HiWish program

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HiWish is a program created by NASA so that anyone can suggest a place for the HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to photograph.[1] It was started in January 2010. In the first few months of the program 3000 people signed up to use HiRISE.[2][3] The first images were released in April 2010.[4] Over 5000 suggestions were made by the public; suggestions were made for targets in each of the 30 quadrangles of Mars. Selected images released were used for three talks at the 16th Annual International Mars Society Convention. Below are some of the over 1100 images that have been released from the HiWish program as of March 2015.

Glacial features[edit]

Some landscapes look just like glaciers moving out of mountain valleys on Earth. Some have a hallowed out appearance, looking like a glacier after almost all the ice has disappeared. What is left are the moraines—the dirt and debris carried by the glacier. The center is hollowed out because the ice is mostly gone.[5] These supposed alpine glaciers have been called glacier-like forms (GLF) or glacier-like flows (GLF).[6] Glacier-like forms are a later and maybe more accurate term because we cannot be sure the structure is currently moving.[7]

Main article: Glaciers on Mars

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Martian glacier moving down a valley, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program.

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Ancient rivers?[edit]

There is great deal of evidence that water once flowed in river valleys on Mars. Pictures from orbit show winding valleys, branched valleys, and even meanders with oxbow lakes.[8] Some are visible in the pictures below.

New Crater[edit]

Sand dunes[edit]

Many locations on Mars have sand dunes. The dunes are covered by a seasonal carbon dioxide frost that forms in early autumn and remains until late spring. Many martian dunes strongly resemble terrestrial dunes but images acquired by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have shown that martian dunes in the north polar region are subject to modification via grainflow triggered by seasonal CO2 sublimation, a process not seen on Earth. Many dunes are black because they are derived from the dark volcanic rock basalt. Extraterrestrial sand seas such as those found on Mars are referred to as "undae" from the Latin for waves.

Landing site[edit]

Some of the targets suggested became possible sites for a Rover Mission in 2020. The targets were in Firsoff (crater). This crater was picked as one of 26 locations considered for a mission that will look for signs of life and gather samples for a later return to Earth.[9][10][11]

Landscape features[edit]

Dark slope streaks[edit]

Layers[edit]

Many places on Mars show rocks arranged in layers. Rock can form layers in a variety of ways. Volcanoes, wind, or water can produce layers.[12] Layers can be hardened by the action of groundwater.

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Gullies[edit]

Martian gullies are small, incised networks of narrow channels and their associated downslope sediment deposits, found on the planet of Mars. They are named for their resemblance to terrestrial gullies. First discovered on images from Mars Global Surveyor, they occur on steep slopes, especially on the walls of craters. Usually, each gully has a dendritic alcove at its head, a fan-shaped apron at its base, and a single thread of incised channel linking the two, giving the whole gully an hourglass shape.[13] They are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters.

On the basis of their form, aspects, positions, and location amongst and apparent interaction with features thought to be rich in water ice, many researchers believed that the processes carving the gullies involve liquid water. However, this remains a topic of active research.

Main article: Martian gullies

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Image of gullies with main parts labeled. The main parts of a Martian gully are alcove, channel, and apron. Since there are no craters on this gully, it is thought to be rather young. Picture was taken by HiRISE under HiWish program. Location is Phaethontis quadrangle.

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Scalloped topography[edit]

Scalloped topography is common in the mid-latitudes of Mars, between 45° and 60° north and south. It is particularly prominent in the region of Utopia Planitia[14][15] in the northern hemisphere and in the region of Peneus and Amphitrites Patera[16][17] in the southern hemisphere. Such topography consists of shallow, rimless depressions with scalloped edges, commonly referred to as "scalloped depressions" or simply "scallops". Scalloped depressions can be isolated or clustered and sometimes seem to coalesce. A typical scalloped depression displays a gentle equator-facing slope and a steeper pole-facing scarp. This topographic asymmetry is probably due to differences in insolation. Scalloped depressions are believed to form from the removal of subsurface material, possibly interstitial ice, by sublimation. This process may still be happening at present.[18]

Ring mold craters[edit]

Ring mold craters are believed to be formed from asteroid impacts into ground that has an underlying layer of ice. The impact produces an rebound of the ice layer to form a "ring-mold" shape.

