Higher education in Canada

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For Education in general in Canada, see Education in Canada.
Provincial and territorial higher education systems

Higher education in Canada describes the constellation of provincial higher education systems in Canada and their relationships with the federal government, provinces, and territories.

Higher education systems in Canada[edit]

In Canada, the constitutional responsibility for higher education rests with the provinces of Canada. The decision to assign responsibility for universities to the local legislatures, cemented in the British North America Act, 1867, which was renamed the Constitution Act[1] in 1982, was contentious from its inception.[2] The Act states that "in and for each Province, the Legislature may exclusively make laws in relation to Education". As a result of this constitutional arrangement, a distinctive system of education, including higher education, has evolved in each province. However, as the constitutional responsibility for Aboriginal Peoples with Treaty Status rests with the federal government of Canada under the Constitution Act of 1982, it is the federal government that is largely responsible for funding higher education opportunities for Aboriginal learners, whether in traditional post-secondary institutions or in settings that promote opportunities to pursue indigenous education. The federal government also operates the Royal Military College of Canada.

The higher education systems in Canada's ten provinces include their historical development, organization (e.g., structure, governance, and funding), and goals (e.g., participation, access, and mobility). Each of the three territories in Canada (i.e., Nunavut, Northwest Territories, and Yukon) have separate higher education systems that reflect territorial history, organization, and goals in the context of geographical challenges.

Alberta[edit]

Higher education in Alberta trains students in various academic and vocational specializations. Generally, youth attend school from kindergarten until grade twelve, at which time they have the option to continue into post secondary study. Students are required to meet the individual entrance requirements for programs offered at the institution of their choice.[3] Once accepted, students are allowed greater educational opportunities through the province extensively developed articulation system. The Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer (ACAT) enables students transfer between programs at any of the twenty public post secondary institutions, eight private colleges, and other Alberta based not for profit institutions.[4][5] To ensure a continued high standard for credentials awarded by post secondary facilities, the Alberta Ministry of Advanced Education established the Campus Alberta Quality Council with membership in the International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education.[6]

British Columbia[edit]

The provincial government administers a higher education system that includes twenty-five publicly funded institutions, fourteen private institutions, and numerous private career training institutions or career colleges. Public institutions include eleven universities, eleven colleges, and three institutes. Private institutions include three private universities, five private colleges, and six theological colleges.

Manitoba[edit]

A major public review of higher education in Manitoba, submitted in 1973 under the title of the Task Force on Postsecondary Education, more commonly known as the Oliver Commission, recommended closer articulation between Manitoba’s universities and community colleges. The system remains a binary one, however, with few university transfer programs or college courses which can be applied towards a university degree.[7] The Roblin Commission of 1993 and subsequent declining allocations of the public purse have made it clear that post-secondary institutions will have to find their own private sources of funding to make up shortfalls in general operating budgets.[7]

New Brunswick[edit]

The higher education system in New Brunswick includes the governing Ministry of Postsecondary Education Training and Labour, related agencies, boards, or commissions, public or private chartered universities, universities recognized under the degree granting act, public colleges, and other institutions such as private career colleges. Higher education has a rich history in New Brunswick, including the first English-speaking University in Canada, University of New Brunswick, and the first university in the British Empire to have awarded a baccalaureate to a woman (Grace Annie Lockhart, B.Sc, 1875), Mount Allison University. English speaking New Brunswickers in Canada's only bilingual province are falling behind according to Statistics Canada.[8]

Newfoundland and Labrador[edit]

Newfoundland and Labrador has had the same growing pains as other provinces in developing its own form of education and now boasts a very strong, although relatively small, system. The direction of Newfoundland and Labrador’s policy has evolved rapidly since the late 1990s, with increased funding, participation rates, accessibility and transferability. Many of the directives the government has been acting upon in the past 3 years have been a result of recommendations that stemmed from a 2005 white paper: Foundation for Success: White Paper on Public Post-Secondary Education[9]

Northwest Territories[edit]

