Heworth, York

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Heworth
Heworth Church.jpg
Holy Trinity Church, Heworth
Heworth is located in North Yorkshire
Heworth
Heworth
 Heworth shown within North Yorkshire
OS grid reference SE619530
Unitary authority City of York
Ceremonial county North Yorkshire
Region Yorkshire and the Humber
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town YORK
Postcode district YO31
Dialling code 01904
Police North Yorkshire
Fire North Yorkshire
Ambulance Yorkshire
EU Parliament Yorkshire and the Humber
UK Parliament York Central
List of places
UK
England
Yorkshire

Coordinates: 53°58′12″N 1°03′23″W / 53.969920°N 1.056500°W / 53.969920; -1.056500

Heworth is part of the city of York in North Yorkshire, England, about 1 mile (1.6 km) north-east of the centre. It is sometimes referred to as Heworth Village. The name "Heworth" is Anglo-Saxon and means a "high enclosure".

Location and demographics[edit]

View down Heworth Green towards York

Housing in Heworth varies from terraced houses along East Parade towards Layerthorpe, through large Victorian Villas on Heworth Green, to older houses in Heworth Village and the 1830s Elmfield Villa, home to Elmfield College, and 1930s semi-detached houses on Stockton Lane.

Heworth has seen lots of modern suburban development, particularly in the outlying area of Heworth Without.

Heworth splits into two wards for the purposes of local elections—Heworth (including all land within the old city boundary) and Heworth Without (outside the old city boundary). Heworth Holme is a popular open space near Heworth Village.[1]

In recent years there has been an increasing tendency for estate agents to describe properties in the less desirable areas of Layerthorpe, Burnholme and Tang Hall as being in the more desirable Heworth causing some confusion about the extent of the area.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

A number of bus routes serve the settlement.

History[edit]

Very little is known about the prehistoric history of the Heworth area, some researchers believe the area was largely boggy land.[2] The village is of Roman origin and two Roman cremation cemeteries have been found in the area. Heworth Green, the road from York city centre to the village, is on the site of a Roman road.

During the early Medieval period, contemporary burials took place in a similar area to the Roman ones; this was during the 5th and 6th centuries. However, evidence for settlement in Heworth during this period of time still remains minimal.

The village appears as Heworde in the Domesday Book, and as Hewud in 1219.[3]

1454 Battle of Heworth Moor[edit]

On 24 August 1454, a skirmish took place and was the first meeting of the two families involved in the Percy-Neville feud, the feud which eventually helped provoke the Wars of the Roses.[4] Historical analysts have described an attack on the Neville family's wedding party by Lord Egremont; numerous contemporaries regard it as the very first military action of the Wars of the Roses.

The Neville family was returning to Sheriff Hutton castle following a wedding between Sir Thomas Neville and Maud Stanhope. Stanhope was the heiress and niece of Ralph de Cromwell. Cromwell had previously confiscated Percy strongholds such as Wressle and Bunwell after Henry 'Hotspur' Percy's death in 1403; the thought of those properties one day being handed over to the Neville family angered Lord Egremont greatly.[4]

Egremont decided to ambush the Neville family's returning wedding party at Heworth Moor, along with 1,000 retainers from York. The Neville family were said to have given a good account of themselves and defended themselves well in the skirmish.[4]

1642 Meeting on Heworth Moor[edit]

During the summer of 1642 both the Parliamentary party and King Charles I negotiated with each other while preparing for war.

When Charles endeavoured to raise a guard for his own person at York, intending it, as the event afterwards proved, to form the nucleus of an army, Lord Fairfax was required by Parliament to present a petition to his sovereign, entreating Charles to hearken to the voice of his Parliament, and to discontinue the raising of troops. This was at a great meeting of the freeholders and farmers of Yorkshire convened by the king on Heworth Moor on 3 June near York. Charles evaded receiving the petition, pressing his horse forward, but Thomas Fairfax followed him and placed the petition on the pommel of the king's saddle.[5]

Local enclosures[edit]

The lands called Monk Ward Stray consist of 131 acres and 38 perches of land, situate near York, and in the township of Heworth. Before the passing of an Enclosure Act 1817, the freemen of York, who were occupiers of houses within a division or ward of the city, called Monk Ward, were, together with certain other persons, entitled to common of pasture and right of stray or average, and had immemorially used and enjoyed the same, in and over a parcel of ground called Heworth Moor, of which G. A. Thweng, lord of the manor of Heworth, was then seised in fee; another piece of land, called Heworth Grange, of which the king was then seised in fee; and certain closes and other parcels of ground, called Hall Fields, of which E. Prest and others were then seised in fee.[6]

Settlement[edit]

Construction of the Heworth Green Villas on Heworth Road began about 1817.[7] Until the mid-19th century, the Lord of the Manor was the Reverend Robert William Bilton Hornby. The Ordnance Survey map of 1849, shows that Heworth was effectively a square of three parallel streets sandwiched between the then Scarborough Road and East Parade.

