High frame rate
||It has been suggested that High-motion be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since June 2013.|
High frame rate (HFR) refers to the use of higher frame rate than typical prior practice.
In the context of cinematic motion pictures, the frame rate used for film cameras has typically been 24 frames per second, typically with multiple shuttering used to prevent flicker for film projection. Television video historically operated at 25 or 30 frames per second using interlaced scanning until the advent of the 720p HDTV format using 50 or 60 frames per second. The use of frame rates higher than 24 Hz for feature motion pictures and frame rates higher than 30 Hz for other applications has been a trend emerging in the 21st century.
History of frame rates in cinema
In early cinema history, there was no standard frame rate established. This had to do with a combination of the use of a hand crank rather than a motor, which would create variable frame rates because of the inconsistency of the cranking of the film through the camera. After the introduction of synch sound recording, 24 fps became the industry standard frame rate for capture and projection of motion pictures. 24 fps was chosen simply because it was the lowest frame rate possible to produce smooth motion without having to use greater lengths of film higher frame rates would use, thus saving money.
A few film formats have experimented with frame rates higher than the 24 fps standard. The original 3-strip Cinerama features of the 1950s ran at 26 fps. The first two Todd-AO 70mm features, Oklahoma! (1955) and Around the World in 80 Days (1956) were shot and projected at 30 fps. Douglas Trumbull's 70mm Showscan film format operated at 60 fps.
The IMAX HD (high definition in this case meaning high definition film stock, as 70mm IMAX is the highest resolution motion picture image in the world) film Momentum, presented at Seville Expo '92, was shot and projected at 48 fps. IMAX HD has also been used in ridefilms, including the Disney theme park attraction Soarin' Over California.
Digital Cinema Initiatives has published a document outlining recommended practice for high frame rate digital cinema. This document outlines the frame rates and resolutions that can be used in high frame rate digital theatrical presentations with currently available equipment.
Peter Jackson's The Hobbit film series, beginning with The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey in December 2012, used a shooting and projection frame rate of 48 frames per second, becoming the first feature film with a wide release to do so. The majority of the film's release, however, was converted and projected at 24 fps.
Other film-makers who intend to use the high frame rate format include James Cameron in his Avatar sequels and Andy Serkis in his adaptation of George Orwell's Animal Farm. The difference between these films and the historical processes is that they are to be shot digitally rather than with motion picture film.
Criticism and concerns
Criticisms of the format include assertions that the "cinematic look" is lost with the use of high frame rates. Film critics have complained that 3D HFR looks like video games, HDTV, live theater or a cheap home movie.
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