Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration

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The Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration was an era beginning at the end of the 19th century and closing with Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, the survivors stepping ashore in Wellington, New Zealand February 9th 1917.[1] Historian Aant Elzinga gives the much later date of 1945, considering World War II to be the turning point in Antarctic research.[2] During this period the Antarctic continent became the focus of an international effort that resulted in intensive scientific and geographical exploration and in which 17 major Antarctic expeditions were launched from ten countries.[3] The common factor in these expeditions was the limited nature of the resources available to them before advances in transport and communication technologies revolutionized the work of exploration.[4][5] This meant that each expedition became a feat of endurance that tested its personnel to physical and mental limits, and sometimes beyond. The "heroic" label, bestowed later, recognized the adversities which had to be overcome by these pioneers, some of whom did not survive the experience; during this period 19 expedition members died.

Furthermore, the heroic label recognizes the romanticism with which the Antarctic landscape was dealt with. The explorers of this age are not remembered merely as scientists and sailors; stereotyped as on one hand objective, calculating, and on the other rude, unrefined. Rather, these men are remembered also as poets, photographers and artists.[6] Ernest Shackleton is often considered the greatest poet of all the Antarctic explorers.[6] His poem 'A Tale of the Sea' is reminiscent of Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner, though Murray, Scott, Amundsen and many others have made notable contributions to Antarctic literature and art.[6] Moreover, this artistic expression is closely knitted with the nationalism that is prevalent leading into and including World War I, making these men more than explorers but heroes of the nation.[6] Consider the following patriotic lines found in Shackleton's 'A Tale of the Sea':

Where nailed to the rotting flagstaffs:
The old white Ensigns flew
Badge of our English freedom
Over all waters blue.

The ability to express their impressions of the Antarctic landscape separates these explorers from sailors and makes them heroes to the publics of their respective nations.

During the course of these expeditions the geographical and magnetic poles were both reached.[7] The achievement of being first to the geographical South Pole was a primary object in some expeditions, and was the sole rationale for Roald Amundsen's venture. However, this was not the only aspect of polar exploration during this time; other expeditions worked with defined objectives in different areas of the continent. As a result of all this activity, much of the continent's coastline was discovered and mapped, and significant areas of its interior were explored. The expeditions also generated large quantities of scientific data and specimens across a wide range of scientific disciplines, the examination and analysis of which would keep the world's scientific communities busy for decades.[8]

Origins[edit]

Terra Australis
Typusor.jpg
"Terra Australis Nondum Cognita" is the large continent on the bottom of this 1570 map by Abraham Ortelius

The exploration of the South Pole has been an off and on area of focus; this particular period, the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, is not the first intensive period of Antarctic exploration. Curtailing what is commonly known as the Age of Exploration, British explorer James Cook would be one of the few explorers that would travel to that Southern region of the world. The discoveries of his second voyage (1772–1775) would change the global map forever.[9] Prior to his expedition it was believed that a large continent known as Terra Australis occupied majority of the Southern hemisphere. However, Cook discovered that no such land mass existed though massive ice floes prevented his reaching Antarctica proper.[9] He did hypothesize that, based upon the amount of ice, that there must be an originating land mass.[9] Subsequently, exploration of the Southern regions of the world came to a great halt. However, a period of interest arose again between 1819 and 1843.[10] As Europe settled after a period of revolution, war, and unrest, explorers Bellingshausen, Biscoe, Balleny, Wilkes, Dumont D'Urville, and James Clark Ross sought greater knowledge of the Antarctic regions.[10] The primary goal of these explorers was to penetrate the ice walls that hid Antarctica proper, beginning with Bellingshausen's circumnavigation of the region, D'Urville's discovery of the first rocky land formation, and culminating in Wilke's discovery of Victoria Land, featuring the volcanoes now known as Mt. Terror and Mt. Erebus.[10] These explorers, despite their impressive contributions to South Polar exploration, were unable to penetrate the interior of the continent and, rather, formed a broken line of discovered lands along the coastline of Antarctica.