The only post-secondary institution in the NWT is Aurora College. The former Arctic College was split into Aurora College and Nunavut Arctic College when Nunavut Territory was created in 1999. Aurora College has campuses in Inuvik, Fort Smith and Yellowknife.[10] It has learning centres in many other communities in the NWT. The territorial Department of Education, Culture and Employment is the government agency responsible for post-secondary education in the Northwest Territories. There are two career colleges located in the NWT: the Academy of Learning in Yellowknife, which provides business information technology courses,[11] and Great Slave Helicopters Flight Training Centre, which supplies Global Positioning System training for helicopter pilot education.[12]

Nova Scotia[edit]

The governing body for higher education in Nova Scotia is the Department of Education with Karen Casey as Minister of Education.[13] Nova Scotia has a population of less than 1 million people[14] who are served by 11 public universities and one private chartered university authorized to grant degrees,[15] the Nova Scotia Community College that offers programs at 13 campuses,[16] and 6 Community Learning Centres.[17]

Nunavut[edit]

Created in 1999, the Territory of Nunavut is located in the Canadian Arctic. Nunavut has developed some creative solutions to the delivery of post secondary education. Some of the challenges include a huge geographic region, a sparse and isolated populace, and four official languages.[18][19] To address these challenges, Nunavut Arctic College delivers customized learning programs via Community Learning Centres in twenty-four of the twenty-six communities in Nunavut.[20] Programs are developed to address the needs of individual communities, with respect to literacy, adult education, certificates, and professional development for major regional community stake-holds, such as government, employers and non-profit organizations.[21] To assist Northern residents in accessing highly skilled training, Nunavut Arctic College has partnered with McGill University, the University of Victoria and Dalhousie University to offer Bachelors degrees in Education, Nursing and Law, respectively.[22] Nunavut Arctic College is an active member of the Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer, and has developed formal transfer arrangements with many institution in the Province of Alberta and Aurora College in Northwest Territories.[23]

Ontario[edit]

The higher education system in Ontario includes the governing Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities, advisory bodies, public universities, private degree granting institutions, public colleges, private career colleges, and associations.[24][25] In Ontario there are twenty-two public universities, twenty-four colleges, and seventeen privately funded institutions with degree granting authority. Governance within Ontario universities generally follows a bicameral approach with separation of authority between a board and senate.[26] There are eight associations that provide representation for faculty, staff, institutions, and students by interacting within the Ontario higher education system. The public funding of higher education in Ontario primarily relies on cooperation between the government of Canada and the government of Ontario. Public funding of higher education involves direct public funding of institutions for instruction, investment, and research combined with funding of students.[27]

Prince Edward Island[edit]

Higher education in Prince Edward Island falls under the jurisdiction of the Higher Education and Corporate Services Branch within the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development.[28] The province has one university, the University of Prince Edward Island authorized to grant degrees and one community college, Holland College, that operates centres across the province including: the Culinary Institute of Canada, the Justice Institute of Canada, the Marine Centre, the Aerospace Centre, the Atlantic Tourism and Hospitality Institute and the Prince Edward Island Institute of Adult and Community Education.[29]

Quebec[edit]

The higher education system in Quebec is unique when compared to the other Canadian provinces and territories. Students complete their secondary studies in the eleventh grade. Post secondary studies start within a mandatory pre-university college system (Although commonly referred as the public institutions named (French) College d’enseignement generale et professionel or CEGEP, which translates as General and Vocational College, Both private Colleges and Public CEGEPs exist). Students keen on academic and highly skilled occupations would take the university preparation programs, while students interested in technical, vocational and building trades would take specialized programs at this level to prepare them for the workforce. Because College includes two years of academic study they essentially eliminate the freshman year of university. Programs in Quebec universities are more specialized, but students are required to complete only ninety credits for a Bachelors degree.[30] Students from outside the province are required make up the first year either through a College, CEGEP, or at their chosen university. Although French is the official language at the provincial level, all students can access post-secondary education in both French and English.[31]

Saskatchewan[edit]

The post-secondary sector in Saskatchewan includes public institutions, Aboriginal-controlled institutions and programming, private vocational schools, apprenticeship programs, and Campus Saskatchewan. According to the 2008-09 Budget, the Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment, and Labour has a total budget of $761 million. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour oversees a number of programs to assist current and potential students.

