Heribert von Larisch

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Adolf Karl Arthur Heribert von Larisch
Born (1894-07-18)18 July 1894
Freiburg im Breisgau, Grand Duchy of Baden, German Empire
Died 16 May 1972(1972-05-16) (aged 77)
Hamburg, West Germany
Allegiance  German Empire (to 1918)
 Weimar Republic (to 1933)
 Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
Service/branch War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg Reichsheer
Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg Landesschutz and Reichswehr
Balkenkreuz.svg Wehrmacht Heer
Years of service 1914–1920; 1929–1945
Rank Generalleutnant
Commands held 78. Sturm-Division, 129. Infanterie-Division
Battles/wars World War I
World War II
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Other work Author, landowner

Adolf Karl Arthur Heribert von Larisch[1] (18 July 1893 – 16 May 1972) was a German Army officer who rose to the rank of Generalleutnant during World War II. He was also a recipient of the renowned Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.

Born into an aristocratic family, Larisch entered military service in 1914, a few months before the start of World War I. He served as a troop officer during the war and was discharged from the army two years after its end, in 1920. After this, he spent several years as landowner in Pomerania, and was re–employed by the Landesschutz, an unofficial branch of the army. He became an active officer again in 1933 and until the start of World War II was assigned mostly as military instructor and company commander. Afterwards, he spent most of the war commanding units under formation, in inactive fronts or in occupational duty. From 1943 on he distinguished himself as a field commander at the Eastern Front. Captured by American forces in June 1945, he was held until July 1947 and after his release he lived in Hamburg, West Germany until his death in 1972.

Early years and World War I[edit]

Coat of arms of the Larisch family

Adolf Karl Arthur Heribert von Larisch was born on 18 July 1894 in Freiburg im Breisgau as the first son of a military officer. Both of his parents were members of the German nobility; his father, Gebhard Otto von Larisch (9 January 1863 – 5 October 1923) ultimately reached the rank of Major a. D. (retired Major), while he also held the rank of a Hauptmann d. R. (Captain of the Reserves) in the prestigious 2nd Foot Guards Regiment (2. Garde–Regiment zu Fuß).[2] His mother was Editha Karoline Luise Elisabeth, née Freiin (Baroness) von Weiler (16 September 1874 – 5 December 1971), daughter of Arthur Freiherr von Weiler, a judicial counsellor (Landgerichtsrat) and Kammerherr (Chamberlain) in the service of the Grand Duchy of Baden. His parents had married in Freiburg im Breisgau, where Larisch's father served, on 4 October 1892. The couple went on to have a daughter, Marie Elisabeth Edith Irmgard, who was born in Sprottau, a city in the Province of Silesia, on 22 June 1897.[1][3]

Young Larisch didn't attend one of Imperial Germany's cadet schools (Kadettenanstalten), but received civilian education, attending schools in Hildesheim and Hanover in Lower Saxony and in Doberan in Mecklenburg.[4] After successfully completing his high–school studies (Abitur), 19–year–old Larisch followed his father's profession. Entering a prussian Regiment required the consensus of the regimental officers' majority, which was typically achived by persons of relatively high social and economical status. This was made possible for Larisch, as he was a member of German nobility and son of an officer. Thus, on 5 February 1914, 19–year–old Larisch was accepted as a Fahnenjunker, a rank roughly equivalent to an officer candidate, typically after taking a written exam, in the 18th Dragoon Regiment, 2nd of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg (2. Großherzoglich Mecklenburgisches Dragoner-Regiment Nr. 18), garrisoned in Parchim, a city of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Normally, officers candidates who entered the Prussian Army were required to pass certain exams after a few months in order to obtain the rank of Fähnrich (Cadet Sergeant), and received their Leutnant (2nd Lieutenant) commission after several months' service. However, in July of that year, World War I broke out. By then, Larisch was in army service for merely half a year.[5][6]

Shortly after the outbreak of World War I on 28 July 1914, Larisch was mobilized on 2 August 1914 and received a hastened commission to Leutnant on 16 September of that year. He spent the majority of the war with the 18th Dragoon Regiment, serving as platoon and squadron commander, apparently without particular distinction. In January 1918 he was transferred to the 359th Infantry Regiment to assume the command of a company; in that position, he was promoted to Oberleutnant (1st Lieutenant) on 18 May 1918. A few months later, in August, he became Ordonnanzoffizier (Batman) at the staff of I. Reserve–Korps (I Reserve Corps). He was still serving in that position when the German Empire capitulated on 11 November 1918.[5]

