Heroic Military Academy (Mexico)
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|Heroico Colegio Militar (Mexico)|
|Location||Tlalpan, Mexico City, Mexico
|Affiliations||Secretariat of National Defense|
The Heroic Military College (officially in Spanish: Heroico Colegio Militar) is the major military educational institution in Mexico. It was founded in 1823 and located in the former Palace of the Inquisition in Mexico City. Initially designated as the Cadet Academy it was renamed in 1823 as the Colegio Militar. The College was relocated in Perote, Veracruz, before being returned to Mexico City where it was established in the Betlemitas monastery (today occupied by the Interactive Museum of the Economy and the Museum of the Mexican Army and Air Force). From 1835 the Military College was located in the Recogidas Building (destroyed by an earthquake in 1985). Cadets training for the Mexican Navy originally formed part of the student body but in 1897 the Military Naval School was established as a separate institution in Veracruz.
The Military College comes under the supervision of the Mexican Army and Air Force University and the Army Military Education General Directorate.
- 1 History of the College
- 2 The College from 1947 to today
- 3 Motto and Collegiate Slogan
- 4 Collegiate Hymn and March
- 5 Commandants
- 6 References
History of the College
Although as early as 1818 were plans for a military academy proposed, in would be only in 1822 when such plans materialized, with the efforts of Diego Garcia Conde, the ex-Spanish military officer then serving in the Mexican Army, for such an academy to be formed were approved by the Mexican Imperial Government, through the Imperial War Ministry.
In the middle of the year, Emperor Agustin de Iturbide ordered that the Former Inquisition Palace Complex become the headquarters of the now newly founded Military College of Mexico, the Military Cadet Academy and the Engineers Training School, all under their first director, Brigadier Diego Garcia Conde. By the next year, through the orders of War Minister General Jose Joaquin de Herrera, the Military College of Mexico was relaunched as a separate academy with headquarters at San Carlos Fortress, in Perote, Veracruz state. In 1824, in compliance with an order from President Guadalupe Victoria, 18 cadets of the now called Perote Military College of Mexico, through the permission of then college director Col. Juan Dominguez y Galvez, became the first cadets of the new Naval Aspirants College and the Tlacotalpan Nautical School trained to be the Mexican Navy's future ship officers.
In 1828, due to a campaign against secret societies and masonic lodges, Lt. Col. Manuel Montano's visit became the reason for the College's first loyalty act by the Corps of Cadets and its faculty, for their response to him was that the Military College should be exempted from the campaign due to the fact that no one in the College's cadet rosters were either secret society members nor Masons, and it turned into a national act of loyalty by the college cadets and faculty. As a result of this great deed, the College in March 1828 returned to Mexico City, first in the Bethelemitas convent and later in the Inquisition Palace Complex on July 1. By then, it began to be recognized by every Mexican as the nation's premier military educational institution.
The turmoil that sparked in the 1828 presidential elections took its toll on the College cadets. On September 11, a rebellion led by Generals Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and Jose Maria Lobato denounced the election results ten days before, in which Manuel Gomez Pedraza emerged as the winner. Two months later, on November 30, they together with Lorenzo de Zavala and Col. Santiago Garcia staged a coup d'état that took over the La Acordada building demanding that the election results be voided by Congress. The same day, President Victoria called on the College cadets to proceed to the National Palace, and they fought on the side of the armed forces for 4 days until the fighting ended on December 4, with a compromise reached by both sides. Class would resume later the next day.
Political turmoil broke out again in 1840. On July 13 of that year Gen. Jose Urrea bolted out of jail and led a rebellion against President Anastacio Bustamante, who was later imprisoned in the presidential residence. General Gabriel Valencia then ordered all troops loyal to the President to proceed at once to the city citadel. These included the cadets of the Military College under its then director Brigade General Pedro Conde, who was received by Gen. Valencia and sent a delegation of cadets to the citadel. The College delegation then moved to a church where they fought anti-Bustamante troops, which resulted in two wounded cadets (Juan Rico and Antonio Groso), the former would later die of his wounds sustained. On the 16th President Bustamante left his residence and Gen. Vicente Filisola arrived at the church premises. On that night, when an armistice was made, the attempted coup was already over.