Yukon[edit]

Yukon's system of higher education is shaped by the territory's small population (30,375 people as of May 2006)[32] in a relatively large geographic area. The history of higher education in fact went hand in hand with the establishment of a representative territorial government in 1979.[33] The only post-secondary institute in Yukon, Yukon College, issues certificate, diploma, and partial and some full degree programs to all high school leavers and older adults. The college is a community college and as a result it provides Adult Basic Education/literacy programs as well.[34]

Federal presence in higher education[edit]

The federal Parliament is responsible for the national interest and "it has the power to legislate regarding matters which are in the interest of more than one of the provinces or of the nation as a whole".[35] However, there is no federal ministry or minister of higher education. Historically, areas identified as “appropriate” for federal government involvement included the following: economic and social growth and development, equality of opportunity, employment, preparing young people for the labour force, inter-provincial labour market mobility, adult training and retraining, vocational training, bilingualism, technological development, international affairs and research, and the Canadian Military Colleges[36] In 2008, federal responsibility for higher education is under the umbrella of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC), Learning Branch.[37] The Learning Branch of HRSDC oversees the following: Canada Student Loans and Grants; Saving for Education; Post-Secondary Education; and Student Exchanges and Academic Mobility.

As mentioned above, the federal government is also responsible for funding higher educational opportunities for Aboriginal Peoples with Treaty Status, consistent with the government's constitutional obligation under section 91 of the British North America Act. This is true for Aboriginal learners who wish to pursue both traditional postsecondary education, as well as indigenous educational opportunities.

History of federal government involvement[edit]

1874 Parliamentary statute to establish "the Military College"[38]

1885 Land endowment granted for the establishment of the University of Manitoba

1910 Royal Commission on Industrial Training and Vocational Education – “led to the provision of grants to the provinces for the purposes of developing agricultural techniques and training and upgrading vocational, technical and industrial education” (p. 2)[39][40]

1916 Creation of the National Research Council (NRC) to enlarge Canada’s research facilities during World War I[41][42]

1939 Establishment of the Dominion-Provincial Student Aid Program (DPSAP)

1946 Influx of returning World War II veterans into the universities. In 1947-48 full-time university enrolment peaked at 83,882[43][44]

federal government provided universities with annual grant of $150 for each veteran student[45]

1951 Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences (Massey Commission)[46][47]

1957 Creation of the Canada Council for the Encouragement of the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences[48][49][50]

1957-67 Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) provided loans to universities for building of student residences[51]

1960 Separation of the Medical Research Council (MRC) from the National Research Council (NRC)[52]

1964 Establishment of the Canada Student Loans Program (CSLP)[53][54]

1965 AUCC sponsored Commission on Financing of Higher Education (Bladen Commission)[55][56][57]

1963 Establishment of the Economic Council of Canada[58]

1966 Direct involvement of the Department of the Secretary of State

1966 Establishment of the Education Support Branch of the Department of the Secretary of State formed to coordinate assistance given to universities[59]

1966 Establishment of the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC)[60]

1966-67 Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act 1967[61][62]

1967 Adult Occupation Training Act, which led to the Canada Manpower Training Program[63][64][65]

1971 Formation of the Ministry for Science and Technology

1977 Federal-Provincial Arrangements Established Programs Financing Act (1977)

1978 Government Organizations Act (1976) which led to the creation of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC) and the National Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC)

1982 Bill C-97. An Act to Amend the Federal-Provincial Arrangements and Established Programs Financing Act, 1977[62][66][67]

1983 Dissolution of the Economic Council of Canada[58]

1984 Bill C-12 Act to amend the Federal-Provincial Arrangements and Established Programs Financing Act[68]

1986 Bill C-96 Act to Amend the Federal-Provincial Arrangements and Federal Post-secondary Education and Health Act Programs Act, 1977

1995 Bill C-76 Act to Implement Certain Provisions of the Budget Tabled in Parliament on February 27, 1995

1995 Amalgamation of Established Programs Financing (EPF) and Canada Assistance Plan (CAP)

1996 Canada Health and Social Transfer Act[69][70]

1999 Bill C-65: An Act to Amend the Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act[71]

2004 Canada Learning Bond introduced as way to encourage low-income families to use a Registered Education Savings Plan for saving money to be used for a child's post-secondary education.