Interwar period[edit]

In the Weimar Republic[edit]

Larisch remained in his position as Ordonnanzoffizier for one more month after the capitulation. In late December 1918 he was transferred back to his old Dragoon Regiment. Three months later, he was elevated to the position of Adjutant of the regiment, and in this capacity he took part in the process of the regimental demobilization, as the Treaty of Versailles, signed by the victorious Allied powers, sought to reduce the new German Army (Reichswehr) to a maximum manpower of 100,000 men by 31 March 1920. While still on army service, Larisch enrolled in the University of Rostock on 2 February 1920 in order to study law, however he never completed his studies.[4] Finally, on 31 March 1920, the deadline set by the Treaty of Versailles, Larisch wasn't selected for the extremely downsized, 1,000–men officer corps of the Reichswehr and was discharged on the same day.[5]

A former manor house (Gutshaus) in Zielenica, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, which until 1945 was named Söllnitz, an estate neighboring with Larisch's Zirchow B (photographed in 2010).

At the same time, family developments were also unfolding. During the war, on 18 June 1917, he married in Latzig, District of Schlawe, Pomerania, with Ellen Fanny Wanda Natalie Helene, née Edle von Xylander (13 November 1895 – 11 June 1974), the daughter of Adolf Ritter und Edler von Xylander, a nobleman and Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant Colonel) and his wife Ellen, née Glagau (12 April 1875 – 19 November 1945).[7] Larisch's mother–in–law, who had divorced Xylander in 1914 to marry the officer Eduard Ermekeil (31 October 1864 – 18 November 1941) in 1916, came from a family of Pomeranian landowners. Among others, they owned the estates of Latzig, as well as the nearby estates of Zirchow B and Alt–Zowen in the Pomeranian District of Schlawe (Kreis Schlawe). Ellen Ermekeil (Larisch's mother–in–law) became administrator of the estate of Zirchow B in 1921.[8][9] After his discharge, Larisch settled at Zirchow, along with his wife and his daughter Irmgard (17 April 1918 – 25 June 1998), who was born before the end of the war in Köslin, Pomerania.[3]

The creation of a new family was, however, marred by a rather scandalous arrangement of his father. Retired Major Gebhard von Larisch, his 56–year–old father, divorced Larisch's mother on 10 November 1919, after 27 years of marriage. Three months later, he married again with Annie Ida Adele, née von Pustau (30 October 1899 – 2 November 1975), who was 20 years old at a time, making Gebhard 36 years his senior. For the conservative German society of the time, such a behavior from a Prussian military officer was certainly unacceptable. However, the impact on the Larisch family, and whether it influenced Heribert's career, are largely unknown. Nevertheless, this peculiar marriage ended the following year, when the couple's divorce was made official on 19 November 1921 in Hamburg. Gebhard von Larisch died two years later, on 5 October 1923, at his son's family estate in Zirchow.[3]

After the relatively turbulent times following his discharge, Heribert von Larisch occupied himself with the administration of the estate in Zirchow B. During the 1920s, he also expanded his family; with his wife he went on to have four more children, all of whom were born in Zirchow B: Siegrid Ellen Edith Natalie Helene (born 3 March 1921), Friederun Lotte Elisabeth (born 13 October 1922), Karin (born 10 January 1924) and Dankwart Karl Heinrich Gebhard (born 17 March 1925).[7] In addition, Larisch occupied himself with the history of his Regiment during the war. The result of his work, Das 2. Großherzogl. Mecklenburg. Dragoner-Reg. Nr 18 im Weltkriege 1914–1918 (The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg 2nd Dragoner Regiment No. 18 in the World War 1914–1918), was published by the editions of Gerhard Stalling in Oldenburg in Oldenburg in 1924.[10] In 1928, he took over the estate of Zirchow B.[9]

Re–employment by the Army and National Socialism[edit]

