Philip the Tetrarch

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Tiberius featured on a coin struck by Philip the Tetrarch
The Division of Herod's Kingdom:
  Territory under Herod Archelaus, from 6 Iudaea Province
  Territory under Herod Antipas
  Territory under Philip
  Salome I (cities of Jabneh, Azotas, Phaesalis)
  Autonomous cities (Decapolis)

Philip the Tetrarch (sometimes called Herod Philip II by modern writers) was son of Herod the Great and his fifth wife, Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He was a half-brother of Herod Antipas and Herod Archelaus; and should not be confused with Herod II, whom some writers call Herod Philip I.

Background[edit]

Philip inherited the northeast part of his father's kingdom, which included Iturea and Trachonitis;[1] and possibly Gaulonitis and Paneas, as was noted by Flavius Josephus.[2]

Augustus Caesar made his own division of Herod's kingdom, giving one half to Archelaus, while dividing the other half into two, going to Antipas and Philip. Batanea, along with Trachonitis and Auranitis (with a certain part of what was called the House of Zenodorus), paid the annual tribute of one hundred talents to Philip.[3]

Marriage and dynasty[edit]

Philip married his niece Salome, the daughter of Herodias and Herod II (sometimes called Herod Philip I,[4] and also a member of the Herodian dynasty. This Salome appears in the Bible in connection with the execution of John the Baptist. The evangelists, Mark and Matthew, wrote that Philip was her father, which seems an odd mistake until one realizes that the older half-brother of Philip the Tetrarch (Herod Philip II) is also sometimes named Herod Philip or Herod Philip I. It is known that Philip the Tetrarch rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast, which was the seat of the Roman government.

Naming convention[edit]

There is no contemporary evidence for Philip the Tetrarch's use of the name "Herod Philip" as a dynastic title, as did occur with his brothers Herod Antipas and Herod Archelaus; however, his birth name was "Philip ben Herod." "Herod Philip I" is better known as Herod II; "Herod Philip II" is better known as Philip the Tetrarch.[5][6] Kokkinos says, "The stubborn existence of many theologians in referring to Herod III as 'Herod Philip' is without any value...No illusory Herod Philip ever existed."[6][p 223-233]; [266] Philip the Tetrarch, "unlike his brothers, did not use Herod as a dynastic name."[7] Philip's half-brothers, Archelaus and Antipas, had adopted the name of Herod, "presumably" for a dynastic claim from Herod the Great.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ As mentioned briefly in the Bible by Luke 3:1
  2. ^ Flavius Josephus, Anitquities, 17.8
  3. ^ Flavius Josephus, Anitquities, 17.11
  4. ^ Flavius Josephus, Antiquities 18.5:4 (137).
  5. ^ Note: It is an example of the great difficulty in establishing the relationships of various holders of the same name in the same area or family - especially in the Herodian dynasty.
  6. ^ a b Kokkinos, Nikkos 'The Herodian Dynasty: Origins, Role in Society and Eclipse', Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha Supplement Series, 1998, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, 236–240
  7. ^ Bowman, Alan K., Champlin Edward, and Lintott. Andrew (edd) (2001), Cambridge Ancient History, Vol.10, The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press; Refers to him throughout as Philip, or Philip the Tetrarch.
  8. ^ Cambridge Ancient History, (latest reprint 1965), Gen. eds.: J.B. Bury, S.A. Cook, F.E. Adcock, M.P. Charlesworth, N.H. Baynes, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: Vol.10, The Augustan empire, 44 B.C.-A.D. 70
Philip the Tetrarch
Died: 34 AD
Preceded by
Herod I
Tetrarch of Batanea
4 BC – 34 AD
Succeeded by
Roman province of Syria