2004 Separation of the Canada Health Transfer (CHT) and Canada Social Transfer (CST)

Higher education associations and organizations[edit]

There are numerous groups that are relevant to the structure of higher education in Canada. These include those that support teachers, staff, students, institutions, research, and related groups involved in the delivery of higher education in the Canadian provinces and territories.

Higher education journals and publications[edit]

There are a number of journals and publications regarding higher education in Canada. The majority are published by associations of faculty, staff, or students.

Selected issues[edit]

Political views[edit]

A 2011 study found that Canadian university professors were left leaning but were not "hugely different in this respect from the Canadian university-educated population." There were considerable variation in political views which suggests "that contemporary characterizations of the North American professoriate as left- or right-leaning tend to be overdrawn". Disadvantaged status and socialization in the field were important in forming these views but self-selection effects were not excluded.[72]

Value of higher education[edit]

A 2013 study by CIBC World Markets has found that the overall rate of unemployment among university graduates is only slightly lower than that of high school graduates, the wage boost associated with higher education is narrowing, and "a look at the dispersion of earnings across fields of study shows that there is a much greater risk of falling into a lower-income category for graduates of humanities and social sciences, with a limited risk for students of health, engineering or business. Those underperforming sectors comprise just under half of all recent graduates. In other words, Canadian students are continuing to pursue fields where upon graduation, they aren't getting a relative edge in terms of income prospects".[73]

