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Heteroreceptors are presynaptic receptors that respond to neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones released from adjacent neurons or cells; they are opposite to autoreceptors, which are sensitive only to neurotransmitters or hormones released by the cell in whose wall they are embedded.
- Norepinephrine can influence the release of acetylcholine from parasympathetic neurons by acting on α2 adrenergic (α2A, α2B, and α2C) heteroreceptors.
- Acetylcholine can influence the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons by acting on muscarinic-2 and muscarinic-4 heteroreceptors.
- CB1 negatively modulates the release of GABA and Glutamate, playing a crucial role in maintaining a homeostasis between excitatory and inhibitory transmission.
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