The tenure of the Zirchow B estate, however, has to be short–lived. Seeking to circumvent the Treaty of Versailles and enlarge the size of the army strength, the leadership of the new army (Reichswehr), worked from 1926 on the development of a secret army, formed on existing paramilitary border guard organizations, which received training and equipment unofficially. Those formations were part of the Landesschutzorganisation (Land Protection Organization, or LO), and their main duty was the border protection, the training of the LO troops, and to an extent the maintaining of the civilian order. Naturally, the Reichswehr wished to utilize veteran officers who were discharged from the Reichswehr in 1920, but, since officially the Reichswehr was limited to 1,000 active officers, the officers of the LO were classified as "civilian employees of the Reichswehr" on paper, and were commonly known as L–Offiziere (short for Landesschutzoffiziere, or Land Protection Officers).[11] Larisch entered the Landesschutz on 1 July 1929, as an Oberleutnant (L). He was employed by the Wehrkreis (Military District) II (Mecklenburg and Pomerania, with HQ in Stettin), appointed as the District Administrator for the area of Schlochau and Bublitz, adjacent to the family estates.[5]

Larisch spent the following years in that rather quiet position. On 1 February 1932 he was transferred to the Command Office in Neustettin (also in Pomerania), where he witnessed Adolf Hitler's rise to power one year later: on 31 January 1933, he became Chancellor of Germany. In the following years, disregarding the confining Versailles Treaty, the Nazi regime intensified the German re-armament (Aufrüstung) and the size of the military. On 1 October 1933, Larisch was transferred from the Landesschutzen officers to the active officers of the Reichswehr, and was simultaneously promoted to Hauptmann (Captain). Evidently, Larisch was earmarked for active troop command, given that he was still 42 years old, and was given a troop assignment, the command of a company in the 4th Infantry Regiment (4. Infanterie–Regiment), headquartered in Kolberg, Pomerania. He retained the same position as company commander when the regiment was restructured in the frame of the expansion of the Reichswehr — which was renamed to Wehrmacht in 1935 — from 1 October 1934 with a new designation, Infantry Regiment "Kolberg" (Infanterie–Regiment Kolberg). One year later, he was posted as Instructor at the prestigious Infantry School in Döberitz (Infanterieschule Döberitz) near Berlin. He remained there until July 1936, when he was transferred to 94th Infantry Regiment (94. Infanterie–Regiment), which was then under formation in Pomerania, again as a company commander. Shortly thereafter he was promoted to Major and in early October 1937 he was transferred to another Infantry School, this time to Hanover in Lower Saxony, as Taktiklehrer (Tactics Instructor). He taught officer classes there for the two following years, until the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939.[5]

World War II[edit]

The military forces of Nazi Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, marking the start of World War II in Europe. The organization of new divisions escalated in the weeks leading up to the war, and experienced officers were needed to man the newly formed divisions. The 86th Infantry Division was formed in Detmold on 26 August and Larisch took over command of the 1st Battallion of its 167th Infantry Regiment. This unit didn't participate in the Polish Campaign, however, as more accommodated to tactical doctrines officers of the were chosen to lead from the front, in favour of officers who had resumed their service in the 1930s. The 86th Division occupied a sector of the inactive Western Front. Larisch spent a great part of the Phoney War there, from October 1939 to January 1940, again trusted with training duties, in light of his earlier experience. In this capacity, he oversaw the training of Companiy and Battallion leaders. It can be assumed that Larisch's superiors held his training skills in high regard, but still deemed him unfit for field service, as he was transferred away from the front and posted as a Tactics Instructor for Company commanders in the city of Königsbrück in Upper Lusatia on 10 January. Simultaneously, he was named commander of the 3rd Battallion of the 440th Infantry Regiment, which was being under formation in Königsbrück. In February, he was promoted to Oberstleutnant (Colonel).[5][12] In May 1940, his tenure as instructor ended, and he occupied himself exclusively with the command of his battallion.[5] The quality of the units' training in Königsbrück prompted the American military attaché to write to his superiors that he was "impressed" of the German tactics in the army manoeuvres there.[13]

