High-output cardiac failure

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High-output heart failure is a term in human and veterinary medicine to describe a condition that occurs when there is a high-output state (a condition where the cardiac output is higher than normal). There is a circulatory overload which may develop pulmonary edema secondary to an elevated diastolic pressure in left ventricle. These individuals usually have a normal systolic function but symptoms are those of a heart failure. With time, this overload causes systolic failure. Ultimately cardiac output can be reduced to very low levels.[1]

It may occur in situations with an increased blood volume, from excess of water and salt (kidney pathology, excess of fluid or blood administration, treatment with retaining water steroids), chronic and severe anemia, large arteriovenous fistula or multiple small arteriovenous shunts as in HHT or Paget's disease of bone, some forms of severe liver or kidney disorders, hyperthyroidism, and wet beriberi,[2] and acutely in septic shock, especially caused by Gram-negative bacteria.[3][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ O'Rouke, R.A., Fuster, V. (2001). Hurst's The Heart (10 (International edition) ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 661. ISBN 0-07-116296-8. 
  2. ^ Susan Wolfsthal (ed). NMS Medicine Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Nov 15, 2007 - page 2. ISBN 0781769752
  3. ^ Anand IS, Florea VG. High Output Cardiac Failure. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2001 Apr;3(2):151-159. PMID 11242561
  4. ^ Causes of High-Output Heart Failure Healthwise Staff of WebMD. Last updated: August 2010. Accessed 10/19/2012.