On the outskirts of the village near Monk Stray was Elmfield College, a Primitive Methodist foundation which existed from 1864 to 1932, when it merged with Ashville College in Harrogate. All that is left of the college now is numbers 1 and 9 Straylands Grove, next to Monk Stray, and staff housing along Elmfield Terrace and Willow Grove.

The church of Holy Trinity (architect: George Fowler Jones) was added in 1869; outlying features included a Wesleyan Chapel, the manor house, a public house (The Britannia), a windmill, several potteries, Heworth Hall and Heworth House. At that time Tang Hall was just that – a hall situated in parkland; since then it has developed into its own neighbourhood. Christ Church was built on Stockton Lane in 1964. Heworth became a Conservation Area in 1975.

Notable people associated with Heworth[edit]

Notable buildings[edit]

  • Holy Trinity Church, built in 1869.
  • Burnholme Social Club in Burnholme Drive was built in the 1880 by W G Penty for John Bellerby in the William Morris style. It has extravagant towers and magnificent stained glass windows – a 'fantasy villa' situated in the remains of the original grounds. It is described in Pevsner’s Buildings of York and East Riding.
  • Heworth House in Melrosegate was built in 1865 as the old Heworth Rectory. It was designed by G. Fowler Jones and is representative of high Victorian Gothic architecture.
  • the old Elmfield College (b. 1840s) still has one building standing (on Straylands Grove)
  • The Manor House, No. 1 Stockton Lane, was formerly called the New Manor House (OS). It was built before 1830 when William Hornby Esq. occupied it and it appears, with its name, on Robert Cooper's map of 1832. The house is partly of two, partly of three, storeys, above a high semi-basement and is of unusual, nearly cubical, shape. A bay window was added later in the 19th century.
  • The Cottage, No. 11 Stockton Lane, dates from c. 1800 and appears to be on Robert Cooper's map of 1832. It was called Belle Vue Cottage in 1834, when it was occupied by Mr. John Scott, in 1846, when it was occupied by Henry Janson, gent., and in 1850 (Directories; OS). It is a double-fronted cottage with rendered walls and a hipped roof and was extended c. 1840. It has an enriched door-case of mid 18th-century date, brought from elsewhere.
  • Rose Villa, No. 32/34 Stockton Lane, was called Heworth Villa in 1850 (OS). It was built in the early 19th century and may be the house which appears on the site on Robert Cooper's map of 1832. It is a double-fronted house with later extensions.
  • Mary Ward (nun) died allegedly in Heworth Manor in 1645

Sport[edit]

Heworth has some history in the sports of cricket, football, rugby league and others. Heworth Cricket Club is said to have been founded in 1784 (in 2009 they celebrate their 225th anniversary).[8] The football club was one of the earliest to play in the York area, and featured in the York Football League from 1898 onwards. They finished as runners-up of the top level during the 1908–09, 1909–10 and 1911–12 seasons.

Elmpark Way in the village has hosted the York International 9s competition since 2002. It is an annual rugby league nines competition and in the past has featured clubs from England, France and Russia. It has been given a five-star rating by the Rugby League European Federation.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Shades of green". ThisIsYork.co.uk. 23 July 2007. 
  2. ^ Appleton, Avril E. Webster (1999). Looking Back at Heworth – a York Suburb. ISBN 0-9536257-0-2. 
  3. ^ Ekwall, Eilert, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 4th edition, 1960. p. 237. ISBN 0198691033.
  4. ^ a b c "Battle of Heworth". Heworth History. 23 July 2007. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. 
  5. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fairfax of Cameron, Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Baron". Encyclopædia Britannica 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 130. 
  6. ^ Thomas Sergeant (editor), et al. Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the English Courts of Common Law: With Tables of the Cases and Principal Matters, Great Britain. Bail Court, T. & J.W. Johnson, 1865. p. 233
  7. ^ Archaeological investigation of Heworth Croft area, pp. 1–7
  8. ^ Elliker, Cliff. "The history of Heworth CC". Heworth Cricket Club. Retrieved 26 April 2009. 

References[edit]

Attribution

External links[edit]

Media related to Heworth, York at Wikimedia Commons