nice, reasonable Englishman. He has a peculiarly easy, unaffected manner. He is tallish and dresses with exceptional taste and discretion. Also he gives an impression of hidden reserves, a sort of enticing withdrawal...And manners. The man has every charming trick of engaging manners known to masculinity".[83]

—Reporter Alma Whitaker describing Marshall in The Los Angeles Times, 1932

Marriages and family[edit]

Marshall was married five times, divorced three. In 1914, he appeared with Mollie Maitland (whose real name was Hilda Lloyd Bosley) in The Headmaster;[84] the following year, they were married.[85] Five years later, he first appeared with Edna Best, who would become his most frequent stage co-star; they also filmed three movies together (The Calendar, Michael and Mary, and The Faithful Heart).[86] Marshall and Best were married in November 1928, following their respective divorces (they had been cohabiting for the previous three years).[87][88][89] In 1931, Best broke a lucrative contract with MGM and walked off the filming of The Phantom of Paris with John Gilbert in order to be with Marshall in New York, where he was performing in a play.[12][90][91] In response to a press inquiry, he said: "I'm sorry if Hollywood is annoyed, but Edna and I happen to be in love with each other and we want to be together."[91]

During a return trip to London in late November 1932, Marshall and a pregnant Best gave an interview in which they stated their intention to briefly return to Hollywood the following summer.[92] They would bring a nanny to help look after their daughter.[93] At some point, Best and young Sarah returned to London while Marshall received more film offers. They continued making trips to see each other. In late 1933, actress Phyllis Barry had tea with Marshall and Claudette Colbert after they returned from Hawaii, where they had been filming Four Frightened People. She remembered that Marshall "insisted on my talking all the time because he said I sounded just like his wife".[94] By the time Marshall was filming Riptide in early 1934, he was reportedly drinking heavily due to his problems with Best and increased phantom pain. (Director Goulding and co-star Norma Shearer successfully convinced him to curb his consumption of alcohol.) Not long after, Goulding would introduce him to Gloria Swanson.[95]

In 1940, after a long separation from her husband and wanting to marry someone new, Best divorced Marshall on grounds of desertion (he lived in Hollywood, while she lived in England). She remarried almost immediately.[96] Twenty days later, he married actress and model Elizabeth Roberta "Lee" Russell,[96][97] a sister of movie star, Rosalind Russell.[98] Two years prior to their marriage, Russell's recently divorced ex-husband, songwriter Eddy Brandt, initiated an alienation of affection suit for $250,000 against Marshall, whom he accused of stealing his wife.[90] Brandt later told the press that he and the actor settled out of court for $10,000. Marshall publicly denied this claim.[99] In 1947, Russell divorced him in Mexico. They parted on amiable terms.[100] Instead of explaining the reasons for her divorce, she told the press at the time: "I will never say anything against Bart. He is one of the most charming people I have ever known."[101]

He was married to his fourth wife, former Ziegfield Girl and actress Patricia "Boots" Mallory, from 1947 until her death in 1958. They were wed in August 1947, with Nigel Bruce acting as best man.[102] After a sixteen month illness, Mallory died of a throat ailment at age 45. Marshall was deeply troubled by her death and had to be hospitalized for pneumonia and pleurisy less than two months later.[103] He married his final wife, Dee Anne Kahmann, on 25 April 1960, when he was almost 70 years old. She was a twice-divorced, 38-year-old department store buyer.[104][105][106] They remained married until his death.

Daughter Sarah Marshall in 1961

Marshall had a daughter, Sarah, by Edna Best, and another daughter, Ann, by Lee Russell. Sarah Marshall followed her parents and grandparents into the acting profession,[107] appearing in many of the most popular television shows of the 1960s, including Star Trek, The Twilight Zone, Perry Mason, F Troop, and Daniel Boone. Herbert and Sarah Marshall acted together in a television version of J. B. Priestley's play, An Inspector Calls, in 1951. His younger daughter, Ann Marshall (often called "Annie"), worked for many years as Jack Nicholson's personal assistant.[108] He also had at least four step-children, two from his marriage to Best[109] and two from his marriage to Mallory.[110] His grandson, Timothy M. Bourne, Sarah Marshall's only child, is an independent movie producer. Bourne was the executive producer of the Academy Award-winning movie The Blind Side (2009).

