|This article relies on references to primary sources. (December 2011)|
|Established||1821 – as the School of Arts of Edinburgh
1966 – as university by Royal Charter
Baroness Susan Greenfield CBE (Outgoing)Dr Robert M Buchan (As of December 2012)
|Principal||Professor Steve Chapman|
|Chairman of Court||Lord Penrose|
|Undergraduates||5,796 on Edinburgh Campus|
|Postgraduates||2,032 on Edinburgh Campus|
|Other campus locations||Scottish Borders
Heriot-Watt University is a public university based in Edinburgh, established in 1821 as the world's first mechanics' institute. It has been a university by Royal Charter since 1966. It has branch campuses in the Scottish Borders, Orkney, Dubai, and Putrajaya in Malaysia.
- 1 History
- 2 Rankings and achievements
- 3 Students
- 4 Campuses
- 5 Schools
- 6 Notable alumni
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes and references
- 9 External links
School of Arts of Edinburgh
Heriot-Watt was established as the School of Arts of Edinburgh by Scottish businessman Leonard Horner on 16 October 1821. Having been inspired by Anderson's College in Glasgow, Horner established the School to provide practical knowledge of science and technology to Edinburgh's working men.:64-66 The institution was initially of modest size, giving lectures two nights a week in rented rooms and boasting a small library of around 500 technical works.:100 It was also oversubscribed, with admissions soon closing despite the cost of 15 shillings for a year's access to lectures and the library.
The School was managed by a board of eighteen directors and primarily funded by sponsors from the middle and upper classes including Robert Stevenson and Walter Scott. It first became associated with the inventor and engineer James Watt in 1824, as a means of raising funds to secure permanent accommodation. Justifying the association, School Director Lord Cockburn said:
"[The building] shall be employed for the accommodation of the Edinburgh School of Arts; whereby the memory of Watt may forever be connected with the promotion, among a class of men to which he himself originally belonged, of those mechanical arts from which his own usefulness and glory arose.:103 "
In 1837, the School of Arts moved to leased accommodation on Adam Square, which it was able to purchase in 1851 thanks to funds raised in Watt's name. In honour of the purchase, the School changed its name to the Watt Institution and School of Arts in 1852.
Watt Institution and School of Arts
Heriot-Watt's time as the Watt Institution marked a transitional period for the organisation, as its curriculum broadened to include several subjects beyond mathematics and the physical sciences. While the School of Arts had catered almost exclusively to working-class artisans and technical workers, the Watt Institution admitted a large number of middle-class students, whom it attracted with new subjects in the sciences, social sciences and humanities. By 1885, the skilled working class were no longer the majority in an institution that had been created explicitly for them.:133-135
A shifting class make-up was not the only demographic change to affect the student body, as in 1869 women were permitted to attend lectures for the first time. This move put the Watt Institution some way ahead of Scottish universities, who were only permitted to allow women to graduate 20 years later following the Universities (Scotland) Act of 1889.:163 The decision to admit women was made in large part owing to pressure from local campaigner Mary Burton, who later became the Institution's first female director in 1874.:133-135
In 1870, the Watt Institution was forced to move following the demolition of Adam Square.:148-153 After a brief period on Roxburgh Place, it relocated to the newly constructed Chambers Street near where its former site had stood. The move caused the Institution severe financial difficulties, which were compounded by a combination of declining funds from subscribers and increased costs from its growing student body. In 1873, the Directors turned to George Heriot's Trust for support, and agreed to a merger of the Trust's endowment with the Institution's own. The proposed merger was provisional to changes in the structure of the Watt Institution, which would see the organisation become a technical college with representatives of the Trust in management positions. Accepting these changes, the Watt Institution officially became Heriot-Watt College in 1885, and was subsequently on far firmer financial ground.:160-161
The Watt Club
The Watt Club was founded at the Watt Institution on 12 May 1854, and is today the oldest alumni organisation in the UK. Following the unveiling of a statue of James Watt outside the Institution, local jeweller J.E Vernon proposed that
"[a club should be formed] whose object would be to sup together on the anniversary of the birth of James Watt…and also to promote the interests of the School, by raising a fund each year to provide prizes.:144-145"
Watt Club Medals are still awarded by the organisation each year to Heriot-Watt's most highly achieving students, while the Watt Club Prize is awarded by The Watt Club Council to recognise student initiative and enterprise.
After the establishment of Heriot-Watt as a technical college, the new management committee set about extending the institution's buildings and strengthening its academic reputation. In its new form the College was one of only three non-university institutions in the UK with the power to appoint professors, and the first of these was appointed in 1887. In 1902 the College became a central institution, while in 1904 it introduced awards for graduating students which were similar to university degrees.