Antarctic Region, 1848
Known Antarctic Region 1848.jpg
The known Antarctic region after the 1819–1843 period of intensive exploration.
http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/challenger.html location

What followed this period of Antarctic interest is what historian H.R. Mill called 'the age of averted interest'.[11] Following the expedition South by the ships Erebus and Terror under James Clark Ross (January, 1841), he suggested that there were no scientific discoveries, or 'problems', worth exploration in the far South.[11] It is considered that Ross' influence, as well as the loss of the Franklin expedition in the Arctic, led to disinterest in polar interest, particularly by The Royal Society: the British founded organization that helped over-see many Arctic explorations, including those that would be made by Shackleton and Scott. However, in the following twenty years after Ross' return, there is a general lull internationally in Antarctic exploration.[11]

An old bearded man drawing or measuring with a compass.
Sir John Murray

The initial impetus for the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration is somewhat contested as it is a vague international movement. George von Neumayer of Hamburg, also an Antarctic explorer, worked to renew Antarctic exploration in 1861 onwards as he worked in an observatory in Melbourne.[10] His particular interests were the importance of meteorology and how more information of the South Pole could lead to more accurate weather predictions. This helps explain German involvement in Antarctic research. Another, particularly British, impetus more closely tied to the period is a lecture given by Dr. John Murray entitled "The Renewal of Antarctic Exploration", given to the Royal Geographical Society in London, November 27, 1893.[12] Murray advocated that research into the Antarctic should be organised to "resolve the outstanding geographical questions still posed in the south".[13] Furthermore, the Royal Geographic Society instated an Antarctic Committee shortly prior to this, in 1887, which successfully incited many whalers to explore the Southern regions of the world and foregrounded the lecture given by Murray.[10] In August 1895 the Sixth International Geographical Congress in London passed a general resolution calling on scientific societies throughout the world to promote the cause of Antarctic exploration "in whatever ways seem to them most effective".[14] Such work would "bring additions to almost every branch of science".[14] The Congress had been addressed by the Norwegian Carsten Borchgrevink, who had just returned from a whaling expedition during which he had become one of the first to set foot on the Antarctic mainland. During his address, Borchgrevink outlined plans for a full-scale pioneering Antarctic expedition, to be based at Cape Adare.[15]

However, the Heroic Age was inaugurated by an expedition launched by the Belgian Geographical Society in 1897; Borchgrevink followed a year later with a privately sponsored expedition.[16][17] The designation "heroic age" came later; the term is not used in any of the early expedition accounts or memoirs, nor in the biographies of polar figures which appeared in the 1920s and 1930s. It is not clear when the term was first coined or adopted generally; it was used in March 1956 by the British explorer Duncan Carse, writing in The Times. Describing the first crossing of South Georgia in 1916, he wrote of "three men from the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, with 50 feet of rope between them, and a carpenter's adze".[18]

Expeditions, 1897–1922[edit]

