Sodium-vapor lamp

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An unlit high pressure sodium lamp, Philips Master SDW-T 100W
A low-pressure sodium streetlamp at full power
A sodium vapor lamp

A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light. There are two varieties of such lamps: low pressure and high pressure. Low-pressure sodium lamps are highly efficient electrical light sources, but their yellow light restricts applications to outdoor lighting such as street lamps.[1] High-pressure sodium lamps have a broader spectrum of light than the low pressure, but still poorer color rendering than other types of lamps.[2] Low-pressure sodium lamps only give monochromatic yellow light and so inhibit color vision at night.

Because sodium-vapor lamps cause less light pollution than mercury-vapor lamps, many cities that have large astronomical observatories employ them.[3]

Low-pressure sodium[edit]

An unlit 35W LPS/SOX lamp
A running 35W LPS/SOX lamp
Spectrum of a low-pressure sodium lamp. The intense yellow band is the atomic sodium D-line emission, comprising about 90% of the visible light emission for this lamp type.

Low-pressure sodium (LPS) lamps have a borosilicate glass gas discharge tube (arc tube) containing solid sodium, a small amount of neon, and argon gas in a Penning mixture to start the gas discharge. The discharge tube may be linear (SLI lamp) [4] or U-shaped. When the lamp is turned on it emits a dim red/pink light to warm the sodium metal and within a few minutes it turns into the common bright yellow as the sodium metal vaporizes. These lamps produce a virtually monochromatic light averaging a 589.3 nm wavelength (actually two dominant spectral lines very close together at 589.0 and 589.6 nm). As a result, the colors of illuminated objects are not easily distinguished because they are seen almost entirely by their reflection of this narrow bandwidth yellow light.

LPS lamps have an outer glass vacuum envelope around the inner discharge tube for thermal insulation, which improves their efficiency. Earlier types of LPS lamps had a detachable dewar jacket (SO lamps).[5] Lamps with a permanent vacuum envelope (SOI lamps) were developed to improve thermal insulation.[6] Further improvement was attained by coating the glass envelope with an infrared reflecting layer of indium tin oxide, resulting in SOX lamps.[7]

LPS lamps are one of the most efficient electrically powered light source when measured for photopic lighting conditions—up to 200 lm/W,[8] primarily because the output is light at a wavelength near the peak sensitivity of the human eye. As a result they are widely used for outdoor lighting such as street lights and security lighting where faithful color rendition was once considered unimportant. Recently, however, it has been found that under mesopic conditions typical of nighttime driving, whiter light can provide better results at lower power.[9]

LPS lamps are more closely related to fluorescent than high-intensity discharge lamps because they have a low–pressure, low–intensity discharge source and a linear lamp shape. Also like fluorescents they do not exhibit a bright arc as do other High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps; rather they emit a softer luminous glow, resulting in less glare. Unlike HID lamps, which can go out during a voltage dip, low-pressure sodium lamps restrike to full brightness rapidly. LPS lamps are available with power ratings from 10 W up to 180 W; however, longer bulb lengths create design and engineering problems.

Another unique property of LPS lamps is that, unlike other lamp types, they do not decline in lumen output with age. As an example, mercury vapor HID lamps become very dull towards the end of their lives, to the point of being ineffective, while continuing to consume full rated electrical use. LPS lamps, however, do increase energy usage slightly (about 10%) towards their end of life, which is generally around 18,000 hours for modern lamps.

Light pollution considerations[edit]

For placements where light pollution is of prime importance, such as near astronomical observatories or sea turtle nesting beaches, low-pressure sodium is preferred (such as in San Jose and Flagstaff, Arizona).[10][11] Such lamps emit light on just two dominant spectral lines (with other far weaker lines), and therefore have the least spectral interference with astronomical observation.[12] The yellow color of low-pressure sodium lamps also leads to the least visual sky glow, due primarily to the Purkinje shift of dark-adapted human vision, causing the eye to be relatively insensitive to the yellow light scattered at low luminance levels in the clear atmosphere.[13] [14] One consequence of widespread public lighting is that on cloudy nights, cities with enough lighting are illuminated by light reflected off the clouds. As sodium vapor lights are often the source of urban illumination, this turns the sky a tinge of orange.

Film special effects[edit]

Sodium vapor process (occasionally referred to as yellowscreen) is a film technique that relies on narrowband characteristics of LPS lamp. A yellow light of a LPS lamp falls into region that typical color negative is not sensitive to, but can be captured on special black-and-white film. A special camera can prepare two spools simultaneously: one with actors (or other foreground objects) and another which becomes a mask to combine them into different background. This technique originally yielded superior results compared to competing blue-screen, however advancements in blue- and green-screen techniques and computer imagery closed that gap, leaving SVP uncompetitive cost-wise. SVP was used in years 1956-1990, mostly by Disney. Notable example of films using this technique include Alfred Hitchcock's The Birds, Mary Poppins, and Bedknobs and Broomsticks.