Main article: Ring mold crater

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Dust devil tracks[edit]

Dust devil tracks can be very pretty. They are caused by giant dust devils removing bright colored dust from the Martian surface; thereby exposing a dark layer.

To suggest a location for HiRISE to image visit the site at http://www.uahirise.org/hiwish

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Public Invited To Pick Pixels On Mars". Mars Daily. January 22, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2011. 
  2. ^ Interview with Alfred McEwen on Planetary Radio, 3/15/2010
  3. ^ http://www.planetary.org/multimedia/planetary-radio/show/2010/384.html
  4. ^ "NASA releases first eight "HiWish" selections of people’s choice Mars images". TopNews. April 2, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2011. 
  5. ^ Milliken, R., J. Mustard, D. Goldsby. 2003. Viscous flow features on the surface of Mars: Observations from high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images. J. Geophys. Res. 108. doi:10.1029/2002JE002005.
  6. ^ Arfstrom, J and W. Hartmann. 2005. Martian flow features, moraine-like ridges, and gullies: Terrestrial analogs and interrelationships. Icarus 174, 321-335.
  7. ^ Hubbard B., R. Milliken, J. Kargel , A. Limaye, C. Souness . 2011. Geomorphological characterisation and interpretation of a mid-latitude glacier-like form: Hellas Planitia, Mars Icarus 211, 330–346
  8. ^ Baker, V. 1982. The Channels of Mars. Univ. of Tex. Press, Austin, TX
  9. ^ http://marsnext.jpl.nasa.gov/workshops/index.cfm
  10. ^ http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/ESP_039404_1820
  11. ^ Pondrelli, M., A. Rossi, L. Deit, S. van Gasselt, F. Fueten, E. Hauber, B. Cavalazzi, M. Glamoclija, and F. Franchi. 2014. A PROPOSED LANDING SITE FOR THE 2020 MARS MISSION: FIRSOFF CRATER. http://marsnext.jpl.nasa.gov/workshops/2014_05/33_Pondrelli_Firsoff_LS2020.pdf
  12. ^ "HiRISE | High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment". Hirise.lpl.arizona.edu?psp_008437_1750. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  13. ^ Malin, M., Edgett, K. 2000. Evidence for recent groundwater seepage and surface runoff on Mars. Science 288, 2330–2335.
  14. ^ Lefort, A.; Russell, P. S.; Thomas, N.; McEwen, A. S.; Dundas, C. M.; Kirk, R. L. (2009). "Observations of periglacial landforms in Utopia Planitia with the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE)". Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (E4). Bibcode:2009JGRE..11404005L. doi:10.1029/2008JE003264. 
  15. ^ Morgenstern, A; Hauber, E; Reiss, D; van Gasselt, S; Grosse, G; Schirrmeister, L (2007). "Deposition and degradation of a volatile-rich layer in Utopia Planitia, and implications for climate history on Mars" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets 112 (E6): E06010. Bibcode:2007JGRE..11206010M. doi:10.1029/2006JE002869. 
  16. ^ Lefort, A.; Russell, P.S.; Thomas, N. (2010). "Scalloped terrains in the Peneus and Amphitrites Paterae region of Mars as observed by HiRISE". Icarus 205 (1): 259. Bibcode:2010Icar..205..259L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.06.005. 
  17. ^ Zanetti, M.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.; Hauber, E.; Neukum, G. (2009). "Scalloped Depression Development on Malea Planum and the Southern Wall of the Hellas Basin, Mars" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Science 40. p. 2178, abstract 2178. Bibcode:2009LPI....40.2178Z. 
  18. ^ http://hiroc.lpl.arizona.edu/images/PSP?diafotizo.php?ID=PSP_002296_1215

Recommended reading[edit]

  • Lorenz, R. 2014. The Dune Whisperers. The Planetary Report: 34, 1, 8-14
  • Lorenz, R., J. Zimbelman. 2014. Dune Worlds: How Windblown Sand Shapes Planetary Landscapes. Springer Praxis Books / Geophysical Sciences.
  • Grotzinger, J. and R. Milliken (eds.). 2012. Sedimentary Geology of Mars. SEPM.

External links[edit]