Close central unrounded vowel
|Close central unrounded vowel|
The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈ɨ〉. The IPA symbol is the letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "barred-i".
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
|This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]|
IPA help • IPA key • chart • chart with audio • view
- Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
- Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
/ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, but does occur as an allophone in many Slavic languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (e.g. proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although this is not a defining feature of the entire area).
|Acehnese||tupeue||[tupɨə]||'to know||Asyik and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi describe this sound as such while Durie describes it as closer to [ɯ]|
|Afrikaans||kind||[kïnt]||'child'||See Afrikaans phonology|
|Amharic||ሥር||[sɨr]||'root'||Often transcribed 〈ə〉|
|Czech||Some dialects||był||[bɨɫ]||'he was'||Found in some eastern Moravian, Lach and Silesian dialects. See Czech phonology|
|Chinese||Mandarin||日 rì||[ʐɨ̋] (help·info)||'day'||See Mandarin phonology|
|English||Some dialects||roses||[ˈɹoʊzɨz]||'roses'||Reduced vowel in some dialects; corresponds to unstressed [ɪ] (or schwa [ə]) in other dialects. See English phonology|
|Cockney||rude||[ɹɨ̹ːd]||'rude'||With little lip rounding. May be fully rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.|
|Southeastern English||[ɹɨːd]||May be rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.|
|Irish||saol||[sɨɫ]||'life'||See Irish phonology|
|Mapudungun||trukür||[ʈ͡ʂuˈkɨɻ]||'fog'||See Mapudungun phonology|
|Romanian||înot||[ɨˈn̪o̞t̪]||'I swim'||See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||ты||[t̪ɨ] (help·info)||'you' (singular)||Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology|
|Sahaptin||[kʼsɨt]||'cold'||Epenthetic. No lengthened equivalent|
|Swedish||bi||[bɨː]||'bee'||Found in dialects in Närke and Bohuslän and in sociolects in Stockholm and Gothenburg. See Swedish phonology|
|Udmurt||ургетэ, ыргетэ||[ɨrete]||'to growl'|
|Vietnamese||trưa||[ʈɨə˧]||'noon'||See Vietnamese phonology|
|Welsh||Northern dialects||llun||[ɬɨːn]||'picture'||See Welsh phonology|
Polish 〈y〉 is often transcribed as /ɨ/, but actually it is a fronted and slightly raised close-mid central unrounded vowel, that could be narrowly transcribed as [ɘ̟˔]. Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed 〈e〉, often represented as /ɨ/, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as [ɯ̽] (mid-centralized), [ɯ̟] (fronted) and [ʊ̜] (less rounded i.e. unrounded).
- Asyik, Abdul Gani (1982). "The agreement system in Acehnese". Mon-Khmer Studies 11: 1–33. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi, Awwad Ahmad (2003), "Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account", Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities 15: 9–21
- Mid-vowels in Acehnese
- Donaldson (1993:4)
- Matthews (1938:78)
- Wells (1982:306–307)
- Lodge (2009:174)
- Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
- González de Perez (2005:50)
- Jones & Ward (1969:33)
- Hargus & Beavert (2002)
- Firestone (1965:?)
- Iivonen & Harnud (2005:64, 68)
- "ургетыны" [Udmurt-Russian dictionary] (in Russian).
- Ball (1984:?)
- Merrill (2008:109)
- Jassem (2003:105)
- Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
- Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
- Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993), A Grammar of Afrikaans, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1–24, ISBN 9783110134261
- Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-0861-9
- Campbell, Lyle; Kaufman, Terrence; Smith-Stark, Thomas C (1986), "Meso-America as a linguistic area", Language 62 (3): 530–570, doi:10.2307/415477, JSTOR 415477
- Firestone, Homer L. (1965), "Description and classification of Sirionó: A Tupí-Guaraní language.", Janua linguarum, Series Practica (16), London: Mouton & Co
- Hargus, Sharon; Beavert, Virginia (2002), "Predictable versus Underlying Vocalism in Yakima Sahaptin", International Journal of American Linguistics 68 (3): 316–340, doi:10.1086/466492
- Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
- Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics
- Matthews, William (1938), Cockney, Past and Present: a Short History of the Dialect of London, Detroit: Gale Research Company
- Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
- Wells, J.C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press