Notes

  1. The summaries in the table do not include the scientific work carried out by these expeditions, each of which brought back findings and specimens across a wide range of disciplines.
  2. The table does not include the numerous whaling voyages that took place during this period, or sub-Antarctic expeditions such as that of Carl Chun in 1898–99, which did not penetrate the Antarctic circle.[19] The abortive Cope Expedition of 1920–22, which collapsed through lack of funding, is likewise excluded, though two men were landed from a Norwegian whaler and spent a year on the Antarctic peninsula.[20]
  3. † denotes leader died during expedition
Dates Country Expedition name(s) Ship(s) Leader Expedition summary Refs
1897–99  Belgium Belgian Antarctic Expedition Belgica A bearded man of about 30 years in fur hat and winter coat.
Gerlache, Adrien deAdrien de Gerlache
This was the first expedition to overwinter within the Antarctic Circle, after the ship was icebound in the Bellingshausen Sea. It collected the first annual cycle of Antarctic observations. It also reached 71°30'S, and discovered the Gerlache Strait. First Mate Roald Amundsen would later lead the first arrival at the South Pole, in 1911. [3][21][22]
1898–1900  UK British Antarctic Expedition 1898
(Southern Cross Expedition)
Southern Cross A man with moustache in a winter coat with a hat covering his ears.
Borchgrevink, CarstenCarsten Borchgrevink
The first expedition to overwinter on the Antarctic mainland (Cape Adare), it was the first to make use of dogs and sledges. It made the first ascent of The Great Ice Barrier,[23] and set a Farthest South record at 78°30'S. It also calculated the location of the South Magnetic Pole. [24][25][26]
1901–04  UK National Antarctic Expedition 1901
(Discovery Expedition)
Discovery
Morning (relief ship)
Terra Nova (relief ship)
A man in ceremonial military uniform.
Scott, Robert FalconRobert Falcon Scott
It made the first ascent of the Western Mountains in Victoria Land, and discovered the polar plateau. Its southern journey set a new Farthest South record, 82°17'S.[27] Many other geographical features were discovered, mapped and named. This was the first of several expeditions based in McMurdo Sound. [28][29][30]
1901–03 German EmpireGermany First German Antarctic Expedition
(Gauss Expedition)
Gauss A man with moustache in a smart dress.
Drygalski, Erich vonErich von Drygalski
The first expedition to investigate eastern Antarctica, it discovered the coast of Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, and Mount Gauss. The expedition's ship became trapped in ice, which prevented more extensive exploration. [31][32][33]
1901–03  Sweden Swedish Antarctic Expedition Antarctic A middle-aged bearded man in a smart dress.
Nordenskiöld, OttoOtto Nordenskiöld
This expedition worked in the east coastal area of Graham Land, and was marooned on Snow Hill Island and Paulet Island in the Weddell Sea, after the sinking of its expedition ship. It was rescued by the Argentinian naval vessel Uruguay. [34][35][36]
1902–04  UK Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Scotia A middle-aged bearded man wearing a tie, waistcoat and jacket.
Bruce, William SpeirsWilliam Speirs Bruce
The permanent Orcadas weather station in South Orkney Islands was established. The Weddell Sea was penetrated to 74°01'S, and the coastline of Coats Land was discovered, defining the sea's eastern limits. [37][38]
1903–05  France Third French Antarctic Expedition Français An older bearded man with a hat wearing a tie and coat. He is keeping a pile of papers or documents under his arm.
Charcot, Jean-BaptisteJean-Baptiste Charcot
Originally intended as a relief expedition for the stranded Nordenskiöld party, the main work of this expedition was the mapping and charting of islands and the western coasts of Graham Land, on the Antarctic peninsula. A section of the coast was explored, and named Loubet Land after the President of France. [39][40][41]
1907–09  UK British Antarctic Expedition 1907
(Nimrod Expedition)
Nimrod A young man wearing a tie, jacket and waistcoat.
Shackleton, ErnestErnest Shackleton