Affair with Gloria Swanson[edit]

In the early 1930s, Marshall was commonly rumored within Hollywood social circles to have had affairs with both his Trouble in Paradise co-stars, Kay Francis and Miriam Hopkins.[111][112] In January 1934, Marshall, while still married to Best, began a serious affair with actress Gloria Swanson, who recounted their relationship in her memoirs, Swanson on Swanson (1980). She described Marshall at the time of their first meeting as "a handsome man in his early forties with a gentle face and soft brown eyes", who had "one of the most perfect musical voices I had ever heard". Swanson also wrote that the actor was "sweet beyond belief" and "a nice man", who "utterly charmed" her and her children.[113] He constantly wrote her love notes, and when she was out of town, he sent her romantic telegrams almost hourly.[114] (Many of these personal documents now reside at the University of Texas at Austin's Harry Ransom Center archives, as part of the Gloria Swanson Papers.)[115][116] Newspapers and movie fan magazines widely discussed his affair with Swanson at the time, which he made little attempt to keep secret.[117][118][119]

In November 1936, Swanson left him once she accepted that he would not divorce Edna Best to marry her. Although insisting they were "madly in love," she believed that he would not demand a divorce because of his typically docile nature, reluctance to deliberately hurt people, and guilt over his separation from his young daughter. "He would always turn to alcohol rather than face a painful scene," she remembered.[120] Despite an emotional parting, near the end of her life Swanson, who was married six times, wrote: "I was never so convincingly and thoroughly loved as I was by Herbert Marshall."[121]

A few months into their relationship, Marshall became a subject of media gossip after a confrontation at El Morocco in New York City.[122][123][124] A photographer snapped pictures of the couple dining together. The photos were subsequently published in newspapers and magazines. When Marshall saw that Swanson was annoyed by the photographer,[122] he "went into one of the most spectacular rages of all times," according to Modern Screen.[124] In a syndicated column, Ed Sullivan wrote that he watched Marshall "rise violently" from his seat and chase the cameraman down the aisles between the nightclub's tables.[123]

Around two months after this incident, Marshall again received substantial publicity after screenwriter John Monk Saunders (husband of actress Fay Wray) punched him in the face and knocked him to the floor at a dinner party given by director Ernst Lubitsch. According to a wire report, Marshall took exception to something Saunders said about Gloria Swanson. Later that night, after Marshall called Saunders a derogatory name, Saunders hit him while he was, in his own words, "seated...and looking in an opposite direction".[125] Wray later added details unreported at the time. According to her, Marshall referred to Saunders as a "bestial bastard" after the screenwriter ogled Swanson's décolletage.[126] Articles about the incident commonly mentioned Marshall's prosthetic leg, which had only very rarely been talked about in the press up to that point.[127][128]

Later years and death[edit]

With the increasing public demand for grittier movies after World War II, the remaining members of the Hollywood British "colony" began to part ways, with some returning to England while others stayed in Hollywood. Marshall, like many of his contemporaries who stayed in Hollywood, began to receive far fewer acting offers[129] and, especially toward the end of his life, had to take whatever he could get due to financial reasons.[130] In May 1951, while in the hospital recuperating from corrective surgery, he suffered a "pulmonary embolism around his heart".[131][132] After NBC aired three episodes of The Man Called 'X' that were previously transcribed, Marshall's friends Van Heflin, John Lund, and Joseph Cotton filled-in (one episode each) until Marshall's return in June 1951.[133]

Marshall appeared in his last significant movie role in The Caretakers (1963) with Joan Crawford, who was happy to act with him again 22 years after they made When Ladies Meet together. Noting his poor health and heavy drinking, she worked with the film's director to minimize the time Marshall had to be on the set.[134] In late 1965, after his final, brief film appearance in the thriller The Third Day, Marshall was admitted to the Motion Picture Relief Fund Hospital for severe depression.[130] Eight days after his release, he died on 22 January 1966 in Beverly Hills, California, of heart failure at the age of 75.[130] He was interred at Chapel of the Pines Crematory in Los Angeles.[135]