Larisch remained battallion commander throughout 1940 — his unit didn't participate in the battle of France — but, after the successful Balkan campaign, he was elevated to commander of the 440th Infantry Regiment in July 1941 and, in October, he was promoted to Oberst (Colonel).[5] At that time, his regiment was posted in Greece, charged with occupational duties, and the 164th Infantry Regiment was merged with the 713th Infantry Division (713. Infanterie–Division) to form the Fortress Division "Crete" (Festungsdivision Kreta). In July 1942, the more combat–effective parts of the 16th Infantry Division were transported to North Africa to fight with Erwin Rommel's Deutsches Afrika Korps. Larisch, still deemed unfit for active combat duty, remained in Greece, and from October to November 1942 he commanded one of the units of the Festungsdivision Kreta that were left behind, the 1st Fortress Brigade (Festungsbrigade 1) with HQ in Thessaloniki.[14] On 23 November 1942, the staff of the unit was transferred to the north and became the German Railway Security Staff Croatia (Deutscher Eisenbahn–Sicherungsstab Kroatien).[14] In this capacity, Larisch was responsible for the protection of the essential railroad transport in the puppet Independent State of Croatia, from acts of sabotage by the partisan movement active there.[15] Larisch held this position in 1943; whether his units were implicated in war crimes is unknown.

Operations at the Eastern Front, January to March 1945. The defensive line, which Larisch's 129th Infantry Division defended, lies along the river Narew, north of Warsaw, a tributary of Vistula river.

By 1943, Larisch had completed 10 years of troop service, but hadn't yet received a combat assignment. Presumably, he had earned sufficiently good evaluations from his superiors to be considered as a future divisional leader, so, in the summer of 1943, he took part in an one–month divisional leaders course in Berlin. He returned to Croatia in August and, on 1 November 1943, he was given the command of the 78th Sturm Division, one of the strongest, well–equipped and most effective combat units of the Eastern Front. When Larisch took over the command, the division was engaged in heavy fighting with the Red Army, as the Soviets attempted to capture the vital MoscowMinsk highway, connecting Smolensk to Orsha. The battles lasted throughout the whole winter, and the division was able to form a defensive line and complete, for the time being, its objective.[16]

On 15 February 1944, Larisch became commander of the 129th Infantry Division (129. Infanterie-Division), and was promoted to Generalmajor (Major General) on 1 April 1944. When, in June 1944, the Soviets launched a massive offensive (Operation Bagration), the 129th Infantry Division initially escaped total decimation, like many of the units of Army Group Center, but suffered heavy losses during the fighting in Belorussia.[17] Arguably, Larisch's finest moment came in late summer 1944, when his division was defending the Narew river against the Soviet assault. The German units had set up strong defenses along the river, including trenches, barbed wire, obstacles and minefields, and manage to prevent the Soviets from breaking through.[18] This defensive success was met with visible enthusiasm from Larisch's superiors: on 1 September 1944, he was decorated with the German Cross in Gold; on 12 September 1944 he was honorably mentioned in the Wehrmachtbericht, the daily armed forces record. In addition, he was promoted to Generalleutnant (Lieutenant General) on 1 October, a few weeks later, and in late December he was awarded with the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, one of Nazi Germany's highest and most prestigious military decorations.[5]

Late war[edit]

The defensive line at Narew, however, effective as it might had been, wasn't able to work wonders for too long, and was overrun during another large–scale Soviet offensive in January 1945. While the winter had caused the marshes to freeze, making the terrain impermeable to attacks, this line was smashed and the German units were forced to retreat.[19] By then, the 129th Infantry Division had suffered such heavy losses that effectively ceased to exist as combat formation;[20] Larisch gave up command of what remained of his division on 15 February 1945.[5]

For the remainder of the war, Larisch received rather familiar assignments: he returned to military instructing, this time as commander of Infantry School Döberitz. Anticipating the Soviet assault in Berlin, the school had been moved to Grafenwöhr in the Upper Palatinate. He remained in that position until 24 April, when he was placed in the "Leader's Reserve" (Führerreserve).[5]

Larisch continued to direct the regimental commanders course that had started in March. By late April 1945, the course continued to take place in Krün, a municipality in Southern Bavaria, adjacent to Tyrol. When the Adolf Hitler's suicide became known on 30 April, the course came to an end. Before relieving the officers of their duties, Larisch assembled them in the local schoolhouse. Perhaps reflecting on his own similar experience, he bid the participants farewell with the words:

Post–war[edit]

After the war ended with the unconditional surrender of Germany on 8 May 1945, Larisch was able to evade capture for more than a month, but was ultimately arrested by American troops on 15 June 1945. He spent the next two years as a prisoner of war and was released on 1 July 1947, a few weeks shy of his 53rd birthday.[5]