The first expedition led by Shackleton. Based in McMurdo Sound, it pioneered the Beardmore Glacier route toward the South Pole, and the (limited) use of motorised transport. Its southern march reached 88°23'S, a new Farthest South record 97 geographical miles from the Pole. The Northern Party reached the location of the South Magnetic Pole. [42][43][44]
1908–10  France Fourth French Antarctic Expedition Pourquoi-Pas? IV An older bearded man with a hat wearing a tie and coat. He is keeping a pile of papers or documents under his arm.
Charcot, Jean-BaptisteJean-Baptiste Charcot
This continued the work of the earlier French expedition with a general exploration of the Bellingshausen Sea, and the discovery of islands and other features, including Marguerite Bay, Charcot Island, Renaud Island, Mikkelsen Bay, Rothschild Island. [39][45]
1910–12  Japan Japanese Antarctic Expedition Kainan Maru An Asian man in military uniform with a hat.
Shirase, NobuNobu Shirase
The first non-European Antarctic expedition carried out a coastal exploration of King Edward VII Land, and investigated the eastern sector of the Great Ice Barrier, reaching 80°5'S. [46][47]
1910–12  Norway Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram A bearded man wearing a bow tie and coat.
Amundsen, RoaldRoald Amundsen
First to the South Pole: Amundsen set up camp on the Great Ice Barrier, at the Bay of Whales. He discovered a new route to the polar plateau via the Axel Heiberg Glacier. A party of five led by Amundsen reached the South Pole via this route on 14 December 1911. [48][49][50]
1910–13  UK British Antarctic Expedition 1910
(Terra Nova Expedition)
Terra Nova Man in winter coat wearing a balaclava or ski mask style headgear.
Scott, Robert FalconRobert Falcon Scott
Scott's last expedition, based like his first in McMurdo Sound. Scott and four companions reached the South Pole via the Beardmore route on 17 January 1912, 33 days after Amundsen. All five died on the return journey from the Pole, through a combination of starvation and cold. [51][52][53]
1911–13 German EmpireGermany Second German Antarctic Expedition Deutschland Middle-aged man wearing a tie, waistcoat and jacket.
Filchner, WilhelmWilhelm Filchner
The objective was the first crossing of Antarctica. The expedition made the southernmost Weddell Sea penetration to date, reaching 77°45'S, and discovering Luitpold Coast, Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, and Vahsel Bay. It failed to establish a shore base from which to mount its transcontinental march, and after a long drift in the Weddell Sea pack ice it returned to South Georgia. [36][54][55]
1911–14  Australia and  New Zealand Australasian Antarctic Expedition Aurora Man wearing a tie, waistcoat and jacket.
Mawson, DouglasDouglas Mawson
The expedition concentrated on the stretch of Antarctic coastline between Cape Adare and Mount Gauss, carrying out mapping and survey work on coastal and inland territories. Discoveries included Commonwealth Bay, Ninnis Glacier, Mertz Glacier, and Queen Mary Land. [56][57]
1914–17  UK Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition Endurance
Bearded middle-aged man with a cowboy hat.
Shackleton, ErnestErnest Shackleton
Another transcontinental crossing attempt. It failed to land the Weddell Sea shore party after Endurance was trapped and crushed in ice. The expedition then rescued itself after a series of exploits, including a prolonged drift on an ice-floe, Shackleton's open boat journey, and the first crossing of South Georgia. [58][59]
1914–17  UK Ross Sea party In support of
Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition
Aurora A man in formal dress. Crop from a group picture.
Mackintosh, AeneasAeneas Mackintosh
Its objective was to lay depots across the Great Ice Barrier, to supply the party crossing from the Weddell Sea. All the required depots were laid, but in the process three men, including the leader Mackintosh, lost their lives. [60]
1921–22  UK Shackleton–Rowett Expedition Quest Man wearing a thick jumper and over it suspenders.
Shackleton, ErnestErnest Shackleton
Vaguely defined objectives included coastal mapping, a possible continental circumnavigation, the investigation of sub-Antarctic islands, and oceanographic work. After Shackleton's death on 5 January 1922, Quest completed a shortened programme before returning home. [61][62]