Expansion meant that the College made increasing demands on George Heriot's Trust throughout the first part of the 20th century, which ultimately led to the independence of the two bodies in 1927. While the Trust continued to pay Heriot-Watt a fixed sum each year, from then on the College was responsible for managing its own financial affairs. Heriot-Watt continued to expand after becoming independent, opening a new extension in 1935.:243
Both World Wars impacted on the speed of the College's expansion. During World War I, student numbers dropped as young men joined the army, while teaching in engineering stalled as the department was used for the manufacture of shells and munitions.:213-215 During World War II, student numbers dropped again and the electrical engineering department became involved in training the armed services in the use of radar.
After the College introduced a postgraduate award in 1951, it offered awards equivalent to university degrees and doctorates in all practical respects. Recognising this, in 1963 the Robbins Report recommended that it should be awarded university status. On 1 February 1966 the recommendation was enacted, as the institution officially became Heriot-Watt University.
While Heriot-Watt continued to expand in the centre of Edinburgh after attaining university status, the institution had grown big enough that relocation was felt to be desirable. In 1966 Midlothian Council gifted the Riccarton estate in South West Edinburgh to the University and in 1969 work began on transforming the site into a future campus.:252 The process of relocation to Riccarton continued until 1992, with teaching and facilities divided between the new campus and the city centre until this time.:379-381
The University continued to grow after completing its move to Riccarton, constructing additional student halls, a sports centre and a postgraduate centre on the site. The institution also expanded beyond Edinburgh, merging with the Scottish College of Textiles to create a campus in the Scottish Borders in 1998, opening a campus in Dubai in 2006:436-441 and a campus in Putrajaya, Malaysia in 2012.
Rankings and achievements
Heriot-Watt is known for the strong prospects of its students, with 80% in graduate-level jobs six months after leaving the institution. It came 1st in Scotland and 4th in the UK in the 2012 National Student Survey, and saw the largest increase in UK applicants of any UK university for the 2013 academic session. It also has a strong research profile, with 50% of its submitted research results considered at or above the national average in the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise.
In 2011, Heriot-Watt was named as the Sunday Times Scottish University of the Year 2011-2012, with the paper emphasising the employability of the institution's graduates. In 2012, it was ranked 5th in Scotland by the Complete University Guide and 20th in the United Kingdom by the Guardian University League Table. In individual subject areas, the 2013 Times Good University Guide ranked the university third in the UK and first in Scotland for chemical engineering, and second in Scotland for building, mechanical engineering, food science and civil engineering.
Heriot-Watt has a diverse student body, with one-third of students on UK campuses coming from overseas. Students have been represented at Heriot-Watt since the establishment of a Students' Representative Council in 1929,:237 and today are represented in the UK by the University's Students' Association.
The Students' Association at Heriot-Watt is a student-led organisation headed by individuals elected from the student population. The Association has represented students both locally and nationally since its foundation in 1966, and is a member of both the Edinburgh Students' Forum and the National Union of Students (NUS). It is also responsible for running the University's Student Union, which runs events for students and supports student societies, of which over 50 currently exist. In addition, it runs several services at the Edinburgh and Scottish Borders campuses including catering facilities, a nightclub, an advice centre and a student shop.
The Sports Union is responsible for the University's 30 sports clubs and runs annual social events for students involved in sport. As with the Students' Association, the organisation is headed by elected Heriot-Watt students.
Heriot-Watt currently has five campuses, and also runs distance learning programmes through 50 approved learning partners to students around the world.
Heriot-Watt's main campus is located in Riccarton in South West Edinburgh on 380 acres of parkland. The campus consists of: student residences, a postgraduate centre, shops, several library collections, childcare, healthcare, a chaplaincy, a variety of recreational and sports facilities, and a museum. It is also home to the Edinburgh Conference Centre and Europe's oldest research park, which opened in 1971.:386
Halls of Residence
Heriot-Watt's Edinburgh Campus has 1,600 furnished rooms available for students, which allows the University to guarantee accommodation to all full-time first-year undergraduates and postgraduates. 300 new rooms opened in September 2012 as part of a £14m residences development to replace some of the campus's older accommodation.
