|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||610.56 g mol−1|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin. Its name is derived from the word "hesperidium", the kind of fruit produced by citrus trees.
Various preliminary studies reveal novel pharmaceutical properties, none of which has been confirmed as applicable to humans. Hesperidin reduced cholesterol and blood pressure in rats. In a mouse study, large doses of hesperidin decreased bone density loss. Another animal study showed protective effects against sepsis. In vitro and in laboratory research, hesperidin has anti-inflammatory effects. Hesperidin is also a potential sedative, possibly acting through opioid or adenosine receptors. Hesperidin exhibited pronounced anticancer activity against some selected human carcinoma cell lines.
Possible cardioprotective effects
Hesperidin is a flavanone found in citrus fruits (such as oranges, lemons or pummelo fruits) that has antioxidant properties in laboratory studies. In basic research, it has biological effects on rats and mice, such as cholesterol reduction, blood pressure reduction and anti-inflammatory abilities.
In numerous studies, doxorubicin, a cancer chemotherapeutic, was not as damaging to cardiac tissues when hesperidin was applied. Pre-treatment with hesperidin prior to doxorubicin also decreased serum nitric oxide levels due to inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, hesperidin protected cell integrity as shown in this one study by reduction in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis induced by doxorubicin.
- in Rutaceae
- 700 - 2,500 ppm in fruit of Citrus aurantium L. - Bitter Orange, Petitgrain
- in orange juice (Citrus sinensis)
- in Zanthoxylum gilletii
- in lemon
- in lime
- in Zanthoxylum gilletii
- in leaves of Agathosma serratifolia
- in Lamiaceae
Hesperidin 6-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-beta-D-glucosidase is an enzyme that uses hesperidin and H2O to produce hesperetin and rutinose. It is found in the hyphomycetes species Stilbella fimetaria.
- List of phytochemicals in food
- List of MeSH codes (D03)
- List of food additives
- List of antioxidants in food
- Hesperetin 7-rutinoside (hesperidin) and taxifolin 3-arabinoside as germination and growth inhibitors in soils associated with the weed, Pluchea lanceolata (DC) C.B. Clarke (Asteraceae). Inderjit, Dakshini KM, J Chem Ecol. 1991, 17(8): 1585-91, doi:10.1007/BF00984690
- Lebreton (1828). Journal de Pharmacie et de sciences accessories. Vol 14, page 377ff
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- Emim JA, Oliveira AB, Lapa AJ (February 1994). "Pharmacological evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of a citrus bioflavonoid, hesperidin, and the isoflavonoids, duartin and claussequinone, in rats and mice". J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46 (2): 118–22. PMID 8021799.
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- Loscalzo LM, Wasowski C, Paladini AC, Marder M (February 2008). "Opioid receptors are involved in the sedative and antinociceptive effects of hesperidin as well as in its potentiation with benzodiazepines". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 580 (3): 306–13. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.11.011. PMID 18048026.
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- UV-B modulates the interplay between terpenoids and flavonoids in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.). Yuliya Dolzhenko, Cinzia M. Bertea, Andrea Occhipinti, Simone Bossi and Massimo E. Maffei, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 100, Issue 2, 2 August 2010, Pages 67–75, doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2010.05.003