High-pressure sodium[edit]

High-pressure sodium lamp Philips SON-T Master 600 W
Same lamp in operation
Spectrum of high-pressure sodium lamp. The yellow-red band on the left is the atomic sodium D-line emission; the turquoise line is a sodium line that is otherwise quite weak in a low pressure discharge, but becomes intense in a high-pressure discharge. Most of the other green, blue and violet lines arise from mercury.
Diagram showing the spectral output of a typical high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp.
Office building illuminated by high-pressure sodium lamps. Note the lamps shining upward, of which much light goes into the sky and neighboring apartment blocks, causing light pollution.

High-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps are smaller and contain additional elements such as mercury, and produce a dark pink glow when first struck, and an intense pinkish orange light when warmed. Some bulbs also briefly produce a pure to bluish white light in between if the mercury achieves its high-pressure arc discharge characteristic before the sodium is completely warmed. The sodium D-line is the main source of light from the HPS lamp, and it is extremely pressure broadened by the high sodium pressures in the lamp. On account of this broadening and the emissions from mercury, more colors can be distinguished compared to a low-pressure sodium lamp. This leads them to be used in areas where improved color rendering is important or desired. Thus, its new model name SON is the variant for "sun" (a name used primarily in Europe and the UK). HPS lamps are favored by indoor gardeners for general growing because of the wide color-temperature spectrum produced and the relatively efficient cost of running the lights.

High-pressure sodium lamps are quite efficient—about 100 lm/W—when measured for photopic lighting conditions. The higher-powered versions of 600 W have an efficacy of even 150 lm/W. They have been widely used for outdoor area lighting such as streetlights and security. Understanding the change in human color vision sensitivity from photopic to mesopic and scotopic is essential for proper planning when designing lighting for roads.

Because of the extremely high chemical activity of the high-pressure sodium arc, the arc tube is typically made of translucent aluminum oxide. This construction led General Electric to use the tradename "Lucalox" for their line of high-pressure sodium lamps.

Xenon at a low pressure is used as a "starter gas" in the HPS lamp. It has the lowest thermal conductivity and lowest ionization potential of all the non-radioactive noble gases. As a noble gas, it does not interfere with the chemical reactions occurring in the operating lamp. The low thermal conductivity minimizes thermal losses in the lamp while in the operating state, and the low ionization potential causes the breakdown voltage of the gas to be relatively low in the cold state, which allows the lamp to be easily started.

"White" SON[edit]

A variation of the high-pressure sodium, the White SON, introduced in 1986, has a higher pressure than the typical HPS/SON lamp, producing a color temperature of around 2700 K, with a CRI of 85, greatly resembling the color of an incandescent light.[15] These are often used indoors in cafes and restaurants to create a particular atmosphere. However, these lamps suffer from higher purchase cost, shorter life, and lower light efficiency.

Theory of operation[edit]

Diagram of a high-pressure sodium lamp.

An amalgam of metallic sodium and mercury lies at the coolest part of the lamp and provides the sodium and mercury vapor that is needed to draw an arc. The temperature of the amalgam is determined to a great extent by lamp power. The higher the lamp power, the higher will be the amalgam temperature. The higher the temperature of the amalgam, the higher will be the mercury and sodium vapor pressures in the lamp and the higher will be the terminal voltage. As the temperature rises, the constant current and increasing voltage result in increased power until the nominal power is reached. For a given voltage, there are generally three modes of operation:

  1. The lamp is extinguished and no current flows.
  2. The lamp is operating with liquid amalgam in the tube.
  3. The lamp is operating with all amalgam evaporated.

The first and last states are stable, because the lamp resistance is weakly related to the voltage, but the second state is unstable. Any anomalous increase in current will cause an increase in power, causing an increase in amalgam temperature, which will cause a decrease in resistance, which will cause a further increase in current. This will create a runaway effect, and the lamp will jump to the high-current state (#3). Because actual lamps are not designed to handle this much power, this would result in catastrophic failure. Similarly, an anomalous drop in current will drive the lamp to extinction. It is the second state that is the desired operating state of the lamp, because a slow loss of the amalgam over time from a reservoir will have less effect on the characteristics of the lamp than a fully evaporated amalgam. The result is an average lamp life in excess of 20,000 hours.