Filmography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Our Omnibus-Box". The Theatre 1: 57. 1881. 
  2. ^ a b "Ladbroke Hall". The Stage (411): 11. 1 February 1889. 
  3. ^ "Ladbroke Hall, (Notting Hill)". The Stage 82: 7. 13 October 1882. 
  4. ^ a b "Obituary: Mr. Percy Marshall". The Stage (2440): 17. 5 January 1928. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Richards, Brad (April 2002). "Herbert Marshall, Gentleman". Films of the Golden Age 28: 34. ISSN 1083-5369. 
  6. ^ a b Who's Who in the Theatre. Pitman. 1922. p. 329. 
  7. ^ Worldcat: Godfrey Wordsworth Turner
  8. ^ Turner, Godfrey (1 December 1886). "First Nights of My Young Days". The Theatre VIII. 
  9. ^ Turner, Godfrey Wordsworth (1880). Art Studies of Home Life. Cassell Petter & Galpin. 
  10. ^ Richards, p. 36.
  11. ^ E.g., G.I. Journal: Episode 100 (22/6/1945), Herbert Marshall: "I'm Bart Marshall". Lux Radio Theatre: "The Dark Angel" (22/6/1936), Cecil B. DeMille: "...Bart, as we call him...". Screen Guild Theatre: "Accent on Youth" (12/3/1939) by Roger Pryor. The Jell-O Program: Episode 397 (1941/2/2) by cast. Command Performance Episode 181 (22/06/1945) by Marilyn Maxwell and Jack Haley. The Pepsodent Show: Guest Stars Herbert Marshall and Bing Crosby (29/5/1945) by Bob Hope.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Peak, Mayme Ober (13 January 1935). "'To Be Called Suave Gets on My Nerves'". Daily Boston Globe. p. B5. 
  13. ^ Ruddy, J.M., & O'Connor, Barbara (18 July 1936). "Kindness and Tolerance: Marshall's Traits". The Mail, p. 27. "I took the [assistant managership] job for the sake of the few shillings in it. I kept on taking similar jobs for the same uninspired reason."
  14. ^ Merrick, Mollie (8 October 1934). "Hollywood in Person". Atlanta Constitution. p. 4. 
  15. ^ Peak, Mayme Ober (13 January 1935). "'To Be Called Suave Gets on My Nerves'". Daily Boston Globe. p. B5. "'I didn't really want to go on the stage. My poor old father hadn't an awful lot of funds, and I really wasn't educated to do much else.'" 
  16. ^ Whitaker, Alma (3 July 1932). "Film Lover Fascinating to His Wife". Los Angeles Times. p. B5. "Something one cannont get Herbert to talk about is his war experience in the Scottish Rifles--the same regiment Ronald Colman served with. But he will tell about having been a very minor accountant in London, of the difficulty he had in making an impression on the stage. How, in fact, he had an actor father and had vowed never, never to go on the stage--and then weakened." 
  17. ^ Cottrell, John. Laurence Olivier. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-13-526152-1.
  18. ^ Fade To Black: Google Books
  19. ^ "Thumb-Nail Portrait of Herbert Marshall". Los Angeles Times. 13 September 1935. p. B10. 
  20. ^ Movie Star Medals
  21. ^ "Herbert Marshall Is Dead at 75". New York Times (AP): 89. 23 January 1966. 
  22. ^ a b c d De Roulf, Patty (1945). "The Untold Story of Herbert Marshall". Motion Picture Magazine 69: 44–45, 77. 
  23. ^ "The King's Wrong Guess". The Irish Times: 4. 30 July 1928. 
  24. ^ a b Shearer, Stephen Michael (2013). Gloria Swanson: The Ultimate Star. Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 257–258. ISBN 9781250001559. "He complained constantly of 'phantom pain' in his amputated right leg, and he suffered from depression." 
  25. ^ Richards, p. 35.
  26. ^ Goudas, John N. (25 November 1990). "Ann Lee rolls along in 'General Hospital' role". Gadsden Times. King Features Syndicate. p. D3. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  27. ^ Weaver, Tom (2000). Return of the B Science Fiction and Horror Heroes: The Mutant Melding of Two Volumes of Classic Interviews. McFarland. p. 318. ISBN 0786407557. 