Heriot-Watt's Scottish Borders Campus in Galashiels is home to the University's School of Textile and Design. The School began life in 1883 when the Galashiels Manufacturer's Corporation began running classes in practical courses for its workers. The institution gradually grew both in terms of student numbers and the number of courses it offered, and it ultimately became known as the Scottish College of Textiles in 1968. In 1998 the College merged with Heriot-Watt, leading to the creation of the School of Textiles and Design in its modern form.:436-444
The School is one of the few fashion schools in the world which offers a menswear course at bachelor degree level, and the only school in Scotland to offer a fashion communication course. It was ranked 11th place in the UK for art and design in the 2013 Complete University Guide, produced a winner and five other finalists for the Scottish Fashion Awards Graduate of the Year in June 2012.
While the Scottish Borders Campus shares some facilities and administrative functions with Edinburgh, it is largely self-contained. As well as its own library, accommodation and catering facilities, it has its own branch of the Student Union which runs events on the site and is home to a collection of textile records and artefacts. A new £12m student village opened at the Campus on September 2012.
In addition to the School of Textiles and Design, Heriot-Watt's Borders Business Programme is also based at the Scottish Borders Campus. The entire campus is shared with Borders College, whose students make up the majority of those who study at the site.
Offering a range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses similar to those found in Scotland, the Campus facilitates student exchanges between Britain and the Emirates. It has facilities including a library, catering, computer access and shops. An expanded campus opened in the city in November 2011, allowing double the number of students to study for a Heriot-Watt degree in the city.
After announcing plans to open a Malaysian Campus in 2011, Heriot-Watt officially opened a temporary campus in Putrajaya in November 2012. The university is currently constructing a purpose-built campus in the city, which should be complete by 2014.
Heriot-Watt's campus in Stromness, Orkney is home to the International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), part of the University's Institute of Petroleum Engineering. The Campus provides education to a small number of postgraduate students and is host to eight members of research staff.
Heriot-Watt is divided into seven schools and one institute that coordinate its teaching and research:
- The School of the Built Environment, incorporating architectural engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, construction management, surveying and urban studies;
- The School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, incorporating chemical engineering, chemistry, electrical, electronic and computing engineering, mechanical engineering and physics;
- The School of Management and Languages, incorporating accountancy and finance, business management, economics and languages;
- The School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, incorporating actuarial mathematics and statistics, computer science and mathematics;
- The School of Textiles and Design;
- The Institute of Petroleum Engineering, incorporating petroleum engineering and renewable energy technology.
- Robert Buchan, founder of Kinross Gold Corporation
- Adam Crozier, Chief Executive of ITV
- Roger Jenkins, former Chief Executive of Barclays Private Equity, Principal Investments and Structured Capital Markets
- Bob Keiller, Chief Executive of Wood Group
- Audrey Baxter, Executive Chairman of W A Baxter & Sons (Holdings) Ltd
- Tammy Kane, co-founder of the Christopher Kane fashion label
- Fiona Hyslop MSP, Cabinet Secretary for Culture and External Affairs in the Scottish Government
- Sarah Boyack MSP, former Minister for Transport of Scotland
- Graham Watson MEP, President of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party
- Ingvald Godal, former Member of the Norwegian Parliament and former Chairman of the Norwegian Support Committee for Chechnya
- Bernie Grant, Britain's first Afro-Caribbean MP (did not graduate)
- Lord Martin O'Neill, Baron O'Neill of Clackmannan, former Labour MSP
- Archy Kirkwood, Baron Kirkwood of Kirkhope, former Liberal Democrat MP
- Mark MacGregor, Conservative Party politician
- Brian Monteith, former Conservative MSP
- Teo Ho Pin, Member of the Singapore Parliament
- Henning Skumsvoll, Member of the Norwegian Parliament
- Lord Mike Watson, Baron Watson of Invergowrie, former MP and MSP
- Michael Jamieson, Scottish swimmer and Olympic silver medallist (did not graduate)
- Jock Clear, Formula One engineer
- Shirley Robertson, TV presenter and double Olympic gold medallist
- Lee Jones, current member of the Scotland national rugby union team
- Gordon Shedden, Scottish auto racing driver
- Jack Ross, former Scottish professional footballer
- Dame Muriel Spark, award winning Scottish novelist
- Irvine Welsh, author of Trainspotting
- Gary Younge, writer and journalist
- Deepak Tripathi, historian and former journalist
- James Nasmyth, inventor of the steam hammer:93
- Christina Cruickshank Miller, chemist
- Richard Tait, inventor of the board game Cranium
- John Thomson, pioneering photographer
- Liam Burns, NUS UK President 2011-13
- Fiona Watson, political affairs officer
- Joanne Yeoh, Malaysian violinist and music lecturer at Universiti Putra Malaysia
Notes and references
- "Annual statistics 2011-12.". Retrieved 10-08-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Official Opening of Heriot-Watt University Malaysia.". Retrieved 03-12-2012.
