Ontario Highway 407

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"Highway 407" redirects here. For a list of highways numbered 407, see List of highways numbered 407 (disambiguation).

Highway407crest.svg

407 ETR logo.svg

Highway 407
Express Toll Route
Route information
Maintained by 407 ETR Concession Company Limited
Length: 107.3 km[3] (66.7 mi)
History: Proposed 1959–1986,[1]
Opened June 7, 1997–August 30, 2001[2]
Major junctions
West end:  Highway 403 / Queen Elizabeth Way – Burlington
   Highway 403 – Mississauga
 Highway 401 – Milton
 Highway 410 – Brampton
 Highway 427
 Highway 400 – Vaughan
 Highway 404 – Markham
East end:  Highway 7 – Pickering
Highway system
Highway 406 Highway 409

Highway 407 (pronounced "four-oh-seven"), officially known as the 407 Express Toll Route (ETR), is a privately operated and tolled 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. The route begins at the junction of the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW) and Highway 403 in Burlington, and travels 107.3 km (66.7 mi) across the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) to Highway 7 and Brock Road (Durham Regional Road 1) in Pickering. Highway 407 is the first electronically operated toll highway opened in the world; there are no toll booths along the length of the highway. Transponders or licence plates are read at entrance and exit points and distances calculated electronically. Major interchanges along the route include the QEW, Highway 403, 401, 410, 427, 400, and 404.

Leased to a private consortium in 1999, Highway 407 was formerly planned as a 400-series freeway to bypass the Toronto segment of Highway 401, the busiest highway in North America.[4] Despite being included in the 400-series network, Highway 407 is not part of the provincial highway network.[5] The route is operated privately under a 99-year lease agreement with the provincial government. The lease was sold in 1998 for approximately C$3.1 billion to a consortium of Canadian, Spanish and Australian investors operating under the name 407 International Inc. The company is jointly owned by Cintras Infraestructuras, subsidiaries of the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board and Montreal-based engineering firm SNC-Lavalin.[6]

The privatization of Highway 407 has been the source of significant criticism, especially regarding the increases in tolls, plate denial, and false charges. In addition, the safety of segments constructed following the sale of the freeway has been called into question. Many have come to regard Highway 407 as a luxury, as opposed to the bypass of Highway 401 it was originally conceived to be.

Although planning for Highway 407 began in the late 1950s, the project was shelved during the 1960s in favour of expanding Highway 401 to a twelve-lane collector–express system. Land acquisition continued nonetheless, and in the mid-1980s, planning for the highway resumed. Preliminary construction began in 1987 on the future interchanges with Highway 427 and Highway 400 and converting Highway 7 to a six-lane expressway between Keele Street and Leslie Street. During the early 1990s, the provincial government proposed tolling the highway to alleviate a revenue shortfall. The proceeding government then initiated full privatization as part of a series of government downloads. The central sections of Highway 407 opened 1997, between Highway 401 and Highway 404. By the time of privatization in April 1999, the route was completed between Highway 403 and Markham Road. The remaining sections were built quickly over the next two years, with the final segment between Markham Road and Highway 7 opening in mid-2001.

Route description[edit]

Highway 407 ETR is a 107.3-kilometre (66.7 mi)[3] controlled-access highway that encircles the GTA, passing through Burlington, Oakville, Mississauga, Brampton, Vaughan, Markham and Pickering as well as travelling immediately north of Toronto.[7][8] Although the general public felt that tolling made the highway a luxury rather than its original purpose of relieving traffic on Highway 401,[citation needed] Highway 407 has had average daily traffic counts of over 360,000 vehicles in some sections.[citation needed] The 407 ETR is contractually responsible for maintaining high traffic levels as justification for increasing tolls, but conduct their own traffic studies.[citation needed] Despite increased usage, parallel roads that Highway 407 was intended to supplement continue to grow congested, forcing the MTO to revisit costly widening projects of Highway 401 and the QEW.[citation needed]

Highway 407 has been designed with aesthetics in mind, with landscaped embankments and storm drainage ponds at interchanges.[citation needed] Unlike most other Ontario highways, it features cement pavement as opposed to top-coated asphalt. Because of this, the high-mast lighting along the urban portions of the route feature fewer luminaires than asphalt-surfaced freeways.[citation needed]

Highway 407 begins at the Highway 403 / Queen Elizabeth Way junction in Burlington.