Upon returning to Germany, Larisch and his wife ultimately settled in Hamburg in northern West Germany. With the exception of his only son, who went missing in action on 1 July 1944 in the northern sector of the Eastern Front,[22] all of his immediate family had survived the war. Naturally, his Pomeranian estates were annexed by Poland, and the Soviet Government collectivized them. Thus, the family lived under harsh conditions for some time; his daughter, Karin, a veterinarian, emigrated with her family to the United States of America in the 1950s.[23] His mother also lived in Hamburg until her death in 1971, at the age of 97.[3]

Larisch spent his last years quietly in retirement. He resided in the Zesenstraße 15 in Winterhude, a quarter in northern Hamburg. As Generalleutnant a. D. (retired) he served as chairman of the Officers' Association (Offiziersverein) of his old regiment (the 18th Dragoon Regiment).[24]

Larisch lived long enough to see his prediction of "a new German Army" confirmed, with the establishment of the Bundeswehr in 1955. He died on 16 May 1972 at the age of 77.[3]

Summary of career[edit]

Decorations and awards[edit]

Reference in the Wehrmachtbericht[edit]

Date Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording Direct English translation
12 September 1944 In der Schlacht am unteren Narew zeichnete sich die hessisch-thüringische 129. Infanteriedivision unter Führung von Generalmajor von Larisch und die württembergische 5. Jägerdivision unter Führung von Generalleutnant Sixt durch Standfestigkeit und Angriffsschwung besonders aus.[25] The Hessian-Thuringian 129th infantry division under the leadership of Generalmajor von Larisch and the Württembergian 5th Jägerdivision under the command of Generalleutnant Sixt distinguished themselves in the battle at the lower Narew with firmness and offensive drive.

Promotions[edit]

Date[5] Rank[Note 1] Corresponding rank in English
05 February 1914 Fahnenjunker Officer Cadet
16 September 1914 Leutnant Second Lieutenant
18 May 1918 Oberleutnant First Lieutenant
01 July 1929 Hauptmann (L) Captain of the Landesschutz
01 October 1933 Hauptmann Captain
01 October 1936 Major Major
01 February 1940 Oberstleutnant Lieutenant Colonel
01 October 1940 Oberst Colonel
01 April 1944 Generalmajor Major General
01 October 1944 Generalleutnant (7) Lieutenant General

Books by Heribert von Larisch[edit]

  • Das 2. Grossherzogl. Mecklenburg. Dragoner–Regiment Nr. 18 im Weltkriege 1914–1918 (102nd volume of Erinnerungsblätter Deutscher Regimenter). Oldenburg in Oldenburg, Germany: Gerhard Stalling, 1924.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The numbers inside the parentheses denote the seniority of the rank.