The next year, it relocated to the Chalpultepec Castle in Mexico City. This castle would be, in 6 years time, during the Mexican War, a place where 5 cadets and an officer in the faculty died in defense of the Mexican nation, and it would gain the Heroic designation. After a few years, the College relocated to the Inquisition Palace and later to San Lucas.
In 1846, the College's only naval director, Graduate Ship Captain Francisco Garcia began his duties as College Commandant, a duty lasting until 1847. A sudden rebellion by the Corps of Cadets happened during his tenure.
The Niños Héroes
The following year, under the first term of commandant Col. José Mariano Monterde Segura, the Mexican–American War struck Mexico City and the cadets caught up in the turmoil of the war. September 11 was marked by the baptism of fire yet again for the Corps: the battles on the Condress' Estate. On September 13 on that year the College became the site of the battle that changed it forever: the Battle of Chapultepec between the Mexican Army, including the College cadets, and the United States Army and United States Marine Corps. On the part of the College 5 cadets of the Corps of Cadets - Cadets Juan Escutia (who legend states committed suicide by jumping to the hill wrapped in the Flag of Mexico), Agustin Melgar, Francisco Marquez, Fernando Montes de Oca, and Vicente Suarez, and one active graduate and faculty member, Engineers Lieutenant Juan de la Barrera, were its greatest losses (most of the Corps were killed in action during the battle), with the rest taken as POWs or wounded. The 6 fatalities of the College are now known more in Mexico as the Niños Héroes today, and their sacrifices remembered on that day yearly all over the nation.
In 1858, during the term of Commandant Colonel Luis Tola Algarín, the College moved its facilities to the former Church of Sts. Peter and Paul in Mexico City. During the Reform War the same year the Corps of Cadets was involved in a clash with the forces of Gen. Miguel Blanco on October 15 in Toluca. Casualties suffered by the cadets and instructors in this and subsequent actions caused the closure of the College in 1861.
The College was reopened in 1867. Located first in the National Palace the College was moved to various locations before returning to the Chapultepec Castle in 1882. Formerly a joint services institution, the College became an academy for the Mexican Army only in 1897, following the establishment of the Military Naval School in Veracruz.
On 8 February 1913 the 600 cadets of the Military College played a major part in the coup against President Francisco Madero. A detachment of cadets, acting on the orders of Deputy Commandant Lieutenant Colonel Víctor Hernández Covarrubias, did however escort President Madero from Chapultepec Castle to the National Palace on the following day. Termed the Loyalty March, this action is still marked by an annual parade by the Corps of Cadets, attended by the present-day President of Mexico and his Cabinet.
Following the overthrow of General Victoriano Huerta in July 1914 and the disbandment of the Federal Army, the College was closed. It was reestablished in February 1920 following the end of the Mexican Revolution. The same year, the cadets of the cavalry squadron were involved in what has been termed "the final cavalry charge in the Americas". This occurred on May 8, when on the orders of Colonel Rodolfo Casillas the cadets acted in support of regular army dragoons under attack by rebel forces in Apizaco, Tlaxcala. In another engagement two days later a cadet was killed in action.
The College from 1947 to today
In 1947 The Military College celebrated the centenary of the Corps of Cadets' participation in the Battle of Chapultepec. In 1949, the Congress of the Union formally conferred the "Heroic" designation to both the Corps and to the Midshipmen's Regiment of the Naval Military Academy, the latter for its role in resisting the United States occupation of Veracruz in 1914.
To celebrate the 150th anniversary of the Heroic Military College (1820-1970), 1 oz silver coins were minted by the Central Bank. In addition stamps featuring two Military College shakos were printed by the Government of Mexico. A special issue of stamps also commemorated the Golden Jubilee of "the final cavalry charge in the Americas"; carried out by the cavalry cadets of the college in 1920 (see above).