Burlington–Brampton[edit]

Highway 407 begins in Burlington within Halton Region at the Freeman Interchange between Highway 403 and the QEW, from which it branches northward between subdivisions. The six lane route passes under Brant Street, Upper Middle Road and Guelph Line (Halton Regional Road 1) before it interchanges with Dundas Street (Halton Regional Road 5 and former Highway 5). It briefly enters greenspace as it curves gently to the northeast, avoiding the nearby Niagara Escarpment. The route is crossed by Walkers Line, east of which subdivisions line the south side and greenspace lines the north. At an interchange with Appleby Line (Halton Regional Road 20), the highway straightens parallel to Dundas Street then passes over Bronte Creek and under a Canadian National Railway (CN) track.[7][8]

Highway 407 south of Highway 401; this section follows a north–south alignment to Highway 403

East of Bronte Creek, Highway 407 enters an agricultural area, interspersed with woodlots. It enters Oakville at the Tremaine Road (Halton Regional Road 22) overpass, then gradually swerves to the north as it encounters an interchange with Bronte Road (Halton Regional Road 25 and former Highway 25). The route crosses Sixteen Mile Creek just north of Glenarchy Conservation Area, then travels parallel to the creek for several kilometres. It swerves north after an interchange with Neyagawa Boulevard, near the hamlet of Glenarchy. It diverges from the creek and curves northeast, parallel to and north of Burnhamthorpe Road, where it interchanges with Trafalgar Road (Halton Regional Road 3). After a final stretch of agricultural land, Highway 407 encounters Highway 403 at a large interchange where curves sharply to the northwest; Highway 403, meanwhile, curves from the southeast to the northeast.[7][8]

Now travelling parallel to and immediately west of the Halton–Peel regional boundary and Oakville–Mississauga city boundary, the four lane Highway 407 progresses northwest alongside a power transmission corridor, with subdivisions to the east and greenspace to the west. The route continues as such northwest to Highway 401, passing under Lower Base Line (which continues east as Eglinton Avenue) and interchanging at Britannia Road and Derry Road before crossing a Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) track. At Highway 401, the route makes a sharp curve to the northeast, while ramps weave across both freeway over several kilometres, interconnecting them. It enters Peel Region at the Winston Churchill Boulevard (Peel Regional Road 19) overpass and follows another power transmission corridor just north of the Brampton–Mississauga boundary.[7][8]

Highway 407 and Derry Road, facing southwest; highway 407 here forms the boundary between Mississauga (at left) and Brampton.

Highway 407 swerves east and encounters an interchange with Mississauga Road (Peel Regional Road 1) just prior to crossing the Credit River and the Orangeville Brampton Railway, after which it immerses into the urban GTA. After passing interchanges with Mavis Road (Peel Regional Road 18) and Hurontario Street (Former Highway 10), the route encounters Highway 410 at another sprawling interchange located over Etobicoke Creek. Over the next 7 kilometres (4.3 mi), the route nudges northward into Brampton, interchanging with Dixie Road (Peel Regional Road 4) and Bramlea Road, as well as a CN railway line, before crossing Steeles Avenue (Peel Regional Road 15). Highway 407 curves back to the northeast as it interchanges with Airport Road (Peel Regional Road 7) and passes beneath another CN line, before encountering the final interchange in Peel Region at Goreway Drive. It crosses the West Humber River and former Highway 50 in Claireville Conservation Area before curving east into York Region.[7][8]

Vaughan–Pickering[edit]

Highway 407 facing east toward Pine Valley Drive, in Vaughan

Immediately after crossing into Vaughan, Highway 407 encounters the first of three large interchanges with other 400-series highways in York Region. The Highway 427 interchange is a four-level partial stack located just north of Steeles Avenue in Vaughan and adjacent to the 407 ETR Concession Company offices. The interchange features weaved ramps which connect to former Highway 27, located just east. The route continues eastward, parallel and between Steeles Avenue and Highway 7. It dives through the Humber River valley alongside a CN line and along the northern border of Thackeray Conservation Lands, passing beneath a CP line. After an interchange with Pine Valley Drive (York Regional Road 57), the route becomes sandwiched between the industrial lands of the Pine Valley Business Park and the Emery Creek Corporate Park. A partial interchange with Weston Road (York Regional Road 56) lies just west of the large four-level stack interchange with Highway 400, the only of its kind in Ontario. An interchange with Jane Street (York Regional Road 55) is weaved into the east side of the Highway 400 interchange, below which the future Spadina Subway Extension will travel.[7][8]