  28. ^ Wearing (March 2014) The London Stage 1920-1929: A Calendar of Productions, Performers, and Personnel. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  29. ^ Wearing, J.P. (May 2014). The London Stage 1930-1939: A Calendar of Productions, Performers, and Personnel. Rowman & Littlefield.
  30. ^ "News of Stage, Screen, and Music: Edna Best Forsook Film Fame to Be With Husband, Herbert Marshall" (1932 October 10). The Montreal Gazette, p. 38
  31. ^ "Herbert Marshall" (9 April 1943). The Northern Miner, p. 6. "But at 19 Marshall played his first walk-on in a stock company...".
  32. ^ "Deanna's Explorer 'Daddy'" (25 August 1938). The Courier-Mail, p. 6S.
  33. ^ Ruddy, J.M., & O'Connor, Barbara (18 July 1936). "Not yet had Thespes tinged me with his fervor- not until I met Eric Blore...We were playing, when we met, with Robert Courtneidge's company of The Arcadians. I was playing the imposing role of footman, I believe."
  34. ^ Seymour, Robert (23 September 1938). "Why Women are Marshall Mad". The Times and Northern Advertiser, p. 4.
  35. ^ Scottish Theatre Archive - Event Details. "Courtneidge assembled a touring company, which played the piece in the British provinces for ten years.".
  36. ^ Parker, John (1922). Who's Who in the Theatre. Small, Maynard &. Co., p. 77.
  37. ^ "Private Lives of Screen Stars: Herbert Marshall and His Wife, Edna Best" (6 December 1934). The Daily News, p. 10.
  38. ^ Parker, John (1922). Who's Who in the Theatre. Small, Maynard &. Co., p. 547.
  39. ^ Wearing (March 2014), p. 41-2.
  40. ^ Richards, p. 36.
  41. ^ "Who's Who This Week in Pictures". New York Times. 
  42. ^ Westcent. "Cables from London Town: January 9" (15 January 1921).
  43. ^ Wearing (March 2014), p. 73-74.
  44. ^ "News of Stage, Screen and Music" (20 February 1932). The Montreal Gazette, p. 11.
  45. ^ Coward, Noël (1937). Present Indicative: The First Autobiography of Noël Coward. William Heinneman Limited, p. 143.
  46. ^ The Noël Coward Society: "Plays and Musicals".
  47. ^ Wearing (March 2014), pp. 222, 324-25, 379, 495, & 569
  48. ^ Creelman, Eileen. "Picture Plays and Players: Herbert Marshall, Here on Holiday, Discusses Some of His Latest Movies". The New York Sun. 3 October 1945. p. 31.
  49. ^ Wearing (May 2014), p. 997.
  50. ^ "Miss Pauline Frederick: New Part in an English Film". The Irish Times. 26 August 1927. p. 9. "The central figure in the film is 'Mumsie,' in which Miss Frederick gives a very convincing display of highly emotional acting. She receives splendid support from Donald McCardle as the son 'Noel' and Herbert Marshall as Colonel Armytage." 
  51. ^ Whitaker, Alma (3 July 1932). "Film Lover Fascinating to His Wife". Los Angeles Times. p. B5. "He was the man killed by Jean Eagels (sic) in that first talkie, 'The Letter'. He also did a part with Claudette Colbert [in Secrets of a Secretary], 'which I am sorry to say was not very good,' he admits. He was also the hero of a British picture, 'Murder'. 'Which made quite a pleasant stir in Europe, but none whatever in the United States,' he smiles." 
  52. ^ a b c Scheuer, Philip K. (31 March 1935). "Herbert Marshall Abhors Being Known as Gentleman". Los Angeles Times. p. A1. 
