Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks

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Five hryvnia Ukrainian banknote depicting Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Ten hryvnia banknote depicting Hetman Ivan Mazepa
Historical map of Ukrainian Cossack Hetmanate and territory of Zaporozhian Cossacks under rule of Russian Empire (1751).

Hetman of Ukrainian Cossacks as a title was not officially recognized internationally until the creation of the Ukrainian Hetmanate. With the creation of Registered Cossacks units their leaders were unofficially referred to as hetmans, however officially the title was known as the "Senior (Starshy) of His Royal Mercy of Zaporishian Host".[1] Therefore before 1648 and the establishment of Cossack Hetmanate there were numerous regional hetmans across the Dnieper Ukraine, who usually were starostas or voivodes.

The first widely recognized hetman of Zaporizhia was Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, however later several Polish starostas were added to the Hetman registry such as Lyantskoronsky and Dashkevych who also led their own cossack formations. According to Hrushevsky they were not really considered as hetman, at least by their contemporaries. Among other such starostas were Karpo Maslo from Cherkasy, Yatsko Bilous (Pereyaslav), Andrushko (Bratslav), and many others. Even Princes Konstanty Ostrogski and Bohdan Hlinski were conducting Cossack raids on Tatar uluses (districts).

The commanders of Zaporozhian Host (the Kosh) often considered as hetmans in fact carried a title of Kosh Otaman. As from 1572[1] hetman was unofficially name commanders of the Registered Cossack Army (Ukrainian: Реєстрове козацьке військо) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. From the 1648 Bohdan Khmelnytsky uprising, Hetman was the title of the head of the Cossack state, the Cossack Hetmanate. Cossack hetmans had very broad powers and acted as supreme military commanders and executive leader (by issuing administrative decrees).

After the split of the territory of Ukraine along the Dnieper River by the Polish-Russian Treaty of Andrusovo 1667, there was an introduction of dual leadership for each bank of Dnieper Ukraine (left and right).

Eventually the state powers of Cossack Hetmans were gradually diminished in 18th century, and finally abolished by Catherine II of Russia in 1764.

Cossack leaders[edit]

Hetmans of Cossack Hetmanate[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Hetman of Zaporizhian Host.
# Hetman Elected (event) Took office Left office
1 BChmielnicki.jpg Bohdan Khmelnytsky
(1596–1657)
Зиновій-Богдан Хмельницький
1648 (Sich) 26 January 1648 6 August 1657 died
2 Yurii Khmelnytsky.png Yurii Khmelnytsky
(1641–1685)
Юрій Хмельницький
death of his father 6 August 1657 27 August 1657 reconsidered by the Council of Officers
3 Iwan Wyhowski.PNG Ivan Vyhovsky
(????–1664)
Іван Виговський
1657 (Korsun) 27 August 1657
(confirmed: 21 October 1657)
11 September 1659 surrendered title
4 Yurii Khmelnytsky.png Yurii Khmelnytsky
(1641–1685)
Юрій Хмельницький
1659 (Hermanivka) 11 September 1659
(confirmed: 11 September 1659)
October 1662 surrendered title
x Pavlo Teteria
(1620?–1670)
Павло "Тетеря" Моржковський
1662 (Chyhyryn) October 1662 July 1665 (legitimacy questioned)
5 Ivan Briukhovetsky.png Ivan Briukhovetsky
(1623–1668)
Іван Брюховецький
1663 (Nizhyn) 27 June 1663
(confirmed: 27 June 1663)
17 June 1668 died
6 Petro Doroshenko 19.jpg Petro Doroshenko
(1627–1698)
Петро Дорошенко
1666 (Chyhyryn) 10 October 1665
(confirmed: January 1666)
19 September 1676 surrendered to Ivan Samoylovych
x Demian Mnohohrishny
(1631–1703)
Дем'ян Многогрішний
1669 (Hlukhiv) 17 December 1668
(confirmed: 3 March 1669)
April 1672 arrested and exiled to Siberia
7 Ivan Samoylovych.png Ivan Samoylovych
(1630s–1690)
Іван Самойлович
1672 (Cossack Grove) 17 June 1672 August 1687 arrested and exiled to Siberia
8 Portret Mazepa.jpg Ivan Mazepa
(1627–1698)
Іван Мазепа
1687 (Kolomak) 4 August 1687 6 November 1708 "stripped" of a title, discredited
9 I.Skoropadsky.jpg Ivan Skoropadsky
(1646–1722)
Іван Скоропадський
1708 (Hlukhiv) 6 November 1708 14 July 1722 died
X Pavlo Polubotok
(1660–1724)
Павло Полуботок
appointed hetman 1722 1724 died in prison
Collegium of Little Russia (Stepan Velyaminov) 1722-1727
10 Danylo Apostol.png Danylo Apostol
(1654–1734)
Данило Апостол
1727 (Hlukhiv) 12 October 1727 29 March 1734 died
X Yakiv Lyzohub
(1675–1749)
Яків Лизогуб
appointed hetman 1733 1749 died
provisional Hetman Government Administration 1734-1745
11 Kirill Razumovsky Tokke.jpg Kyrylo Rozumovsky
(1728–1803)
Кирило Розумовський
1750 (Hlukhiv) 22 February 1750 1764 resigned
Collegium of Little Russia 1764-1786 (Pyotr Rumyantsev)