Highway 407 at Woodbine Avenue

Still travelling alongside a power transmission corridor, Highway 407 continues east into Concord, crossing a rail spur which provides access to the CN freight yards to the north. After interchanging with Keele Street (York Regional Road 6), the route gently curves northward, passing beneath the GO Transit Barrie Line and crossing the Don River. It curves back eastward as it interchanges with Dufferin Street (York Regional Road 53), travelling adjacent and south of Highway 7. After interchanges with Bathurst Street (York Regional Road 38) and Yonge Street (York Regional Road 1), the Vaughan–Markham boundary, Highway 407 crosses the GO Transit Richmond Hill Line. After an interchange with Bayview Avenue (York Regional Road 34), the highway serves south. A partial interchange with Leslie Street (York Regional Road 12) precedes the third and final large freeway–freeway junction at Highway 404.[7][8]

East of Highway 404, the freeway travels generally parallel to the Rouge River. It interchanges with Woodbine Avenue (York Regional Road 8) and Warden Avenue (York Regional Road 65), east of which the route travels alongside a CN line and crosses the GO Transit Unionville Line. Highway 407 continues straight eastward into a residential area, interchanging with Kennedy Road (York Regional Road 3), McCowan Road (York Regional Road 67) and Markham Road (York Regional Road 68) where it crosses the river and diverges from both the CN line and power transmission corridor. It interchanges with Ninth Line (York Regional Road 69) and Donald Cousens Parkway (York Regional Road 48) before exiting the urban GTA and curving northeast over a CP line and into Rouge Park.[7][8]

An entrance to Highway 407

The final interchange along Highway 407 is currently with York–Durham Line (York/Durham Regional Road 30), the boundary between York Region and Durham Region as well as Markham and Pickering.[7][8] The route curves eastward then crosses West Duffins Creek north of the abandoned village of Whitevale and south of the future Pickering Airport and planned community of Seaton.[citation needed] Sandwiched between farm fields, the highway is crossed by North Road, where a future interchange is planned,[citation needed] and Sideline 24. Highway 407 ends just south of Brougham at a signalized intersection with Brock Road (Durham Regional Road 1), where it continues eastward as Highway 7.[7][8] A provincially maintained and tolled extension, Highway 407E, is currently under construction east of this point, and will tie in with the current freeway, eliminating the at-grade intersection.[citation needed]

Tolls[edit]

The 407 uses a system of cameras and transponders to toll vehicles automatically. There are no toll booths, hence the name "Express Toll Route" (ETR). It is one of the earliest examples of a highway that exclusively uses open road tolling. Highway 407 is designed as a normal freeway with interchanges connecting directly to surface streets, without the need for toll booth intermediaries (typically via a trumpet interchange) which could otherwise take up significant land. A radio antenna detects when a vehicle with a transponder has entered and exited the highway, calculating the toll rate. For vehicles without a transponder, an automatic number plate recognition system is used; monthly statements are mailed to users.

Along with transponders, The 407 also uses cameras to toll vehicles.

Drivers with transponders must be alert and listen for the exit tones from the transponder when leaving the 407, and be vigilant with making 407 customer service aware of transponder malfunction when it occurs; otherwise, they may incur video toll charges. Vehicles without a transponder and motorcycles are charged this additional toll each trip, to any vehicle that does not have a transponder. A monthly account fee is also charged to vehicles without a transponder in each month a trip is taken. Except for motorcycles, vehicles without a transponder are therefore charged the Video Toll charge + Account fee on their first trip each month.

The automatic number plate recognition system is linked to several provincial and U.S. state motor vehicle registries. Only the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and the states of Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, New York, Maryland, Maine, Georgia, Florida, New Jersey, Delaware, and possibly several adjacent states and provinces that provide 407 ETR access to their registry databases due to the privacy laws of these states.[citation needed]

Plate denial[edit]

Following a judicial decision by the Ontario Divisional Court on November 7, 2005, the Ontario Registrar of Motor Vehicles was ordered to begin denying the validation or issue of Canadian and US license plates and vehicle permits for 407 ETR users who have failed to pay owed fees for at least 125 days. On November 24, 2005, the MTO announced that it would appeal the decision but would begin to deny plates until the appeal was decided. On February 24, 2006, the Ontario Court of Appeals denied the government leave to appeal the November 7, 2005 decision. As a result, plate denial is once again in place.