- Jameson, R, (1824), "Some Account of the School of Arts of Edinburgh.", The Edinburgh philosophical journal 11: 203–205
- O'Farrell, P. N. (2004). Heriot Watt University: An Illustrated History. Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 0-273-69605-X
- "GASHE: School of Arts, Edinburgh.". Retrieved 25-05-2012.
- Barnett, H. (2011). Constitutional & Administrative Law (8th Edition). Routledge. ISBN 978-0415578813
- "Gazetteer for Scotland: Mary Burton.". Retrieved 06-12-2011.
- "Heriot-Watt University: A Short History of the Watt Club.". Retrieved 06-12-2011.
- "Heriot-Watt Academic Registry: Prizes and Awards.". Retrieved 19-06-2012.
- "NAHSTE: Records of Heriot-Watt College.". Retrieved 06-12-2011.
- The Sunday Times University Guide 2012, 11-09-2011. Leonard, Sue, "Full steam ahead for Heriot-Watt", London.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Annual Review." (PDF). Retrieved 25-05-2012.
- "The Journal: Success for Edinburgh universities in research rankings.". Retrieved 20-06-2012.
- "Complete University Guide: University League Table 2013 – Scotland.". Retrieved 17-05-2012.
- "The Guardian: University League Table 2013.". 21 May 2012. Retrieved 22-05-2012.
- "The Times: Good University Guide 2013.".
- "Heriot-Watt University: Key facts about Heriot-Watt University.". Retrieved 29-11-2011.
- "Heriot-Watt Student Union: History.". Retrieved 21-05-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt Student Union: What is Representation?". Retrieved 21-05-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt Student Union: A-Z of Societies.". Retrieved 30-04-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt Student Union: Services.". Retrieved 21-05-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Sports Union Clubs.". Retrieved 21-05-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Sports Union.". Retrieved 21-05-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Study in your own country.". Retrieved 29-11-2011.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Facilities at Edinburgh Campus.". Retrieved 05-18-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Accommodation at Edinburgh Campus.". Retrieved 24-05-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Work begins on £26m student accommodation project.". Retrieved 24-05-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Scottish Borders Campus.". Retrieved 25-05-2012.
- "Complete University Guide 2013: Art and Design.". Retrieved 25-05-2012.
- "The Scotsman: Scottish Fashion Awards: The winners in full.".
- "Heriot-Watt University: Scottish Borders Campus.". Retrieved 05-21-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt Student Union:SBC Homepage.". Retrieved 23-05-2012.
- "The Guardian: University guide 2013: Heriot-Watt University.". 10 May 2009. Retrieved 25-05-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Accommodation at Scottish Borders Campus.". Retrieved 24-05-2012.
- "The Scottish Government: New £35m Heriot-Watt campus in Dubai.". Retrieved 23-05-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Facilities at Dubai Campus.". Retrieved 23-05-2012.
- "Times Higher Education: Scottish internationalism: Salmond welcomes Heriot-Watt’s Dubai campus.". Retrieved 20-06-2012.
- "Edinburgh Evening News: City university lands overseas campus deal.". Retrieved 20-06-2012.
- "ICIT: Courses.". Retrieved 30-11-2011.
- "ICIT: Staff.". Retrieved 11-30-2011.
- "Heriot-Watt University: School of the Built Environment.". Retrieved 05-21-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: School of Engineering and Physical Sciences.". Retrieved 05-21-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: School of Life Sciences.". Retrieved 05-21-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: School of Management and Languages.". Retrieved 05-21-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences.". Retrieved 05-21-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: School of Textiles and Design.". Retrieved 05-21-2012.
- "Edinburgh Business School.". Retrieved 05-21-2012.
- "Heriot-Watt University: Institute of Petroleum Engineering.". Retrieved 05-21-2012.
- "Baxters: Audrey Baxter.". Retrieved 19-06-2012.
- "Female First: Christopher Kane New Gen Profile.".
- "The Scotsman: Doctrate for Formula One mechanic.". Retrieved 21-06-2012.
- "Edinburgh Rugby: Lee Jones.". Retrieved 16-04-2012.
- Nasmyth,J. (1885, reprinted 2010). James Nasmyth, Engineer: An Autobiography. BoD – Books on Demand. ISBN 3867414599
- "Helensburgh Heroes: Richard Tait.". Retrieved 05-21-2012.
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