Herennius Etruscus

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Herennius Etruscus
35th Emperor of the Roman Empire
Sestertius Herennius Etruscus-s2749.jpg
Herennius Etruscus as Caesar, celebrating his Pietas with its typical cult instruments.
Reign 251 (with Decius)
Predecessor Philip the Arab
Successor Trebonianus Gallus and Hostilian
Full name
Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius (from birth to accession)
Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius Augustus (as emperor)
Father Decius
Mother Herennia Etruscilla
Born 227
near Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)
Died June 251 (aged 24)
Abrittus (Razgrad, Bulgaria)

Herennius Etruscus (Latin: Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius Augustus;[1] ca. 227 – June 251), was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Decius. Emperor Hostilian was his younger brother.

Herennius was born in or near Sirmium in Pannonia (now Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia), during one of his father's military postings.[2] His mother was Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, a Roman lady of an important senatorial family. Herennius was very close to his father and accompanied him in 248, as a military tribune, when Decius was appointed by Philip the Arab to deal with the revolt of Pacatianus in the Danube frontier. Decius was successful in defeating this usurper and felt confident to begin a rebellion of his own in the following year. Acclaimed emperor by his own troops, Decius marched into Italy and defeated Philip near modern Verona. In Rome, Herennius was declared heir to the throne and received the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth).

From the beginning of Herennius' accession, Gothic tribes raided across the Danube frontier and the provinces of Moesia and Dacia. At the beginning of 251, Decius elevated Herennius to the title of Augustus making him his co-emperor. Moreover, Herennius was chosen to be one of the year's consuls. The father and son, now joint rulers, then embarked in an expedition against king Cniva of the Goths to punish the invaders for the raids. Hostilian remained in Rome and the empress Herennia Etruscilla was named regent. Cniva and his men were returning to their lands with the booty, when the Roman army encountered them. Showing a very sophisticated military tactic, Cniva divided his army in smaller, more manageable groups and started to push back the Romans into a marshy swamp. Sometime during the first two weeks of June, both armies engaged in the battle of Abrittus. Herennius died in battle, struck by an enemy arrow. Decius survived the initial confrontation, only to be slain with the rest of the army before the end of the day. Herennius and Decius were the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle.

With the news of the death of the emperors, the army proclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but in Rome they were succeeded by Hostilian, who would die shortly afterwards in an outbreak of plague.

References[edit]

  1. ^ In Classical Latin, Herennius' name would be inscribed as QVINTVS HERENNIVS ETRVSCVS MESSIVS DECIVS AVGVSTVS.
  2. ^ Roman Colosseum, Herennius Etruscus

External links[edit]

Media related to Herennius Etruscus at Wikimedia Commons

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Decius
Roman Emperor
251
Served alongside: Decius
Succeeded by
Hostilian
Political offices
Preceded by
Decius,
Vettius Gratus
Consul of the Roman Empire
251
with Decius
Succeeded by
Trebonianus Gallus,
Volusianus