Herodian dynasty

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The Herodian Dynasty was a Judean dynasty of Idumaean/Edomite descent. The Herodian dynasty began with Herod the Great, who assumed the throne of Judea, with Roman support, bringing down the century long Hasmonean Kingdom. His kingdom lasted until his death in 4 BCE, when it was divided between his sons as a Tetrarchy, which lasted for about 10 years. Most of those kingdoms, including Judea proper, were incorporated into Judaea Province in 6 CE, though limited Herodian kingship continued in Northern Levant until 92, when the last Herodian monarch, Agrippa II, died and Rome assumed full power over his domain.

Coin of Herod the Great

Origin[edit]

Further information: Hasmonean Kingdom

During the time of the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus (134–104 BCE), Judea conquered Edom (Idumea) and forced the Edomites to convert to Judaism.

The Edomites were gradually integrated into the Judean nation, and some of them reached high ranking positions. In the days of Alexander Jannaeus, Edomite Antipas, was appointed governor of Edom. His son Antipater, father of Herod the Great, was the chief adviser to Hasmonean Hyrcanus II and managed to establish a good relationship with the Roman Republic, who at that time (63 BCE) extended their influence over the region, following conquest of Syria and intervention in a civil war in Judea.

Julius Caesar appointed Antipater to be procurator of Judea in 47 BCE and he appointed his sons Phasael and Herod to be governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively. Antipater was murdered in 43 BCE; however, his sons managed to hold the reins of power and were elevated to the rank of tetrarchs in 41 BCE by Mark Anthony.

Rise to power[edit]

Further information: Herodian kingdom

In 40 BCE, the Parthians invaded the eastern Roman provinces and managed to drive the Romans out of many areas. In Judea, the Hasmonean dynasty was restored under king Antigonus as a pro-Parthian monarch. Herod the Great, the son of Antipater the Idumean and Cypros (possibly of Nabataean descent), managed to escape to Rome. After convincing the Roman Senate of his sincere intentions in favor of Romans he eventually was announced as king of the Jews by the Roman Senate.[1] Despite his announcement as king of the whole of Judea, Herod did not fully conquer it until 37 BCE. He subsequently ruled the Herodian kingdom as a vassal king for 34 years, crushing the opposition while also initiating huge building projects, including the Caesarea harbor, the Temple Mount, the Masada and the Herodium, among other things. Herod ruled Judea until 4 BCE; at his death his kingdom was divided among his three sons as a tetrarchy.

Herod Archelaus, son of Herod and Malthace the Samaritan, was given the main part of the kingdom: Judea proper, Edom and Samaria. He ruled for ten years until 6 CE, when he was "banished to Vienne in Gaul, where—according to Dion Cassius Cocceianus, "Hist. Roma," lv. 27—he lived for the remainder of his days."[2] See also Census of Quirinius.

Herod Philip I, son of Herod and his fifth wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem, was given jurisdiction over the northeast part of his father's kingdom; he ruled there until his death in 34 CE.

Herod Antipas, another son of Herod and Malthace, was made ruler of the Galilee and Perea; he ruled there until he was exiled to Spain by emperor Caligula in 39 CE. Herod Antipas is probably the person referenced in the Christian New Testament Gospels, playing a role in the death of John the Baptist and the trial of Jesus.[citation needed]

Agrippa I was the grandson of Herod; thanks to his friendship with Emperor Caligula, the emperor appointed him ruler of the territories of Herod Philip I after Herod Philip's death in 34 CE, and in 39 CE he was given the territories of Herod Antipas. In 41 CE, Emperor Claudius added to his territory the parts of Iudea province, that previously belonged to Herod Archelaus. Thus Agrippa I practically re-united his grandfather's kingdom under his rule. Agrippa died in 44 CE.

Agrippa I's son Agrippa II was appointed King and ruler of the northern parts of his father's kingdom. He was the last of the Herodians, and with his death in 92 CE the dynasty was extinct, becoming fully incorporated into the Roman province of Judaea.

In addition, Aristobulus of Chalcis of the Herodian dynasty was king of Chalcis and Armenia Minor. His father, Herod of Chalcis ruled as tetrarch of Chalcis earlier.

Herodian dynasty in later culture[edit]

Literature[edit]

Novels[edit]

Plays[edit]

Poetry[edit]

Figurative arts[edit]

Painting[edit]

Performing arts[edit]

Music[edit]

Ballet[edit]

Opera[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jewish War 1.14.4: Mark Antony " …then resolved to get him made king of the Jews… told them that it was for their advantage in the Parthian war that Herod should be king; so they all gave their votes for it. And when the senate was separated, Antony and Caesar went out, with Herod between them; while the consul and the rest of the magistrates went before them, in order to offer sacrifices [to the Roman gods], and to lay the decree in the Capitol. Antony also made a feast for Herod on the first day of his reign."
  2. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Archelaus: Banishment and Death

Bibliography[edit]

  • Julia Wilker, Für Rom und Jerusalem. Die herodianische Dynastie im 1. Jahrhundert n.Chr. (Berlin, Verlag Antike, 2007) (Studien zur Alten Geschichte, 5).

External links[edit]