  53. ^ Merrick, Mollie (8 October 1934). "Hollywood in Person". Atlanta Constitution. p. 4. "'I'm sick and tired of being a gentleman,' said Herbert Marshall...'I don't know how this all started, but since I've played in pictures they're determined to brand me as a suave gentleman. It's a compliment I disapprove of...I don't mind playing the suave gentleman, or the polished gentleman, so long as he has revealing moments when he can show that basically he can burst through to show, let us say, intestinal fortitude. One reason why I like my present role with Garbo is that, though the character is a nice gentle fellow, he can, and does, become beautifully angry.' Now what really is at the bottom of it all is that Mr. Marshall would like a crack at some roles that aren't routine...In short, contemplation of his various motion picture heroes is so all of a sameness that Mr. Marshall is seized with a great ennui." 
  54. ^ Schallert, Edwin (1934-03-28). "Herbert Marshall, in Demand as Leading Man, Assigned Big Role in 'The Green Hat'". Los Angeles Times. p. 10. 
  55. ^ a b Schallert, Edwin (22 August 1934). "Negotiations Opened for Services of Herbert Marshall as Hero in 'Good Fairy'". Los Angeles Times. p. 19. 
  56. ^ Schallert, Edwin (1934-08-24). "Straight From the Studios". Washington Post. p. 21. 
  57. ^ Rogal, Samuel J. (1997). A William Somerset Maugham Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 154. ISBN 0313299161. 
  58. ^ "Review: The Little Foxes." Variety, August 22, 1941.
  59. ^ The Man Called X
  60. ^ Man Called X, The
  61. ^ The Man Called 'X'
  62. ^ Mackenzie, Harry (1999). The Directory of the Armed Forces Radio Service Series (Discographies), p. 15.
  63. ^ Glancy, Mark (1999). When Hollywood Loved Britain: The Hollywood 'British' Film 1939-1945. Manchester University Press, 169.
  64. ^ Dick, Bernard F. (2006.) Forever Mame: The Life of Rosalind Russell. University Press of Mississippi, p. 144.
  65. ^ Coward, Noël (2009). The Letters of Noël Coward. Vintage, p. 410.
  66. ^ a b Richards, p. 52.
  67. ^ Norden, Martin F. (1994). Cinema Of Isolation: A History of Physical Disability in the Movies. Rutgers University Press, p. 342.
  68. ^ "Praise Heaped on Film Industry By U. S., Canada for Various War Work". Variety 155 (8): 14. 2 August 1944. 
  69. ^ Kochendoerfer, Violet A. (1994). One Woman's World War II. University Press of Kentucky. p. 149. ISBN 0813118662. 
  70. ^ Morley, Sheridan (1983). Tales from The Hollywood Raj: The British, The Movies, and Tinseltown. The Viking Press, pp. 145, 108.
  71. ^ Stine, Whitney (1990). I'd Love to Kiss You: Conversations With Bette Davis. Pocket Books, p. 139.
  72. ^ Service, Faith (1935 June). "I Love My Husband But-". Modern Screen Magazine.
  73. ^ Villeco, Tony (2001). Silent Stars Speak: Interviews With Twelve Cinema Pioneers. McFarland & Co., Inc., p. 80.
  74. ^ Weaver, Tom (2000), p. 318.
  75. ^ Seymour, Robert (23 September 1938).
  76. ^ Glyn, Elinor (3 February 1934). "I Know Herbert Marshall". The Daily News, p. 7.
  77. ^ Weaver, Tom (2004). It Came from Horrorwood: Interviews with Moviemakers in the SF and Horror Tradition. McFarland & Co., Inc., pp. 110, 112.
  78. ^ Temple, Shirley (1988). Child Star. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., p. 333.
  79. ^ York, Cal (1936). "Cal York's Gossip of Hollywood". Photoplay: 35.
  80. ^ Fischer, Dennis (2011). Science Fiction Film Directors, 1895-1998. McFarland & Co., Inc., p. 480.
  81. ^ Plummer, Christopher (2008). In Spite of Myself. Alfred A. Knopf, pp. 228-9.
  82. ^ Richards, p. 57.
  83. ^ Whitaker, Alma (3 July 1932). "Film Lover Fascinating to His Wife". Los Angeles Times. p. B5. 
  84. ^ "Dramatic Doings." Cheltenham Looker-On. 28 Feb 1914.
  85. ^ "Miss Edna Best Divorced: Married Actor as Co-respondent" (28 June 1928). The Advertiser, p. 11.
