Hessian //, or burlap in the US and Canada, is a woven fabric usually made from skin of the jute plant or sisal fibres, or may be combined with other vegetable fibres to make rope, nets, and similar products. Gunny cloth is similar.
Hessian, a dense woven fabric, has been historically produced as a coarse fabric, but more recently it is being used in a refined state known simply as jute as an eco-friendly material for bags, rugs, and other products.
The name "burlap" appears to be of unknown origin, although the word could mean "coarse piece of cloth". The name "hessian" is attributed to the use of the fabric, initially, as part of the uniform of soldiers from the German state of Hesse who were called "Hessians".
Shipping and construction
Hessian is often used to make sacks and bags to ship goods like coffee beans; these can be described as gunny sacks. It is breathable and thus resists condensation and associated spoilage of the contents. It is also durable enough to withstand rough handling in transit; these properties have also led to its use for temporary protection as wet covering to prevent rapid moisture loss in setting of cement and concrete by the construction industry. Hessian is also commonly used for making sandbags, empty hessian sacks that, when filled with sand, are used for flood mitigation when building temporary embankments against floodwaters or field fortifications.
Hessian is also often used for the transportation of unprocessed "green" tobacco. This material is used for much the same reasons as it would be used for coffee. Hessian sacks in the tobacco industry hold up to 200 kg (440lb) of tobacco, and due to hessian's toughness, a hessian sack can have a useful life of up to 3 years.
Landscaping and agriculture
Hessian is used to wrap the exposed roots of trees and shrubs when transplanting, and also for erosion control on steep slopes.
Due to its coarse texture, it is not commonly used in modern apparel. However, this roughness gave it a use in a religious context for mortification of the flesh, where individuals may wear an abrasive shirt called a cilice or "hair shirt" and in the wearing of "sackcloth" on Ash Wednesday.
Owing to its durability, open weave, naturally non-shiny refraction, and fuzzy texture, Ghillie suits for 3D camouflage are often made of hessian. It was also a popular material for camouflage scrim on combat helmets of World War II. Until the advent of the plastic "leafy" multi-color net system following the Vietnam War, burlap scrim was also woven onto shrimp and fish netting to create large-scale military camouflage netting. During the Great Depression in the US, cloth became relatively scarce in the largely agrarian parts of the country. Many farmers used burlap cloth to sew their own clothes. However, prolonged exposure to sensitive skin can cause rashes.
Hessian has been used by artists as an alternative to canvas as a stretched painting surface.[dubious ] In horror fiction, it is commonly used as a mask.
In horror cinema, The Mysterious Prowler "The Phantom Killer" wore a burlap sack over his head in the cult classic, The Town That Dreaded Sundown (1977). In Friday the 13th Part 2, Jason Voorhees, now as an adult murderer, wore a white burlap sack with one eye-hole and a rope to cover his hideously deformed face at his neck. It is similar to the Phantom Killer's hood, except that has two eye-holes, while Jason's has one eye-hole.
- In the 1968 song by Georgie Fame The Ballad of Bonnie and Clyde a line relates "Reach for the sky, sweet talkin' Clyde would holler, while Bonnie loaded dollars into the Burlap bag".
- In the 1970 "Grand Funk" also known as "The Red Album" (due to its red cover) from American rock band "Grand Funk Railroad", 8th and last song titled "Inside Looking Out" has the line "I work all day making up burlap bags".
- The second album of the British industrial group Zoviet France comes packaged in a burlap-like material.
- The protagonists in the song "Swap Meet" by Nirvana earn their living selling crafts fashioned from "seashells, driftwood and burlap".
- David Bowie's song 'An occasional dream' mentions "hessian and wood".
Emergency flood response
Hessian bags are often deployed as sandbags as a temporary response to flooding. Because of their material they can either be reused or can be composted after use. Agencies like the State Emergency Service in Australia, and Technisches Hilfswerk in Germany often deploy the use of sandbags and are often found in the majority of their emergency response vehicles. Plastic bags have been used as a substitute but SES units have found hessian bags to be more versatile as they can be used in a variety of rescue applications, mainly as an edge protector for rope rescue operations, or to use as padding on slings used in animal rescue.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bagging.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hessian (cloth).|
- "Tariff Talk Hurt Hessians of India; Traveler Tells of Blue Times in Calcutta When America Stopped Buying". The New York Times. 1913-07-13. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Ways and Means (13 January 1913). Tariff schedules: Hearings before the Committee on ways and means. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 4047. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- Woolley, Tom (1998). Green Building Handbook: A Guide to Building Products and Their Impact on the Environment, Vol. 1. London: E & FN Spon. pp. [page needed]. ISBN 978-0-419-22690-1.
- Woolley, Tom (2000). Green Building Handbook: A Companion Guide to Building Products and Their Impact on the Environment, Vol. 2. Taylor & Francis. pp. 96, 100, 108. ISBN 978-0-419-25380-8.
- Olson, Jane; Shepherd, Gene (2006). The Rug Hooker's Bible: The Best from 30 Years of Jane Olson's Rugger's Roundtable. Stackpole Books. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-881982-46-3. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- Simpson, J. R.; Weiner, E. S. C. (1989). The Oxford English dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. [page needed]. ISBN 0-19-861186-2.
- Oxford English Dictionary Online – entry for "burlap"
- "Online Etymology Dictionary - entry for "burlap"". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2014-04-09.