Cobalt hexammine chloride, hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride
|Molar mass||267.48 g/mol|
|Appearance||yellow or orange crystals|
|0.26M (20 °C)
tribromide: 0.04M (18 °C)
|Solubility||soluble in NH3|
|Dipole moment||0 D|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula [Co(NH3)6]Cl3. This coordination compound is considered an archetypal "Werner complex", named after the pioneer of coordination chemistry, Alfred Werner. This salt consists of [Co(NH3)6]3+ trications with three Cl− anions. The term "ammine" refers to ammonia in its metal complexes, and the prefix hex (Greek: six) indicates that there are six ammonias per cation.
Originally this compound was described as a "luteo" (Latin: yellow) complex, but this name has been discarded as modern chemistry considers color less important than molecular structure. Other similar complexes also had color names, such as purpureo (Latin: purple) for a pentammine complex, and praseo (Greek: green) and violeo (Latin: violet) for two isomeric tetrammine complexes. 
Properties and structure
[Co(NH3)6]3+ is diamagnetic, with a low-spin octahedral Co(III) center. The cation obeys the 18-electron rule and is considered to be a classic example of an exchange inert metal complex. As a manifestation of its inertness, [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 can be recrystallized unchanged from concentrated hydrochloric acid: the NH3 is so tightly bound to the Co(III) centers that it does not dissociate to allow its protonation. In contrast, labile metal ammine complexes, such as [Ni(NH3)6]Cl2, react rapidly with acids reflecting the lability of the Ni(II)-NH3 bonds. Upon heating, hexamminecobalt(III) begins to lose some of its ammine ligands, eventually producing a stronger oxidant.
The chlorides in [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 can be exchanged with a variety of other anions such as nitrate, bromide, and iodide to afford the corresponding [Co(NH3)6]X3 derivative. Such salts are bright yellow and display varying degrees of water solubility.
Since CoCl3 is not available, [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 is prepared from cobalt(II) chloride. The latter is treated with ammonia and ammonium chloride followed by oxidation. Oxidants include hydrogen peroxide or oxygen in the presence of charcoal catalyst. This salt appears to have been first reported by Fremy.
The acetate salt can be prepared by aerobic oxidation of cobalt(II) acetate, ammonium acetate, and ammonia in methanol. The acetate salt is highly water-soluble to the level of 1.9M (20 °C), vs. 0.26M for the trichloride.
[Co(NH3)6]3+ is a component of some structural biology methods (especially for DNA or RNA, where positive ions stabilize tertiary structure of the phosphate backbone), to help solve their structures by X-ray crystallography or by nuclear magnetic resonance. In the biological system, the counterions would more probably be Mg2+, but the heavy atoms of Cobalt (or sometimes Iridium, as in PDB file 2GIS) provide anomalous scattering to solve the phase problem and produce an electron-density map of the structure.
- Huheey James E., "Inorganic Chemistry" (3rd edition 1983), p.360
- Bjerrum, J.; McReynolds, J. P. (1946). "Hexamminecobalt(III) Salts". Inorg. Synth. 2: 216–221. doi:10.1002/9780470132333.ch69.
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- Ramakrishnan, B.; Sekharudu, C.; Pan, B.; Sundaralingam, M. (2003). "Near-atomic resolution crystal structure of an A-DNA decamer d(CCCGATCGGG): cobalt hexammine interaction with A-DNA". Acta Crystallogr. D59: 67–72. PMID 12499541.
- Rudisser, S.; Tinoco Jr., I. (2000). "Solution structure of Cobalt(III)hexammine complexed to the GAAA tetraloop, and metal-ion binding to G.A mismatches.". J. Mol. Biol. 295: 1211–1232. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1999.3421. PMID 10653698.
- McPherson, Alexander (2002). Introduction to Macromolecular Crystallography. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-25122-4.