  86. ^ "Private Lives of Screen Stars: Herbert Marshall and His Wife, Edna Best" (6 December 1934). "It was after the war that he met Edna Best...He was playing the role of Lord Sloane in Brown Sugar, and she was cast as Lady Sloane."
  87. ^ "News of Stage, Screen and Music" (20 February 1932). "Marshall and Miss Best, although British stars, are sentimental favorites of New Yorkers, for it was while they were playing together in The High Road that they were married."
  88. ^ "Miss Edna Best Divorced: Married Actor as Co-respondent" (28 June 1928). Their respective spouses asked for divorces owing to their misconduct.
  89. ^ Richards, p. 37.
  90. ^ a b Driscoll, Marjorie (8 May 1938). "Exciting Love Life of He-Man Marshall". Atlanta Constitution. p. SM3. 
  91. ^ a b Richards, p. 38.
  92. ^ "The Stage: Herbert Marshall and Edna Best" (1 December 1932). Western Mail, p. 6. Marshall: "'We both have contracts which will require our being there for three or four months in the year.'" Best: "'I don't care to be parted from my husband...And when he goes back next year I am going with him.'"
  93. ^ Morley (1983), p. 2. "Then there was Nanny Marshall, whose name wasn't really Marshall at all; it just so happened that she'd been taken out to California by Edna Best and Herbert Marshall early in the 1930s to look after their baby."
  94. ^ "Phyllis Barry, Hollywood Donalda Warne, London" (27 January 1934). The Australian Women's Weekly, p. 20.
  95. ^ Kennedy, Matthew (2004). Edmund Goulding's Dark Victory: Hollywood's Genius Bad Boy. University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 146, 148-9.
  96. ^ a b "Herbert Marshall Weds in Nevada". Los Angeles Times. 28 February 1940. 
  97. ^ "Actor Herbert Marshall, Lee Russell of Films, Wed". Chicago Daily Tribune. AP. 27 February 1940. p. 8. 
  98. ^ Jones, Lon (23 January 1940). "It Happens in Hollywood". Sydney Morning Herald. p. 6. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  99. ^ "Herbert Marshall, Lee Russell Wed in Nevada". Reading Eagle. AP. 26 February 1940. p. 21. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  100. ^ Graham, Sheilah (18 June 1946). "Hollywood Today". Daily Boston Globe. p. 16. "Herbert Marshall and Boots Mallory seen dining with Lee Marshall a few nights ago. When Lee's divorce is final, Bart will marry Boots. These friendly divorces always puzzle me." 
  101. ^ Richards, p. 54
  102. ^ AP (2 August 1947). "Herbert Marshall and Boots Mallory to Wed Sunday". The Evening Independent, p. 5.
  103. ^ Richards, p. 54, 55
  104. ^ "Herbert Marshall Takes Bride". Los Angeles Times. 17 May 1960. p. 22. 
  105. ^ "Herbert Marshall Weds". Washington Post. UPI. 17 May 1960. p. B10. 
  106. ^ "Herbert Marshall to Wed Divorcee; His 5th". Los Angeles Times. 26 April 1960. p. 2. 
  107. ^ "Spotlight: Don't Let the Old Man Down" (27 October 1961). Life, p. 117. "Sarah's parents were divorced when she was very young...But, she says, 'Father's never missed seeing me in anything I've ever done.' Sarah, now 28, is a fine and versatile actress who has been in a string of Broadway hits, the most recent being Come Blow Your Horn. After her first stage success, people kept asking Sarah's father if he was proud. 'He took that for three days,' says Sarah, laughing, 'then left town tired of being so proud.'"
  108. ^ McDougal, Dennis (2008). Five Easy Decades: How Jack Nicholson Became the Biggest Movie Star in Modern Times. Wiley, pp. 162-3, 215, 377.
  109. ^ Seymour (23 September 1938), p. 4.
  110. ^ "Boots Mallory" (2 December 1958). Toledo Blade, p. 15.