In practical use, the lamp is powered by an AC voltage source in series with an inductive "ballast" in order to supply a nearly constant current to the lamp, rather than a constant voltage, thus assuring stable operation. The ballast is usually inductive rather than simply being resistive to minimize resistive losses. Because the lamp effectively extinguishes at each zero-current point in the AC cycle, the inductive ballast assists in the reignition by providing a voltage spike at the zero-current point.

The light from the lamp consists of atomic emission lines of mercury and sodium, but is dominated by the sodium D-line emission. This line is extremely pressure (resonance) broadened and is also self-reversed because of absorption in the cooler outer layers of the arc, giving the lamp its improved color rendering characteristics. In addition, the red wing of the D-line emission is further pressure broadened by the Van der Waals forces from the mercury atoms in the arc.

End of life[edit]

Sodium vapor street light
Closeup after dark

At the end of life, high-pressure sodium lamps exhibit a phenomenon known as cycling, which is caused by a loss of sodium in the arc. Sodium is a highly reactive element and is easily lost by reacting with the arc tube, made of aluminum oxide. The products are sodium oxide and aluminum:

6 Na + Al2O3 → 3 Na2O + 2 Al

As a result, these lamps can be started at a relatively low voltage, but, as they heat up during operation, the internal gas pressure within the arc tube rises, and more and more voltage is required to maintain the arc discharge. As a lamp gets older, the maintaining voltage for the arc eventually rises to exceed the maximum voltage output by the electrical ballast. As the lamp heats to this point, the arc fails, and the lamp goes out. Eventually, with the arc extinguished, the lamp cools down again, the gas pressure in the arc tube is reduced, and the ballast can once again cause the arc to strike. The effect of this is that the lamp glows for a while and then goes out, typically starting at a pure or bluish white then moving to a red-orange before going out.

More sophisticated ballast designs detect cycling and give up attempting to start the lamp after a few cycles, as the repeated high-voltage ignitions needed to restart the arc reduce the lifetime of the ballast. If power is removed and reapplied, the ballast will make a new series of startup attempts.

LPS lamp failure does not result in cycling; rather, the lamp will simply not strike or will maintain its dull red glow exhibited during the start-up phase. In another failure mode, a tiny puncture of the arc tube leaks some of the sodium vapor into the outer vacuum bulb. The sodium condenses and creates a mirror on the outer glass, partially obscuring the arc tube. The lamp often continues operating normally. Much of the light generated is obscured by the sodium coating and no longer leaves the lamp.

ANSI HPS ballast codes[edit]

Power output ANSI codes
35 W S76
50 W S68
70 W S62
100 W S54
150 W S55
200 W S66
250 W S50
310 W S67
400 W S51
600 W S106
750 W S111
1000 W S52

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Public Works, Department of Public Works (1980). San Jose: Study and report on low-pressure sodium lighting.. San Jose: City of San Jose. p. 8. 
  2. ^ Luginbuhl, Christian B. "Low-Pressure Sodium Issues and FAQ". U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. US Navy. Retrieved December 5, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Curious About Astronomy: How does light pollution affect astronomers?". Curious.astro.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  4. ^ "SLI/H Sodium". Lamptech.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  5. ^ "SO/H Sodium". Lamptech.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  6. ^ "SOI/H Sodium". Lamptech.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  7. ^ "SOX Sodium". Lamptech.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  8. ^ "Why is lightning colored? (gas excitations)". WebExhibits. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  9. ^ "Mesoptic Street Lighting Demonstration and Evaluation Final Report". Lighting research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,. January 31, 2008. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ [url = http://www.nofs.navy.mil/about_NOFS/staff/cbl/Flagstaff.LC.2011.pdf "Flagstaff Lighting Code"]. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  12. ^ Luginbuhl, C. B. (2001), "Why Astronomy Needs Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting", Preserving the Astronomical Sky, Proceedings of IAU Symposium 196, held 12-16 July 1999, in Vienna, Austria. Edited by R. J. Cohen and W. T. Sullivan, 2001, p.81, International Astronomical Union  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ Luginbuhl, C. B.; Boley, P. A.; Daviws, D. R. (May 2014). "The impact of light source spectral power distribution on sky glow". Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (Elsevier) 139: 21–26. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.12.004. 
  14. ^ Aubé, M.; Roby, J.; Kocifaj, M. (5 July 2013). "Evaluating Potential Spectral Impacts of Various Artificial Lights on Melatonin Suppression, Photosynthesis, and Star Visibility". PLoS ONE 8 (7): e67798. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067798. 
  15. ^ "Philips SDW-T High Pressure Sodium White SON". WebExhibits. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 

References[edit]