Expedition deaths during the Heroic Age[edit]

Nineteen men died on Antarctic expeditions during the Heroic Age. Of these, four died of illnesses unrelated to their Antarctic experiences, and two died from accidents in New Zealand. The remaining 13 perished during service on or near the Antarctic continent.

Expedition Name Country Date of death Place of death Cause Refs
Belgian Antarctic Expedition Wiencke, Carl AugustCarl August Wiencke Norway 22 January 1898 South Shetland Islands Washed overboard and drowned [63]
Danco, ÉmileÉmile Danco Belgium 5 June 1898 Bellingshausen Sea Heart disease
Southern Cross Expedition Hansen, NicolaiNicolai Hansen Norway 14 October 1899 Cape Adare, Antarctica Intestinal disorder [64]
Discovery Expedition Bonnor, CharlesCharles Bonnor UK 2 December 1901 Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand Fall from ship's mast [65][66]
Vince, GeorgeGeorge Vince UK 11 March 1902 Ross Island, Antarctica Slip over ice precipice
Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Ramsey, AllanAllan Ramsey UK 6 August 1903 South Orkney Islands Heart disease [67]
Terra Nova Expedition Evans, EdgarEdgar Evans UK 17 February 1912 Beardmore Glacier, Antarctica Head injury, starvation, and cold [68][69][70]
[71][72]
Oates, LawrenceLawrence Oates UK 17 March 1912 Great Ice Barrier, Antarctica Starvation and cold
Scott, Robert FalconRobert Falcon Scott UK 29 March 1912 Great Ice Barrier, Antarctica Starvation and cold
Wilson, EdwardEdward Wilson UK 29 March 1912 Great Ice Barrier, Antarctica Starvation and cold
Bowers, HenryHenry Bowers UK 29 March 1912 Great Ice Barrier, Antarctica Starvation and cold
Brissenden, RobertRobert Brissenden UK 17 August 1912 Admiralty Bay, New Zealand Drowning
Second German Antarctic Expedition Vahsel, RichardRichard Vahsel Germany 8 August 1912 Weddell Sea Syphilis [55][73][74]
Australasian Antarctic Expedition Ninnis, BelgraveBelgrave Ninnis UK 14 December 1912 King George V Land, Antarctica Fall into crevasse [75]
Mertz, XavierXavier Mertz Switzerland 7 January 1913 King George V Land, Antarctica Hypervitaminosis A
Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition
(Ross Sea party)
Spencer-Smith, ArnoldArnold Spencer-Smith UK 9 March 1916 Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Cold and scurvy [76][77]
Mackintosh, AeneasAeneas Mackintosh UK 8 May 1916 McMurdo Sound, Antarctica Fall through sea ice
Hayward, VictorVictor Hayward UK 8 May 1916 McMurdo Sound, Antarctica Fall through sea ice
Shackleton–Rowett Expedition Shackleton, ErnestErnest Shackleton UK 5 January 1922 South Georgia Heart disease [78]

Another five men died shortly after returning from the Antarctic (this does not include the significant number who died on active service in the First World War):

End of the Heroic Age[edit]

There are different views about when the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration came to an end. Shackleton's Endurance expedition is sometimes referred to as the last Antarctic expedition of the Heroic Age.[83][84] Other chroniclers extend the era to the date of Shackleton's death, 5 January 1922, treating the Shackleton–Rowett, or Quest expedition, during which Shackleton died, as the final chapter of the Age.[85] According to Margery and James Fisher, Shackleton's biographers: "If it were possible to draw a distinct dividing line between what has been called the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration and the Mechanical Age, the Shackleton–Rowett expedition might make as good a point as any at which to draw such a line".[4] A journalist inspecting the ship before she sailed reported "Gadgets! Gadgets! Gadgets everywhere!".[4] These included wireless, an electrically heated crow's nest and an "odograph" that could trace and record the ship's route and speed.[4]

The heroic era of Antarctic exploration was ‘heroic’ because it was anachronistic before it began, its goal was as abstract as a pole, its central figures were romantic, manly and flawed, its drama was moral (for it mattered not only what was done but how it was done), and its ideal was national honour. It was an early testing-ground for the racial virtues of new nations such as Norway and Australia, and it was the site of Europe’s last gasp before it tore itself apart in the Great War.