In 1976, the College's present campus in Tlalpan Borough, Mexico City, was formally opened, partailly damaged by the 1985 earthquake that struck the city. Today, the commandant of the academy is Brigade General Sergio Alberto Martínez Castuera.
The school was used as a setting for Luis Miguel's 1989 music video "La Incondicional". In the video he plays an Air Force cadet. In a marching scene towards the end of the song one can see the "Por el Honor de Mexico" banner.
Perote, the second home of the Military College, has been dubbed by the Veracruz State Congress as The Cradle of the Military College since 2002.
From 2007, the academy has accepted female cadets. The present Corps is regiment-sized and has among its units a cavalry squadron and an artillery battery.
Motto and Collegiate Slogan
Por el Honor de Mexico (For Mexico's Honor) is the college motto, made in a contest organized by radio station XEQ in commemoration of the centenary of the defense of Chalpultepec Castle in 1947.
Every midday, after the afternoon ceremony and before the midday parade, the following cheer is done by the Corps of Cadets:
- Cadet Corps Commander: "Heroico Colegio Militar" ("Heroic Military College")
- Cadets: Por el Honor de Mexico! (For Mexico's Honor!)
Collegiate Hymn and March
Hymn of the Heroic Military College
The Hymn of the Heroic Military College was composed in 1930 by Prof. José Ignacio Ríos del Río.
Vibre el clarín de la guerra, resuenen las fanfarrias
Redoblen los tambores, una marcha triunfal
Y lleven de la Patria a todos los confines
Tu nombre sacrosanto,
Tu nombre sacrosanto,
Colegio sacrosanto, de memoria bendita
de forjaran sus almas, Montes de Oca y Melgar
La Patria bate marcha de honor a tu pasado,
de epopeyas gloriosas y de nombre inmortal.
Y en un gesto sublime de amor y de cariño,
bendice a los efebos que supieron morir
bañados por las ráfagas de luz espendorosa
que el ángel de la gloria enviara del cenit.
March of the Heroic Military College
The Regimental March was composed by Lieutenant José Sotero Ortiz Sánchez, in time for the College's 1947 centenary of the Battle of Chapultepec.
Páginas del libro de la historia del Heroico Colegio Militar
de epopeyas que ya jamás se borran del santuario de la inmortalidad.
Canto que se eleva a la memoria como ofrenda de honor a la lealtad
de los héroes que envueltos por la gloria grandioso ejemplo que nos dio la libertad.
Juventud de mi patria sublime, que marcháis con gallarda ilusión
aumentáreis la historia que escribe nobles hechos de sangre y honor.
Yunque forjador de hombres de guerra como Suárez, Escutia y Melgar,
Montes de Oca, Márquez y De la Barrera, los niños héroes de mi México inmortal!