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ a b Gothaisches genealogisches Taschenbuch der adeligen Häuser. Justus Perthes, Gotha 1907, p. 394. (The year of birth is erroneously given as 1893 instead of 1894).
  2. ^ Guido von Frobel: Militär–Wochenblatt No. 18, 1924. Berlin: E. S. Mittler & Sohn, p. 431.
  3. ^ a b c d e Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Adelige Häuser Vol. XXX, Vol. 145 of total series. Limburg (Lahn): C. A. Starke, 2008, ISSN 0435-2408, p. 241–242.
  4. ^ a b Εntry of Heribert von Larisch in the Rostock Matrikelportal
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bradley, Hildebrand and Röverkamp, Die Generale des Heeres 1921–1945 Band 7, p. 394–395.
  6. ^ Robinson & Robinson, Handbook Of Imperial Germany, p. 180.
  7. ^ a b Gothaisches genealogisches Taschenbuch der adeligen Häuser Teil A: Deutsche Uradel. 41. Jahrgang. Gotha: Justus Perthes 1942, p. 286.
  8. ^ Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Adelige Häuser B Vol. V, Vol. 26 of total series. Limburg (Lahn): C. A. Starke, 1961, p. 507
  9. ^ a b Włodzimierz Rączkowski, Jan Sroka (2009) (in Polish): Historia i Kultura Ziemi Sławieńskiej Vol. VII: Gmina i Miasto Sianów]. SianówSławno: Fundacja Dziedzictwo, Urząd Gminy i Miasta Sianów, p. 17. Retrieved on 25 November 2014.
  10. ^ Das 2. Grossherzogl. Mecklenburg. Dragoner-Regiment Nr. 18 im Weltkriege 1914–1918 in the catalog of the German National Library. Retrieved on 25 November 2014.
  11. ^ Graf von Matuschka, Organisation des Reichsheeres, p. 216 and 341.
  12. ^ Mitcham, German Order of Battle, 86th Infantry Division and 164th Infantry Division.
  13. ^ Anthony King (2014): The Combat Soldier. Infantry Tactics and Cohesion in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-019-965-884-8, p. 193.
  14. ^ a b Scherzer, Formationsgeschichte des Heeres und des Ersatzheeres, p. 400 on.
  15. ^ Tomasevich, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, p. 278.
  16. ^ Zaloga, Bagration 1944, p. 48.
  17. ^ Mitcham, German Order of Battle, 129th Infantry Division.
  18. ^ Maslov, Aleksander A. & Glantz, David M. (1998): Fallen Soviet Generals: Soviet General Officers Killed in Battle, 1941-1945. Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7146-4790-6, p. 155.
  19. ^ Buttar, Battleground Prussia, p. 106 on.
  20. ^ Mitcham, German Order of Battle, 129th Infantry Division.
  21. ^ Großjohann, Five Years, Four Fronts, p. 317.
  22. ^ Entry at the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge database.
  23. ^ Fortuna Farm webpage. (Retrieved on 26 November 2014).
  24. ^ Damerau, Helmuth (ed.) (1973): Deutsches Soldatenjahrbuch 1973. 21. Deutscher Soldatenkalender. Munich, Germany: Schild, p. 414.
  25. ^ Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939-1945 Band 3, p. 241.
Bibliography
  • Bradley, Dermot; Hildebrand, Karl–Friedrich; Röverkamp, Markus (2004). Die Generale des Heeres 1921–1945. Die militärischen Werdegänge der Generale, sowie der Ärzte, Veterinäre, Intendanten, Richter und Ministerialbeamten im Generalsrang. Band 7: Knabe–Luz [The Generals of the Army 1921–1945. The military careers of the Generals, also the Doctors, Veterinarians, Directors, Judges and Ministry Officials in General's Rank. Volume 7: Knabe–Luz]. Deutschlands Generale und Admirale (in German) 7. Bissendorf: Biblio–Verlag. ISBN 3-7648-2902-8. 
  • Buttar, Prit (2012). Battleground Prussia: The Assault on Germany's Eastern Front 1944/45. Long Island, New York: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84908-790-2. 
  • Großjohann, Georg (2005). Five Years of War with the Wehrmacht. War&Strategy. Athens: Iolkos Editions. ISBN 978-960-426-429-2. 
  • Graf von Matuschka, Edgar (1970). Organisation des Reichsheeres. [Organization of the Reichsheer] (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Bernard & Graefe Verlag für Wehrwesen. 
  • Mitcham, Samuel W. (2007). German Order of Battle: 1st-290th Infantry Divisions in World War II. Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3416-5. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Formationsgeschichte des Heeres und des Ersatzheeres 1939 bis 1945 [Formation History of the Army and the Replacement Army 1939 to 1945]. Deutsche Truppen im Zweiten Weltkrieg. 1. Ranis and Jena: Scherzers Militär-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-11-0. 
  • Robinson, Janet; Robinson, Joe (2009). Handbook Of Imperial Germany. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-144-902-113-9. 
  • Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-3615-2. 
  • Zaloga, Steven (1996). Bagration 1944: The Destruction of Army Group Centre. London: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-85532-478-7. 
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 3, 1. Januar 1944 bis 9. Mai 1945 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 3, 1 January 1944 to 9 May 1945] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. 

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Generalleutnant Hans Traut
Commander of 78. Sturm–Division
1 November 1943 — 15 February 1944
Succeeded by
General der Infanterie Siegfried Rasp
Preceded by
Generalmajor Karl Fabiunke
Commander of 129. Infanterie–Division
15 February 1944 — 11 February 1945
Succeeded by
Generalmajor Bernhard Ueberschär
Preceded by
Generalmajor Heinrich Wittkopf
Commander of Infanterie–Schule Döberitz
15 March 1945 — 24 April 1945
Succeeded by
none
dissolved