— Tom Griffiths, Slicing the Silence: Voyaging to Antarctica

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ *Harrowfield, Richard (2004). Polar Castaways: The Ross Sea Party of Sir Ernest Shackleton, 1914–1917. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-77-357245-4. 
  2. ^ *Elzinga, Aang (1993). Changing Trends in Antarctic Research. Dordrecth: Springer. ISBN 978-0-58-528849-9. 
  3. ^ a b Barczewski, pp. 19–20. (Barczewski mentions a figure of 14 expeditions)
  4. ^ a b c d Fisher, p. 449
  5. ^ Huntford, p. 691 – "before machines took over."
  6. ^ a b c d *Simpson-Hausley, Paul (1992). Antarctica: Exploration, Perception and Metaphor. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-20-303602-0. 
  7. ^ Peary's claim to have reached the North Pole in 1909 was widely accepted at the time – see Amundsen, p. 42, Barczewski, pp. 61–62. It later became the subject of dispute – see Berton, pp. 614–625.
  8. ^ For example, the scientific results of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902–04 were still being published in 1920 (Speak, p. 100). 25 volumes of results from the Terra Nova Expedition, 1910–13 had been published by 1925. ("British Antarctic Expedition 1910–13". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 4 December 2008. )
  9. ^ a b c Kaye, I. (1969). Captain James Cook and the Royal Society. London: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 24, No.1. 
  10. ^ a b c d e American Association for the Advancement of Science (1887). The Exploration of the Antarctic Regions. New York: Science, Vol. 9, No. 223. 
  11. ^ a b c Fogg, G.E. (2000). The Royal Society and the Antarctic. London, The Royal Society: Notes and Records of the Royal Society London, Vol. 54, No. 1. 
  12. ^ Murray, John (1894). The Renewal of Antarctic Exploration. London: The Geographical Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1. 
  13. ^ Crane, p. 75
  14. ^ a b Borchgrevink, Carstens (1901). First on the Antarctic Continent. George Newnes Ltd. ISBN 978-0-90-583841-0. Retrieved 11 August 2008.  pp. 9–10
  15. ^ Borchgrevink, Carstens (1901). First on the Antarctic Continent. George Newnes Ltd. ISBN 978-0-90-583841-0. Retrieved 11 August 2008.  pp. 4–5
  16. ^ Jones, p. 59
  17. ^ Some histories consider the Discovery expedition, which departed in 1901, as the first proper expedition of the Heroic Age. See "Mountaineering and Polar Collection – Antarctica". National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 19 November 2008. 
  18. ^ Carse, quoted by M. and J. Fisher, p. 389
  19. ^ "Carl Chun Collection". Archive Hub. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  20. ^ "John Lachlan Cope's Expedition to Graham Land 1920–22". Scott Polar Research Institute. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  21. ^ "Antarctic Explorers – Adrien de Gerlache". South-pole.com. Retrieved 22 September 2008. 
  22. ^ Huntford (Last Place on Earth) pp. 64–75
  23. ^ The Great Ice Barrier later became formally known as the Ross Ice Shelf. The older name has been used in this table, in keeping with the nomenclature of the Heroic Age.
  24. ^ "The Forgotten Expedition". Antarctic Heritage Trust. Retrieved 13 August 2008. 
  25. ^ "Borchgrevink, Carsten Egeberg (1864–1934)". Australian Dictionary of Biography Online Edition. Retrieved 10 August 2008. 
  26. ^ Preston, p. 14
  27. ^ Modern recalculations based on analysis of photographs taken at the farthest south location suggest that the actual latitude may have been 82°11. See Crane, pp. 214–15
  28. ^ Preston, pp. 57–79
  29. ^ Crane, p. 253 (map); pp. 294–95 (maps)
  30. ^ Fiennes, p. 89
  31. ^ "Erich von Drygalski 1865–1949". South-pole.com. Retrieved 23 September 2008. 
  32. ^ Mill, pp. 420–24
  33. ^ Crane, p. 307
  34. ^ Goodlad, James A. "Scotland and the Antarctic, Section II: Antarctic Exploration". Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Retrieved 23 September 2008. 
