Hessian form of an elliptic curve
In geometry, the Hessian curve is a plane curve similar to folium of Descartes. It is named after the German mathematician Otto Hesse. This curve was suggested for application in elliptic curve cryptography, because arithmetic in this curve representation is faster and needs less memory than arithmetic in standard Weierstrass form.
where the curve has discriminant
and (0,0) has order 3. Before proving this, note that if the characteristic of , say q, is 2 modulo 3, then the curve has 3 points of order 3; and if q is 1 modulo 3, there are 8 points of order 3.
To prove that has order 3, it is sufficient to show that using the elliptic curve group law.
(i) Compute : if is the given curve and the point, then . So, in this case, since , then .
(ii) Compute : it can be done using the tangent and chord method, that is, first construct the line through the general point and find the other intersection point with the curve.
Let be the tangent to the curve at . Now, to find the points of intersection between the curve and the line, replace every by in the curve:
The roots of this equation are the x-coordinates of and , so:
Then comparing the coefficients:
and ( and ).
So applying it to P=(0,0):
since (note cannot be zero, otherwise the denominator would vanish at and the curve would be singular),
Thus, , that is (0,0) has order 3 over .
Now, to obtain the Hessian curve, it is necessary to do the following transformation:
First let denote a root of the polynomial T3 − δT2 + δ2T/3 + a32 = 0.
where is determined from the formula:
Now by defining the following value another curve, C, is obtained, that is birationally equivalent to E:
which is called cubic Hessian form (in projective coordinates)
in the affine plane ( satisfying and ).
Furthermore, D3≠1 (otherwise, the curve would be singular)
under the transformations:
- = [6(D3-1)(v+9D3-3Du-36)]/[(u+9D2)3+(3Dd-Du-12)3]
- = [12(D3-1)]/[Dx+y+1]
It is interesting to analyze the group law of the elliptic curve, defining the addition and doubling formulas (because the SPA and DPA attacks are based on the running time of these operations). Furthermore, in this case, we only need to use the same procedure to compute the addition, doubling or subtraction of points to get efficient results, as said above. In general, the group law is defined in the following way: if three points lie in the same line then they sum up to zero. So, by this property, the group laws are different for every curve.
In this case, the correct way is to use the Cauchy-Desboves´ formulas, obtaining the point at infinity = ( 1 : -1: 0), that is, the neutral element (the inverse of is again). Let P=(x1,y1) be a point on the curve. The line contains the point and the point at infinity . Therefore, -P is the third point of the intersection of this line with the curve. Intersecting the elliptic curve with the line, the following condition is obtained
Since is non zero (because is distinct to 1), the x-coordinate of is and the y-coordinate of is , i.e., or in projective coordinates .
In some application of elliptic curve cryptography and the elliptic curve method of factorization (ECM) it is necessary to compute the scalar multiplications of P, say [n]P for some integer n, and they are based on the double-and-add method; these operations need the addition and dobling formulas.
Now, if is a point on the elliptic curve, it is possible to define a "doubling" operation using Cauchy-Desboves´ formulae:
In the same way, for two different points, say and , it is possible to define the addition formula. Let denote the sum of these points, , then its coordinates are given by:
Algorithms and examples
There is one algorithm that can be used to add two different points or to double; it is given by Joye and Quisquater. Then, the following result gives the possibility the obtain the doubling operation by the addition:
Proposition. Let P = (X,Y,Z) be a point on a Hessian elliptic curve E(K). Then: 2(X:Y:Z) = (Z:X:Y) + (Y:Z:X) (2). Furthermore, we have (Z:X:Y)≠(Y:Z:X).
Finally, contrary to other parameterizations, there is no subtraction to compute the negation of a point. Hence, this addition algorithm can also be used for subtracting two points and on a Hessian elliptic curve:
( X1:Y1:Z1) - ( X2:Y2:Z2) = ( X1:Y1:Z1) + (Y2:X2:Z2) (3)
To sum up, by adapting the order of the inputs according to equation (2) or (3), the addition algorithm presented above can be used indifferently for: Adding 2 (diff.) points, Doubling a point and Subtracting 2 points with only 12 multiplications and 7 auxiliary variables including the 3 result variables. Before the invention of Edwards curves, these results represent the fastest known method for implementing the elliptic curve scalar multiplication towards resistance against side-channel attacks.
For some algorithms protection against side-channel attacks is not necessary. So, for these doublings can be faster. Since there are many algorithms, only the best for the addition and doubling formulas is given here, with one example for each one:
Let P1 = (X1:Y1:Z1) and P2 = (X2:Y2:Z2) be two points distinct to . Assuming that Z1=Z2=1 then the algorithm is given by:
A = X1 Y2
B = Y1 X2
- X3 = B Y1-Y2 A
- Y3 = X1 A-B X2
- Z3 = Y2 X2-X1 Y1
The cost needed is 8 multiplications and 3 additions readdition cost of 7 multiplications and 3 additions, depending on the first point.
Given the following points in the curve for d=-1 P1=(1:0:-1) and P2=(0:-1:1), then if P3=P1+P2 we have:
- X3 = 0-1=-1
- Y3 = -1-0=-1
- Z3 = 0-0=0
Then: P3 = (-1:-1:0)
Let P = (X1 : Y1 : Z1) be a point, then the doubling formula is given by:
- A = X12
- B = Y12
- D = A + B
- G = (X1 + Y1)2 − D
- X3 = (2Y1 − G) × (X1 + A + 1)
- Y3 = (G − 2X1) × (Y1 + B + 1)
- Z3 = (X1 − Y1) × (G + 2D)
The cost of this algorithm is three multiplications + three squarings + 11 additions + 3×2.
If is a point over the Hessian curve with parameter d=-1, then the coordinates of are given by:
X = (2.(-1)-2)(-1+1+1) = -4
Y = (-4-2.(-1))((-1)+1+1) = -2
Z = (-1-(-1))((-4)+2.2) = 0
There is another coordinates system with which a Hessian curve can be represented; these new coordinates are called extended coordinates. They can speed up the addition and doubling. To have more information about operations with the extended coordinates see:
and are represented by satisfying the following equations:
For more information about the running-time required in a specific case, see Table of costs of operations in elliptic curves
- Cauchy-Desbove's Formulae: Hessian-elliptic Curves and Side-Channel Attacks, Marc Joye and Jean-Jacques Quisquarter
- Otto Hesse (1844), "Über die Elimination der Variabeln aus drei algebraischen Gleichungen vom zweiten Grade mit zwei Variabeln", Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik, 10, pp. 68–96
- Marc Joye, Jean-Jacques Quisquater (2001). Hessian Elliptic Curves and Side-Channel Attacks. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001. ISBN 978-3-540-42521-2.
- N. P. Smart (2001). The Hessian form of an Elliptic Curve. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001. ISBN 978-3-540-42521-2.