Chloroplatinic acid

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Chloroplatinic acid
Structural formulas of the component ions of chloroplatinic acid
Two rough red crystals in a glass tube
Names
IUPAC name
Dihydrogen hexachloroplatinate(2–)
Other names
Hexachloroplatinic acid
Identifiers
16941-12-1 YesY
ChemSpider 55731 YesY
EC number 241-010-7
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem 61859
RTECS number TP1510000
UNII Q65224GJ7F YesY
Properties
H2PtCl6
Molar mass 409.81 g/mol
Appearance Reddish brown solid
Density 2.431 g/cm3
Melting point 60 °C (140 °F; 333 K)
Boiling point decomposes
highly soluble
Structure
Crystal structure Anti-fluorite.
octahedral
Dipole moment 0 D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU Index 078-009-00-4
EU classification Toxic (T)
Corrosive (C)
R-phrases R25, R34, R42/43
S-phrases (S1/2), S22, S26, S36/37/39, S45
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Related compounds
Other anions
Hexachloropalladic acid
Other cations
Potassium hexachloroplatinate,
Ammonium hexachloroplatinate,
Rubidium hexachloroplatinate,
Caesium hexachloroplatinate
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Chloroplatinic acid or hexachloroplatinic acid are inorganic compound with the formula [H3O]2[PtCl6](H2O)x. A red solid, it is an important commercial source of platinum, usually as an aqueous solution. Although often written in shorthand as H2PtCl6, it is the hydronium (H3O+) salt of the hexachloroplatinate anion (PtCl62-).[1][2][3] The compound is also available as the hexahydrate.

Production[edit]

Orange liquid containing bubbles
Platinum is being dissolved in hot aqua regia

Chloroplatinic acid is produced by dissolving platinum metal sponge in aqua regia. Brownish red crystals can be isolated by evaporating this solution to a syrup.[4]

Pt + 4 HNO3 + 6 HCl → "H2PtCl6" + 4 NO2 + 4 H2O

A related procedure gives the hexahydrate, H2PtCl6(H2O)6.[5]

Alternative methods have been heavily investigated, but the older literature can be unreliable.[6]

Reactions[edit]

When heated, hexachloroplatinic acid decomposes first to platinum(IV) chloride, and for this reason heating of hexachloroplatinic acid can result in insoluble platinum compounds.[1]

(H3O)2PtCl6·n H2O → PtCl4 + 2 HCl + (n + 2) H2O

Applications[edit]

Potassium determination[edit]

Chloroplatinic acid was popularized for the determination of potassium. The potassium is selectively precipitated as potassium chloroplatinate. Determinations were done in 85% (v/v) alcohol solutions with excess platinate ions, and the precipitated product was weighed. Potassium could be detected for solutions as dilute as 0.02 to 0.2% (m/v).[7]

This method for determination of potassium was advantageous vs. the cobaltinitrite method used previously, since it required a single precipitation reaction.[citation needed] Today, the concentration of potassium is determined with an ion-selective electrode. These modern methods remain subject to interference.

Purification of platinum[edit]

Treatment with an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloride, precipitates solid ammonium hexachloroplatinate,.[4] Heating the ammonium salt in hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. Platinum is often isolated from ores or recycled from residues thus.[8]

Catalysis[edit]

Like many platinum compounds, chloroplatinic acid is used in catalysis. This compound was first reported by John Speier and colleagues from Dow Corning Corporation to catalyze the addition of silyl hydrides to olefins, hydrosilylation. Typical of his reactions, Speier used isopropanol solutions containing trichlorosilane (SiHCl3), and methyldichlorosilane (CH3HSiCl2), with pentenes. Prior work on the addition of silanes to alkenes required radical reactions that were inefficient.[9][10] It is generally agreed that chloroplatinic acid is a precursor to the actual catalyst. A possible role for colloidal platinum or zero-valent complexes has also been considered.[11]

Related compounds[edit]

Chloroplatinic acid prepared from aqua regia is occasionally contaminated with nitrosonium hexachloroplatinate, (NO)2PtCl6. This species is obtained by the reaction of nitrosyl chloride, NOCl, and Pt metal.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b A. E. Schweizer, G. T. Kerr (1978). "Thermal Decomposition of Hexachloroplatinic Acid". Inorg. Chem. 17 (8): 2326–2327. doi:10.1021/ic50186a067. 
  2. ^ Holleman, Wiberg (2001). Inorganic Chemistry (First ed.). New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-352651-5. 
  3. ^ The related palladium compound, [H3O]2[PdCl6], is extremely unstable and has not been isolated in pure form.Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (Second ed.). New York: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3365-9. 
  4. ^ a b George B. Kauffman (1967). "Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate(IV)". Inorganic Syntheses 9: 182–185. doi:10.1002/9780470132401.ch51. 
  5. ^ H. Grube "Hexachloroplatinic (IV) Acid" in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 2. p. 1569.
  6. ^ Paul Rudnick and R. D. Cooke (1917). "The Preparation of Hydrochloroplatinic Acid by means of Hydrogen Peroxide". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 39 (4): 633–635. doi:10.1021/ja02249a011. 
  7. ^ G. F. Smith, J. L. Gring (1933). "The Separation and Determination of the Alkali Metals Using Perchloric Acid. V. Perchloric Acid and Chloroplatinic Acid in the Determination of Small Amounts of Potassium in the Presence of Large Amounts of Sodium". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 55 (10): 3957–3961. doi:10.1021/ja01337a007. 
  8. ^ Cotton, S. A. Chemistry of Precious Metals, Chapman and Hall (London): 1997. ISBN 0-7514-0413-6.
  9. ^ J. L. Speier, J. A. Webster, G. H. Barnes (1957). "The Addition of Silicon Hydrides to Olefinic Double Bonds. Part II. The Use of Group VIII Metal Catalysts". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (4): 974–979. doi:10.1021/ja01561a054. 
  10. ^ John C. Saam, John L. Speier (1958). "The Addition of Silicon Hydrides to Olefinic Double Bonds. Part III. The Addition to Non-terminal Olefins in the Presence of Chloroplatinic Acid". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80 (15): 4104–4106. doi:10.1021/ja01548a073. 
  11. ^ L. N. Lewis, K. G. Sy, G. L. Bryant and P. E. Donahue (1991). "Platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation of alkynes". Organometallics 10 (10): 3750–3759. doi:10.1021/om00056a055. 
  12. ^ R. T. Moravek, G. B. Kauffman and T. Mahmood (1967). "Nitrosyl Hexachloroplatinate(IV)". Inorganic Syntheses 9: 217–220. doi:10.1002/9780470132555.ch63.