|1||1818–1823||Brigadier General||Diego García Conde|
|2||1823–1824||Cavalry Colonel||Juan Domínguez y Gálvez|
|3||1825–1828||Cavalry Lieutenant Colonel||José Manuel Arechaga|
|4||1835–1836||Engineers Colonel||Ignacio Mora y Villamil|
|5||1836–1846||Brigadier General||Pedro García Conde|
|6||1846–1847||Graduate Captain, Commander||Francisco García Salinas||Only naval officer commandant of the College|
|7||1847–1853||Graduate Gen., Engineers Colonel||José Mariano Monterde Segura||Led the defense of Chapultepec Castle during the Battle of Chapultepec which took a heavy toll for the Academy|
|8||1853–1854||Graduate Gen., Engineers Colonel||Santiago Blanco Duque de Estrada|
|9||1854–1859||Graduate Gen., Engineers Colonel||Luis Tola Algarín|
|10||1859–1860||General Graduado, Coronel de Ingenieros||José Mariano Monterde Segura||2nd Period|
|11||1861–1863||Brigade General||José Justo Alvarez Valenzuela|
|12||1868–1871||Engineers Colonel||Amado Camacho|
|13||1871–1880||Engineers Colonel||Miguel Quintana González|
|14||1880–1883||Division General||Sóstenes Rocha|
|15||1883–1884||General Graduado, Coronel Tec. de Artillería||Francisco de Paula Méndez|
|16||1884–1906||Engineers Colonel General||Juan Villegas||Highest-ranking officer commandant of the College|
|17||1906–1912||General de Brigada de E.M. Esp.||Joaquín Beltrán Castañares|
|18||1912–1913||Brigade General||Felipe Ángeles|
|19||1913||Artillery Technical Colonel||Miguel Bernard|
|20||1914||Division General||Samuel García Cuéllar|
|21||1920||Brigade General||Angel Vallejo|
|22||1920||Brigade General||Joaquín Mucel Acereto|
|23||1920–1921||General de Brigada||Marcelino Murrieta Murrieta|
|24||1921–1923||General de Brigada||Víctor Hernández Covarrubias|
|25||1923||General de Brigada||José Domingo Ramírez Garrido|
|26||1923–1925||General de Brigada||Miguel Angel Peralta|
|27||1925||General de Brigada I.C.||Manuel Mendoza Sarabia|
|28||1925||Brigadier General||Amado Aguirre Santiago|
|29||1925–1927||Division general||Miguel M. Acosta Guajardo|
|30||1927–1928||General de Brigada||Juan José Ríos|
|31||1928–1931||General de División||Gilberto R. Limón|
|32||1931–1935||General de División||Joaquín Amaro Domínguez|
|33||1935–1936||General de Brigada||Rafael Cházaro Pérez|
|34||1936||General de Brigada||Samuel Carlos Rojas Raso|
|35||1936–1938||General de Brigada||Othón León Lobato|
|36||1939–1941||General de Brigada||Alberto Zuno Hernández|
|37||1941–1942||General de División||Marcelino García Barragán|
|38||1942–1945||General de División||Gilberto R. Limón||2nd Period|
|39||1945–1948||General de Brigada||Luis Alamillo Flores|
|40||1948–1950||General de Brigada||Rafael Ávila Camacho|
|41||1950–1953||General de División||Tomás Sánchez Hernández|
|42||1953–1955||General de División||Leobardo Ruiz Camarillo|
|43||1955–1959||General de División||Francisco de Jesús Grajales Godoy|
|44||1959–1965||General de Brigada||Jerónimo Gomar Suástegui|
|45||1965–1970||General de Brigada||Roberto Yáñez Vázquez|
|46||1971–1973||General de Brigada||Miguel Rivera Becerra|
|47||1976||General de División||Salvador Revueltas Olvera|
|48||1976–1980||General de División||Absalón Castellanos Domínguez|
|49||1980–1982||General de División||Enrique Cervantes Aguirre|
|50||1983–1985||General de Brigada||Jaime Contreras Guerrero|
|51||1985–1988||General de División||Carlos Cisneros Montes de Oca|
|52||1988–1991||General de División||Carlos Duarte Sacramento|
|53||1991–1994||General de Brigada||Luis Ángel Fuentes Álvarez|
|54||1994–1997||General de Brigada||Rigoberto Castillejos Adriano|
|55||1997–2000||General de Brigada||Salvador Cienfuegos Zepeda|
|56||2000–2002||Divisional General||Tomás Ángeles Dauahare|
|57||2002–2003||General de Brigada||Manuel Sánchez Aguilar|
|58||2003–2006||Brigade General||Carlos García Priani|
|59||2007–2008||Brigade General||Francisco Tomas Gonzalez Loaiza|
|60||2008-2011||Brigade General||Gonzalo Bernardino Duran Valdez|
|61||2011-||Brigade General||Sergio Alberto Martinez Castuera|