Previously, in February 2000, the Ontario government would suspend driver licences for unpaid 407 ETR bills; however, this practice was quickly halted. The Highway 407 Act, Section 22, gives the owner of the 407 ETR the ability to deny license plate renewal of drivers who have refused to pay their toll for more than 125 days after the toll first incurred.

Rates[edit]

All dollar amounts listed are Canadian dollars.

As of February 1, 2013, the base tolls for driving on the 407 are as follows:

Light duty Heavy duty Multi-Unit Heavy
Off-Peak - Entire Highway 19.35 cents/km 38.70 cents/km 58.05 cents/km
Midday Weekday - Entire Highway 22.70 cents/km 45.40 cents/km 68.10 cents/km
Midday Weekend/Holiday - Entire Highway 21.00 cents/km 42.00 cents/km 63.00 cents/km
Peak Period Rates - Light Zone 24.90 cents/km 49.80 cents/km 74.70 cents/km
- Regular Zone 26.20 cents/km 52.40 cents/km 78.60 cents/km
Peak Hours Rates - Light Zone 25.85 cents/km 51.70 cents/km 77.55 cents/km
- Regular Zone 27.20 cents/km 54.40 cents/km 81.60 cents/km
Other Tolls - Trip Toll 70 cents/trip $1.40/trip $2.10/trip
Video Toll (no transponder) $3.80/trip* $50.00/trip** $50.00/trip**
Monthly Account Fee (no transponder) $3.25
Monthly Transponder Lease $3.25
Annual Transponder Lease $21.50
Peak Hours Minimum Trip Toll Charge (up to) N/A $16.40/trip $30.20/trip
Off-Peak Hours Minimum Trip Toll Charge (up to) N/A $12.10/trip $22.30/trip
At its eastern terminus, Highway 407 becomes Highway 7 (pictured facing northeast from Brock Road in 2011). As of 2014, an eastern extension is under construction from this location.
  • The toll rate that applies to a specific trip is determined by the time in which the vehicle enters the highway.
  • Midday Weekday Rates are in effect from 10am-3pm, Monday through Friday except for holidays.
  • Midday Weekend/Holiday Rates are in effect from 11am-7pm, Saturday, Sunday and holidays.
  • Peak Period Rates are in effect from 6am-7am, 9am-10am, 3pm-4pm and from 6pm-7pm, Monday through Friday except for holidays.
  • Peak Hours Rates are in effect from 7am-9am and from 4pm-6pm, Monday through Friday except for holidays.
  • Off Peak Rates are in effect from 7pm-6am Monday through Friday except holidays, and 7pm-11am Saturday, Sunday and holidays.
  • The Light Zone refers to the section of 407 ETR from Highway 410 to Highway 427.
  • The Regular Zone refers to all other sections of 407 ETR.
  • Heavy Duty vehicles are assessed a minimum toll regardless of the length of their trip.
  • *Light duty vehicles without transponders are assessed an additional Video Toll. Motorcycles are not charged a video toll because there is rarely a reasonable place to mount a transponder.
  • **Heavy duty vehicles are legally required to have transponders in order to use the highway and violators may be fined under the Highway Traffic Act.

History[edit]

Although construction of Highway 407 did not begin until 1987, planning for the bypass of Highway 401 north of Toronto began in the late-1950s. Concepts for the new "dual highway" first appeared in the 1959 plan for Metropolitan Toronto.[1] Land adjacent to several hydro corridors was acquired for the future freeway in the 1960s, but sat vacant as the Ontario Department of Highway (predecessor to the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) opted instead to widen Highway 401 to a twelve-lane collector-express system. The Highway 401 expansion project was considered a success and construction of Highway 407 was shelved for almost thirty years. The plan was revisted in the mid-1980s as congestion in Toronto pushed roads beyond capacity. In 1986, Premier David Peterson was given a helicopter tour of the city during rush-hour; construction of the highway was announced soon thereafter, and began in 1987.[1]