  111. ^ Swanson, Gloria (1980). Swanson on Swason. Random House. pp. 438, 440. ISBN 0394506626. "I soon learned that I was not the first woman to be involved with him since his arrival in Hollywood. Everyone seemed to know, for example, that he had had affairs with Kay Francis and Miriam Hopkins...[Recounting her meeting with Edna Best:] She knew Bart loved me, she said. Did I love him? Yes. That did not altogether shock her, did it? Surely she had been aware of previous infidelities on his part, hadn't she? She had." 
  112. ^ Kear, Lynn and Rossman, John (2006). Kay Francis: A Passionate Life and Career. McFarland & Co., pp. 72, 79. "However, Kay's diary mentioned no affair with Marshall...[If] they did have an affair, it was probably during this brief time [mid-February 1933] in New York."
  113. ^ Swanson, pp. 436, 442, 444-445.
  114. ^ Welsch, Tricia (2013). Gloria Swanson: Ready for Her Close-Up. University Press of Mississippi. pp. 290–291. ISBN 1617037494. 
  115. ^ Welsch, notes.
  116. ^ Shearer, notes.
  117. ^ Lee, Sonia (April 1935). "Scared of Spring". Picture Play Magazine 42: 70. Retrieved 23 August 2014. "Hollywood is wondering if Gloria Swanson, once free of [husband] Michael Farmer, will make Herbert husband Number Five" 
  118. ^ Peak, Mayme Ober (13 January 1935). "'To Be Called Sauve Gets on My Nerves'". Daily Boston Globe: B5. "Now the Marshalls are separated by more than an ocean and continent. Since their separation, gossip has romantically linked the names of Gloria Swanson and Herbert Marshall. They are constantly seen together." 
  119. ^ "Film Writer Socks Actor in Row Over Gloria Swanson; Foes Tell Different Versions of How It All Happened". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (UP): 1. 25 September 1934. Retrieved 23 August 2014. "...Swanson, whose name has been linked romantically with Mr. Marshall's prior to and since her separation from Michael Farmer. Mr. Marshall is likewise separated from Edna Best, English actress." 
  120. ^ Swanson, pp. 437, 447-449.
  121. ^ Welsch, p. 298.
  122. ^ a b Swanson, p. 439.
  123. ^ a b Sullivan, Ed (1936-06-15). "Broadway: With Their Hair Down". Pittsburgh Press (also in Washington Post and many other papers). p. 19. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  124. ^ a b Cannon, Regina (July 1934). "They Visited New York". Modern Screen: 35, 100. 
  125. ^ "Film Writer Socks Actor in Row Over Gloria Swanson; Foes Tell Different Versions of How It All Happened". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (UP): 1. 25 September 1934. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  126. ^ Wray, Fay (1989). On the Other Hand: A Life Story. St. Martin's Press. pp. 162–164. 
  127. ^ Schallert, Edwain and Elza (January 1935). "Hollywood High Lights". Picture Play Magazine 41 (5): 67. "Some people strenuously object to the idea of Marshall being struck by anybody, because of his infirmity due to the loss of a leg during the war." 
  128. ^ "Author Strikes Actor at Party in Hollywood". Chicago Daily Tribune: 13. 26 September 1934. "It is said Marshall has an artificial leg." 
  129. ^ Morley, pp. 191-99.
  130. ^ a b c Richards, p. 57
  131. ^ "Herbert Marshall, 60, In Critical Condition" (8 May 1951). The Knickerbocker News, p. B9.
  132. ^ "Stricken Star" (14 May 1951). The Bend Bulletin, pg. 8.
  133. ^ French, Jack (Jan/Feb 2011). "The Biggest and Best Radio Premium...Ever!" The Old Radio Times, No. 53, pp. 11-12.
  134. ^ Quirk, Lawrence J. (2002). Joan Crawford: The Essential Biography. University Press of Kentucky. p. 213. ISBN 0813128951. 
  135. ^ NNDB: Herbert Marshall

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