A 2014 study by Statistics Canada has found that "among university graduates aged 25 to 34 who were not in management occupations, 18% of men and women worked in occupations usually requiring a high school education or less, and about 40% of both men and women worked in occupations usually requiring a college-level education or less. These proportions have changed little since 1991." Also, "about one third of working men and women aged 25 to 34 with a university degree in humanities (which includes history, literature and philosophy) were employed in occupations requiring a high school education or less." It also found that "less than 10% of men and women with a university degree in education were in occupations typically requiring a high school education. Men and women in health and related fields, and in architecture, engineering and related fields also had rates below 15%."[74]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Constitution Act
  2. ^ Standing Senate Committee on National Finance. (1987). Federal policy on post-secondary education. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada
  3. ^ Government of Alberta. "Queen's Printer:Post Secondary Learning Act" retrieved July 15, 2008. [1]
  4. ^ Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer. "Council Principles, Policies and Procedures" Retrieved July 15, 2008, [2]
  5. ^ Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer. "About ACAT" retrieved July 15, 2008, [3]
  6. ^ Alberta Government "Campus Alberta Quality Council:About the Council" retrieved July 15, 2008 [4]
  7. ^ a b Gregor, A.D. (1997). Higher education in Manitoba. In Jones, G.A. (Ed.), Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives (pp.115-136). New York: Garland
  8. ^ http://www.rdee.ca/statistique/en/nouveau-brunswick/region-de-fredericton/indicateurs.html
  9. ^ Newfoundland and Labrador. (2005). Foundation for success: White paper on public post-secondary education. St. John’s, NL: Department of Education Retrieved on May 15, 2008
  10. ^ CollegeView. (n.d.). Aurora College, Yellowknife Campus, Yellowknife. Retrieved June 19, 2008, from http://www.collegeview.com/school/school_hub.jsp?scid=5002152
  11. ^ Academy of Learning. (n.d.). About Us. Retrieved June 19, 2008, from http://www.academynorth.ca/About_Us/index.htm
  12. ^ canadian-universities.net. (n.d.). Yellowknife Career Colleges and Trade Schools. Retrieved June 19, 2008, from http://www.canadian-universities.net/Career-Colleges/Northwest_Territories-Yellowknife.html#Academy%20of%20Learning%20-%20Yellowknife
  13. ^ Nova Scotia Department of Education. (n.d.). Department of Education. Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.ednet.ns.ca/
  14. ^ Statistics Canada. (2008, June 25). The Daily: Canada's population estimates. Ottawa, Ontario Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from [5]
  15. ^ Nova Scotia Office of Immigration. (n.d.). Universities, Colleges, and Trade Schools. Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.novascotiaimmigration.com/en-page1068.aspx
  16. ^ Nova Scotia Community College. (n.d.). Campuses Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.nscc.ca/About_NSCC/Locations/Campuses.asp
  17. ^ Nova Scotia Community College. (n.d.). Community Learning Centres. Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.nscc.ca/About_NSCC/Locations/Community_Learning_Centres.asp
  18. ^ Fortier, M. and Jones, F. "Engineering Public Service Excellence for Nunavut: The Nunavut Unified Human Resources Development Strategy" (page 191 - 195) Retrieved July 27, 2008
  19. ^ Crockatt, Kim; Suzanne Smythe. "Building culture and community: Family and Community Literacy Partnerships in Canada’s North" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  20. ^ "Policies, Procedures and Services (pg. 10)" (PDF). Nunavut Arctic College: Calendar of Courses. Nunavut Arctic College. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  21. ^ "Policies, Procedures and Services (pg. 7-8)" (PDF). Nunavut Arctic College: Calendar of Courses. Nunavut Arctic College. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  22. ^ "Policies, Procedures and Services (pg. 6)" (PDF). Nunavut Arctic College: Calendar of Courses. Nunavut Arctic College. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  23. ^ "Policies, Procedures and Services (pg. 9)" (PDF). Nunavut Arctic College: Calendar of Courses. Nunavut Arctic College. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  24. ^ Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities Ontario. Organization chart (PDF 40KB). Retrieved May 30, 2008, from
  25. ^ Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities Ontario. Role of the ministry. Retrieved May 29, 2008, from
  26. ^ Jones, G. & Skolnik, M. (1997). Governing boards in Canadian universities [Electronic version]. The Review of Higher Education, 20, 3, p. 290.
  27. ^ Salmi, J. & Hauptman, A. (2006). Resource allocation mechanisms in tertiary education: A typology and an assessment. In Global University Network for Innovation (GUNI), Higher education in the world 2006: The financing of universities (pp. 60 - 81). Beccles, Suffolk: Palgrave Macmillan.
  28. ^ Government of Prince Edward Island. (2008). Prince Edward Island: Education and early childhood development / higher education and corporate services. Charlottetown: Prince Edward Island. Retrieved May 20, 2008. http://www.gov.pe.ca/education/heacs-info/index.php3