The Ontario government's normal process for highway construction was not possible given the financial constraints of the recession of the early 1990s. The Rae government developed the 407 ETR highway by seeking out private sector partnerships and using innovative electronic road pricing technology. Two firms bid on the project, with the Canadian Highways International Corporation being selected as the operator of the highway. Financing for the highway would be paid by user tolls lasting 35 years, after which it would return to the provincial system as a toll-free 400-series highway.[9]

The first segment of Highway 407, between Highway 410 and Highway 404, was ceremoniously opened to traffic on June 7, 1997; no tolls were charged for a month to allow motorists to test-drive the freeway.[10] Several other sections were well underway at this point. A 13-kilometre (8.1 mi) extension westwards to Highway 401 was opened just months later on December 13, 1997.[11] That section was connected with Highway 403 to the south on September 4, 1998,[2] with a temporary two lane ramp connecting to Trafalgar Road.[citation needed] In the east, an extension to Markham Road, at what was then the southern terminus of Highway 48, was completed in early 1998. However, due to the protest of local residents and officials concerning traffic spill-off (a scenario currently being revisited with the future extension in Oshawa)[citation needed], the freeway was opened only as far as McCowan Road on February 18.[12] The short segment from McCowan Road to Markham Road remained closed for over a year, as locals feared the funneling of traffic onto Main Street, which Markham Road narrows into north of the freeway. Both Markham and McCowan were widened to four lanes between Highway 407 and Steeles Avenue at this time. This did not alleviate concerns, but on June 24, 1999, the extension opened to continued protest regardless.[13]

In 1999, as part of a controversial plan to balance the budget, and just prior to the Harris government's re-election campaign, the highway was leased to a conglomerate of private companies for $3.1 billion. The route was subsequently renamed the 407 ETR. The Ontario corporation, known as 407 International Inc., is jointly owned by Cintra Infraestructuras from Spain (43.23%), subsidiaries of the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (40%) and Montreal-based engineering firm SNC-Lavalin (16.77%).[14] The deal included a 99-year lease agreement, unlimited control over the highway and its tolls and a restriction under which the government may not build any nearby freeways which might potentially compete with 407 ETR; however, the Government maintained the ability to build a light transit system along the 407 right-of-way.

When purchased, the highway travelled from the junction of Highway 403 in Mississauga to Markham Road in Markham. Extensions westward to the QEW and eastward to Highway 7 and Brock Road in Pickering were constructed by the corporation, as mandated in the lease agreement.[15] The western extension, from Highway 403 southwest to the QEW, was not part of the original Highway 407 concept in 1987; rather, the corridor was originally intended to connect the Hamilton and Mississauga sections of Highway 403. Highway 407 was originally slated to assume the temporary routing for Highway 403 along the Mississauga-Oakville boundary to end at the QEW.[citation needed] The Bob Rae led Ontario government altered these plans in 1993,[citation needed] and the corporation constructed this section quickly upon obtaining the lease. Sections opened throughout the middle of 2001: between Neyagawa Boulevard and Highway 403 on June 17; between Bronte Road and Neyagawa Boulevard on June 29; between Dundas Street and Bronte Road on July 18; and between the Freeman Interchange and Dundas Street on July 30. In the east, a final extension between Markham Road and Highway 7 opened a month later on August 30.[2]

On October 5, 2010, the Canadian Pension Plan announced that an agreement was reached with the owners of the roadway to purchase 10% stake for $894 million.[16] This implies a value of close to $9 billion for the highway in its current state.

The Ontario provincial government has quarrelled with 407 ETR over toll rates and customer service. On February 2, 2004, the government delivered notice to 407 ETR that they are considered to be in default of their contract because of 407 ETR's decision to raise toll rates without first obtaining the government's permission. The court's initial decision sided with 407 ETR: on July 10, 2004, an independent arbitrator affirmed that 407 ETR has the ability to raise toll rates without first consulting the government. The government filed an appeal of this decision but was overruled by an Ontario Superior Court decision released on January 6, 2005; however, a subsequent ruling by the Ontario Court of Appeal on June 13, 2005 granted the government permission to appeal the decision.

Safety concerns[edit]

Left-hand exiting can potentially cause problems for drivers, such as weaving across traffic to avoid exiting and being billed for accidentally driving on the highway.

When the freeway was opened in 1997, many critics complained that it had skimped on safety features to save money. Many of Highway 407's shortcomings were documented in an independent study which included input from the Ontario Provincial Police.