Some historians among which is Mykola Arkas[5] question legitimacy of the Teteria's elections accusing the later in corruption.[6] Also some sources claim election of Teteria being taken place in January of 1663.[7] The election of Teteria led to the Povoloch Regiment Uprising in 1663, followed by bigger number of unrest in the modern region of Kirovohrad Oblast as well as Polesie (all in the Right-bank Ukraine).[8] Moreover, the political crisis that followed the Pushkar–Barabash Uprising divided the Cossack Hetmanate completely on both bank of Dnieper River.[8] Coincidentally, on January 10, 1663 the Tsardom of Muscovy created the new Little Russian Office (Prikaz) within its Ambassadorial Office.

Vouched by Charles Marie François Olier, marquis de Nointel, Yuriy Khmelnytsky was freed from the Ottoman captivity, appointed and along with Pasha Ibragim was sent to Ukraine fight the Moscow forces of Samoilovych and Romadanovsky. In 1681 Mehmed IV appointed George Ducas the Hetman of Ukraine, replacing Khmelnytsky.

Following the anathema on Mazepa and the election of Ivan Skoropadsky, Cossack Hetmanate was included into the Russian Government of Kiev in December 1708. Upon the death of Skoropadsky, the Hetman elections were disrupted and were awarded as a gift and a type of princely titles, first to Moldavian nobleman and later to the Russian Empress favorite.

On 5 April 1710 the council of cossacks, veterans of the battle at Poltava, elected Pylyp Orlyk as the Hetman of Ukraine in exile. Orlyk waged a guerrilla warfare at the southern borders of the Russian Empire with the support from Ottoman and Swedish empires.

Muscovy appointed hetmans[edit]

Polish appointed hetmans[edit]

The Appointed Hetman Mykhailo Khanenko was elected the Hetman of Ukraine by a council of Sukhoviy's Cossacks in Uman to depose Doroshenko. In 1675 John III Sobieski awarded the title to some Ostap Hohol (died in 1679). Same thing happened in 1683 when John III Sobieski awarded the title to Stefan Kunicki and in 1684 to Andriy Mohyla. Those awards were given during the Great Turkish War.

Sanjak-bey, Prince of Sarmatia (Turkish appointments)[edit]

In 1669 Petro Doroshenko received a title of Sanjak-bey from Mehmed IV. Title existed in 1669 to 1683.

Hetman in exile[edit]

The title existed in 1710-1760.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b (Ukrainian) Definition of Hetman in the Handbook of the History of Ukraine
  2. ^ Ostap Dashkevych
  3. ^ a b Hrushevsky, M. Illustrated History of Ukraine. "BAO". Donetsk, 2003. ISBN 966-548-571-7
  4. ^ Dovidnyk z istorii Ukrainy (1st Edition ed.). 1993. Retrieved 30 March 2007. 
  5. ^ Pavlo Teteria, Hetman of the Right-bank Ukraine. Cossack leaders of Ukraine (textbook).
  6. ^ Lohvyn, Yu. Pavlo Teteria. Hetmans of Ukraine. "Merry Alphabet".
  7. ^ Pavlo Teteria. History of the Great Nation.
  8. ^ a b Horobets, V. Civil wars in Ukraine of 1650s-1660s. Encyclopedia of history of Ukraine. Vol.2. Kiev: "Naukova Dumka", 2004.
  9. ^ Biography of Pylyp Orlyk

External links[edit]