  35. ^ "Otto Nordenskiöld 1869–1928". South-pole.com. Retrieved 23 September 2008. 
  36. ^ a b Barczewski, p. 90
  37. ^ "Scotland and the Antarctic, Section 5: The Voyage of the Scotia". Glasgow Digital Library. Retrieved 23 September 2008. 
  38. ^ Speak, pp. 82–95
  39. ^ a b Mills, William James (11 December 2003). Exploring Polar Frontiers. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57-607422-0. Retrieved 23 September 2008.  pp. 135–139
  40. ^ "Jean-Baptiste Charcot". South-pole.com. Retrieved 24 September 2008. (Francais voyage)
  41. ^ Mill, pp. 431–32
  42. ^ "Scotland and the Antarctic, Section 3: Scott, Shackleton and Amundsen". Glasgow Digital Library. Retrieved 24 September 2008. 
  43. ^ Riffenburgh, pp. 309–12 (summary of achievements)
  44. ^ Huntford (Shackleton biography) p. 242 (map)
  45. ^ "Jean-Baptiste Charcot". South-pole.com. Retrieved 24 September 2008. (Pourquoispas? voyage)
  46. ^ Amundsen, Roald (1976). The South Pole, Vol II. London: C Hurst & Co. ISBN 09-0398-347-8. 
  47. ^ "Nobu Shirase, 1861–1946". South-pole.com. Retrieved 24 September 2008. 
  48. ^ Amundsen, Vol I pp. 184–95; Vol II, pp. 120–134
  49. ^ Huntford (Last Place on Earth), pp. 446–74
  50. ^ "Roald Amundsen". Norwegian Embassy (UK). Archived from the original on 22 April 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2008. 
  51. ^ Scott's Last Expedition Vol I pp. 543–46, pp. 580–95
  52. ^ Preston, pp. 184–205
  53. ^ "Explorer and leader: Captain Scott". National Maritime Museum. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  54. ^ Huntford (Shackleton biography), pp. 366–68
  55. ^ a b "Wilhem Filchner, 1877–1957". South-pole.com. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  56. ^ Mills, p. 129 et seq.
  57. ^ "Mawson, Sir Douglas 1882–1958". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  58. ^ Shackleton, pp. 63–85
  59. ^ Alexander, pp. 143–53
  60. ^ Tyler-Lewis, pp. 193–197
  61. ^ Huntford (Shackleton), p. 684
  62. ^ Fisher, p. 483
  63. ^ R. Amundsen, H. Decleir (ed.), Roald Amundsen’s Belgica diary: the first scientific expedition to the Antarctic (Bluntisham 1999)
  64. ^ "The Southern Cross Expedition". University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Retrieved 10 August 2008.  ("First Burial on the Continent" section)
  65. ^ Crane, pp. 137–38
  66. ^ Crane, pp. 165–66
  67. ^ Speak, pp. 88–89
  68. ^ Scott, pp. 572–73
  69. ^ Scott, p. 592
  70. ^ Preston, pp. 218–219, 203–05
  71. ^ Huxley, pp. 345–46
  72. ^ Huxley, p. 389
  73. ^ Riffenburgh, Beau (2006). Encyclopedia of the Antarctic. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41-597024-2. Retrieved 12 December 2008.  Page 454
  74. ^ Headland, Robert K. (1989). Studies in Polar Research: Chronological List of Antarctic Explorations and Related Historical Events. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52-130903-5. Retrieved 9 November 2008.  Page 252
  75. ^ "Two of Antarctic Expedition Killed" (PDF). New York Times. 26 February 1913. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  76. ^ Tyler-Lewis, p. 191
  77. ^ Tyler-wis, pp. 196–97; p. 240
  78. ^ Alexander, pp. 192–93
  79. ^ "Adrien de Gerlache, Belgica Belgian Antarctic Expedition 1897 – 1899". Cool Antarctica. Archived from the original on 9 October 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  80. ^ a b "Norway's Forgotten Explorer". Antarctic Heritage Trust. Retrieved 10 August 2008. 
  81. ^ Riffenburgh, p. 304
  82. ^ Huntford (Last Place on Earth), p. 529
  83. ^ Alexander, pp. 4–5
  84. ^ "Scotland and the Antarctic, Part 3". Glasgow Digital Library. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  85. ^ "Antarctic History – The Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration". Cool Antarctica. Retrieved 9 November 2008. 

Sources[edit]

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