  29. ^ Government of Prince Edward Island. (2004). 200 years of learning and innovation. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.gov.pe.ca/200years/
  30. ^ Henchey, N. and Burgess, D.(1987) Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition (p. 112) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited
  31. ^ Smith, W. Foster, W. and Donahue, H. (1999) The Contemporary Education Scene in Quebec: A Handbook for Policy Makers, Administrators and Educators (p.7) Montreal: Office of Research on Educational Policy (OREP)
  32. ^ BC Stats. (2007). "2006 Census Profile:Yukon Territory" Retrieved July 15, 2008
  33. ^ Senkpiel, Aron. (1997). Postsecondary Education in Yukon. In "Higher Education in Canada" (pp. 285 - 300). Ed. Jones, G.A., New York, N.Y.: Garland Publishing
  34. ^ Yukon College. (n.d.). "Our Programs" Retrieved July 15, 2008
  35. ^ Sheffield, E., Campbell, D. D., Holmes, J., Kymlicka, B. B., & Whitelaw, J. H. (1978). Systems of higher education: Canada. New York: International Council for Educational Development, p. 1
  36. ^ Sheffield et al.(1978), p. 13-20
  37. ^ [6],
  38. ^ Standing Senate Committee on National Finance. (1987). Federal policy on post-secondary education. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, p.2
  39. ^ Royal Commission on Industrial Training and Technical Education
  40. ^ Munroe, J. P. (1914). Review of the Royal Commission of Canada on Industrial Training and Technical Education. Report of the Commissioners. The American Economic Review, 4(4), 940-942
  41. ^ Standing Senate Committee (1987), p.2
  42. ^ National Research Council Canada: Science at Work for Canada
  43. ^ Sheffield, E., Campbell, D. D., Holmes, J., Kymlicka, B. B., & Whitelaw, J. H. (1978). Systems of higher education: Canada. New York: International Council for Educational Development, p.8
  44. ^ Stewart, L. (1990). It’s up to you. Women at UBC in the early years. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press
  45. ^ Sheffield et al., (1978), p. 8; Senate Standing Committee (1987), p. 2
  46. ^ Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences
  47. ^ Report of the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences
  48. ^ CHAPTER XXV, A COUNCIL FOR THE ARTS, LETTERS, HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES - Report of the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences
  49. ^ Access : : Nature
  50. ^ The Canada Council for the Arts - Canada Council for the Arts - Conseil des Arts du Canada
  51. ^ Canada Mortgage and Housing | Société canadienne d'hypothèques et de logement
  52. ^ Medical Research Council - Home
  53. ^ Canada Student Loans and Grants
  54. ^ Canada Student Loans Program
  55. ^ University of Toronto Libraries - Vincent Wheeler Bladen
  56. ^ Trueman, J.H. (1966). The Canadian university. The Journal of Higher Education, 37(3), 166-168.
  57. ^ Eastman, H.C. (1979). Review of Bladen on Bladen: Memoirs of a political economist by Vincent W. Bladen. The Canadian Journal of Economics / Revue canadienne d'Economique, 12(4), 765-767.
  58. ^ a b Economic Council of Canada
  59. ^ OAG Chapter 14—Secretary Of State
  60. ^ CMEC
  61. ^ Sheehan, B. (1973). Federal funds and university research. Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue canadienne de science politique, 6(1), 121-130.
  62. ^ a b Environment and Planning C abstract
  63. ^ Whose Responsibility?: Conflicting Federal/Provincial Legislation Governing the Training of Adults in Canada
  64. ^ Literacy Across the Curriculumedia Focus - Vol.16 No.1 - Development of ABE in Canada
  65. ^ Maki, D. (1972). The direct effect of the Occupational Training of Adults Program on Canadian unemployment rates. The Canadian Journal of Economics / Revue canadienne d'Economique, 5(1), 125-131.
  66. ^ Dobell, A.R. (1982). Financing Confederation: Politics and process. Canadian Public Policy / Analyse de Politiques, 8(3), 303-307.
  67. ^ Pre-Study of House of Commons Bills by the Senate
  68. ^ Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act
  69. ^ A Brief History of the Canada Health and Social Transfer (Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories, October 2007)
  70. ^ Report F: Canada Health And Social Transfer
  71. ^ Bill C-65:An Act to amend the Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act (LS-333E)
  72. ^ The Ideological Orientations of Canadian University Professors, M. R. Nakhaie & R. J. Brym, Canadian Journal of Higher Education, Volume 41, No. 1, 2011, pages 18 –33
  73. ^ Tal, Benjamin; Enenajor, Emanuella (26 August 2013), Degrees of Success: The Payoff to Higher Education in Canada, CIBC World Markets, retrieved 26 August 2013 
  74. ^ "Overqualification among recent university graduates in Canada" (Press release). Statistics Canada. April 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Coates, Ken & Bill Morrison. Campus Confidential: 100 startling things you don't know about Canadian universities. Toronto, Lorimer, 2013. ISBN 978-1459404359
  • Cote, James & Anton Allahar. Ivory Tower Blues: A University System in Crisis. University of Toronto Press, 2007. ISBN 0802091814
  • Rybak, Jeff. What's Wrong with University: And How to Make It Work for You Anyway. Toronto, ECW Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1550227765