|Herzog in 1989|
|6th President of Israel|
5 May 1983 – 13 May 1993
|Prime Minister||Menachem Begin
|Preceded by||Yitzhak Navon|
|Succeeded by||Ezer Weizman|
17 September 1918
|Died||17 April 1997
Tel Aviv, Israel
|Political party||Alignment (1981-1991)|
|Years of service||1943 – 1947 (UK)
1948 – 1962 (Israel)
Major General (Israel)
|Battles/wars||World War II
1948 Arab–Israeli War
Herzog was born at Cliftonpark Avenue in Belfast, Ireland, the son of Sara (Hillman) and notable Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog, who was Chief Rabbi of Ireland from 1919 to 1937 (and later, of Palestine and Israel). His maternal grandfather was Orthodox Jewish Talmudic scholar Shmuel Yitzchak Hillman. His father was born in Łomża, Poland and his mother in Latvia. The family home (from 1919) was at 33 Bloomfield Avenue, Portobello, Dublin, Ireland. His father, a fluent speaker of the Irish language, was known as "the Sinn Féin Rabbi" for his support of the First Dáil and the Irish Republican cause during the Irish War of Independence. Herzog studied at Wesley College, Dublin and was involved with the Federation of Zionist Youth and Habonim Dror, the Labor-Zionist movement, during his teenage years.
He joined the British army during World War II, operating primarily in Germany as a tank commander in the Armoured Division. There, he was given his lifelong nickname of "Vivian" because the British could not pronounce the name, "Chaim". A Jewish soldier had volunteered that "Vivian" was the English equivalent of "Chaim". He was commissioned into the Intelligence Corps in 1943 and participated in the liberation of several Nazi concentration camps as well as identifying a captured German soldier as Heinrich Himmler. He left the army in 1947 with the rank of Major.
Military, legal and political career
Immediately following the war, he returned to Palestine. After the establishment of the State of Israel, he fought in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, serving as an officer in the battles for Latrun. His intelligence experience during World War II was seen as a valuable asset, and he subsequently became head of the IDF Military Intelligence Branch, a position in which he served from 1948 to 1950 and again from 1959 to 1962. From 1950 to 1954, he served as defense attaché at the Israeli Embassy in the United States. He retired from the IDF in 1962 with the rank of Major-General.
After leaving the army, Herzog opened a private law practice. He returned to public life in 1967, when the Six-Day War broke out, as a military commentator for Kol Israel radio news. Following the capture of the West Bank, he was appointed Military Governor of East Jerusalem, and Judea and Samaria.
In 1975, Herzog was appointed Israel's Ambassador to the United Nations, in which capacity he served until 1978. During his term the UN adopted the "Zionism is Racism" resolution (General Assembly Resolution 3379), which Herzog condemned and symbolically tore up (as his father had done to one of the British white papers regarding the British Mandate in Palestine), saying: "For us, the Jewish people, this resolution based on hatred, falsehood and arrogance, is devoid of any moral or legal value. For us, the Jewish people, this is no more than a piece of paper and we shall treat it as such." In recent years British historians headed by Simon Sebag-Montefiore have included this speech in a book on speeches that changed the world, which includes others by Martin Luther King, Jr, Nelson Mandela, Winston Churchill and John F. Kennedy.
On 22 March 1983, Herzog was elected by the Knesset to serve as the sixth President of Israel, by a vote of 61 to 57, against Menachem Elon, the candidate of the right and the government coalition. He assumed office on 5 May 1983 and served two five-year terms (then the maximum permitted by Israeli basic law), retiring from political life in 1993. As president of Israel, Herzog made a number of visits abroad, being the first Israeli president to make an official visit to Germany, as well as visiting several far-east countries, Australia, and New Zealand. He was also noted for pardoning the Shin Bet agent involved in the Kav 300 affair.
In 1985 during his state visit to Ireland, Herzog visited Wesley College Dublin, opened the Irish Jewish Museum in Dublin, and unveiled a modern polished steel Israeli sculpture, in honour of his childhood friend, Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh, the fifth President of Ireland, in Sneem Culture Park, County Kerry.
Herzog was a hardened opponent of Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq during his presidency of Israel, he referred to Iraq as a nest "of world terror". He said the world largely dismissed Israel's warnings that Baghdad was becoming a capital of world terrorism, adding that some Western countries helped Hussein develop into a military power.
Herzog controversially reduced the sentences of three imprisoned Jews, Menachem Livni, Uzi Sharbaf and Shaul Nir, members of the Jewish Underground, who were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1985 for the 1984 murder of four Palestinians in the West Bank town of Hebron. Herzog had reduced the sentences, first to 24 years, then to 15 years, and in 1989, he reduced the sentence to 10 years, which enabled the men to be released two years later on good behavior.
In 1998, the Ulster History Circle unveiled a commemorative blue plaque to Herzog at his birthplace at Cliftonpark Avenue, Belfast. The plaque was removed by the Circle from the building in August 2014, at the request of the Cliftonville Community Regeneration Forum, who are based there. The plaque had become the subject of unwelcome attention, and in the interests of health and safety it was taken away for safe keeping, until such time as it can be reinstated, with the consent of the owners and occupiers of the premises.
Herzog also authored several books on the historical events in which he was involved, including:
- Herzog, Chaim (1978). Who stands accused?: Israel answers its critics. Random House. ISBN 0-394-50132-2.
- Herzog, Chaim (12 December 1983). The Arab-Israeli Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East from the War of Independence through Lebanon. Vintage. ISBN 0-394-71746-5.
- Herzog, Chaim (September 1989). Heroes of Israel: Profiles of Jewish Courage. Little Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-35901-7.
- Herzog, Chaim (12 November 1996). Living History: A Memoir. Pantheon. ISBN 0-679-43478-X.
- Herzog, Chaim; Mordecai Gichon (March 1997). Battles of the Bible. Pantheon. ISBN 1-85367-266-1.
- Herzog, Chaim (March 1998). The War of Atonement. Greenhill Books. ISBN 0-394-71746-5.
- "Herzog, Chaim (1918–1997)". Israel and Zionism. The Department for Jewish Zionist Education. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
- Benson, Asher (2007). Jewish Dublin. Dublin: A&A Farmer Ltd. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-906353-00-1.
- Herzog, Living History, p. 47.
- BDI: Herzog, Fox & Neeman remains top Israeli law firm Step Strategy, 26 June 2006
- Herzog speech on Zionism makes history, Ynet news. Ynet.co.il (10 November 1975). Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Ten of the greatest: Inspirational speeches, Mailonline, Colonel Tim Collins. Daily Mail. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Herzog Calls Iraq a Nest of Terrorism, Steve Padillaa and Ronald L. Soble. Los Angeles Times. (19 November 1990). Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- 3 Israeli Terrorists Are Released In 4th Reduction of Their Terms The New York Times, 27 December 1990
- Documents given to Arabs in Gaza The New York Times, 7 June 1989
- * www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-28768459
- Chaim Herzog on the Knesset website
- Chaim Herzog Jewish Virtual Library
- Chaim Herzog Jewish Agency for Israel
- Israel, Jewish world mourn death of Chaim Herzog, 78 Jewish News Weekly
- The First Israeli President to visit the White house The New York Times
- Correspondence between President President Chaim Herzog and the German President Richard von Weizsaecker during the First Gulf War, published by the blog of Israel State Archives: http://israelsdocuments.blogspot.co.il/2012/11/missiles-on-tel-aviv.html