The four-way interchanges with Highway 410 and Highway 404 were intended to be four-level Stack interchanges but they were reduced to three-level stack/cloverleaf junctions, with low-capacity loop ramps serving freeway-to-freeway traffic. Only the interchange with Highway 400 was built as a four-level stack, while the junction with Highway 427 is expected to be converted to a stack when Highway 427 is extended north and traffic levels warrant the upgrade. Experts were also concerned about the decreased loop ramp radii and a lack of protective guardrail at sharp curves. The lack of a concrete median barrier separating the carriageways has also been a worry, considering the high traffic volumes typical of a suburban freeway and because the lighting masts are installed in the median instead of the shoulder. It was argued that the large grass median separating the carriageways was sufficient to prevent cross-over collisions, since Highway 410 has similar features. Most of these concerns were dismissed on the grounds that it would require an extensive reconstruction of the existing freeway.

Inadequate signage leading to 407 has been criticized for being misleading, with motorists incurring bills for accidentally driving onto the 407. Further controversy has centered on the westward extension from Mississauga to Burlington; despite the majority of traffic not using that section of Highway 407, the interchanges at the ends are nonetheless designed with that segment as the mainline through traffic. In the original design, this section was intended to be used for an extension of Highway 403. Because most current Ontario freeways are designed with right-hand exits (while through traffic stays on the left), left-hand exits to the 407 have caused a great deal of confusion with cases of drivers unintentionally driving onto 407 from eastbound 403.

Future[edit]

Planned routing, including two north-south connector freeways in Durham Region, as part of the eastern extension.

An environmental assessment (EA) to analyze a proposed extension of Highway 407 (to be called Highway 407 East or 407E) through Durham Region from its current terminus at Brock Road in Pickering to Highway 35/Highway 115 in Clarington was undertaken. Also studied in the assessment are two north-south connecting highways between Highway 407 and Highway 401 to the south, one located in the general vicinity of western Whitby (West Durham Link) and the other near Courtice (East Durham Link).

A preferred route was announced in June 2007,[17] and the EA was complete in June 2009. On March 6, 2007, as part of the FLOW initiative, the Government of Canada and the Province of Ontario confirmed the extension of the 407 to Highway 35/115 in Clarington, including the connector highways, with an announced completion date of 2013.[18]

A bridge over the future freeway is under construction along Highway 7 west of Brooklin; this is the first project on the new extension.

On January 27, 2009, the provincial government announced that the extension would be a tolled highway but owned by the province and with tolls set by the province. The announcement also indicated that the province expected to issue a Request for Proposals later in the year.[19] The contract, which is valued at $1.6 billion, was eventually awarded to SNC-Lavalin and Cintra Infraestructuras SA.[20]

On June 9, 2010, the ministry approved the extension, but it would only be going as far east as Simcoe Street in Oshawa for the time being, as they want the extensions to be built in phases. However, there were complaints on how it would impact traffic if the 407 ETR ended there. After a motion that was rejected by the Ontario Legislature on having the 407 ETR going to Highway 35/115, the government issued a compromise on March 10, 2011, where the first phase would end as far east as Harmony Road in Oshawa by 2015 and then beginning the second phase where it would extend toward Highway 35/115 by 2020.[21] This timeline was confirmed by Premier Dalton McGuinty on May 24, 2012.[22]

Exit list[edit]

The following table lists the major junctions along Highway 407, as noted by the 407 ETR.[3] 

Division Location km[3] Mile Exit Destinations Notes
Halton Burlington 0.0 0.0  Highway 403 / Queen Elizabeth Way – Hamilton, Niagara Falls, Brantford Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
6.0 3.7 5 Regional Road 5 (Dundas Street)
9.9 6.2 9 Appleby Line
Oakville 14.0 8.7 13 Regional Road 25 (Bronte Road) – Oakville, Milton
18.9 11.7 18 Neyagawa Boulevard
22.2 13.8 21 Regional Road 3 (Trafalgar Road) – Oakville, Halton Hills, Georgetown
HaltonPeel MiltonMississauga 24.8 15.4 24  Highway 403 – Toronto, Hamilton
28.8 17.9 28 Britannia Road
31.9 19.8 31 Regional Road 7 (Derry Road)
33.9–
35.8
21.1–
22.2
34A  Highway 401 east – Toronto Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Peel Brampton–Mississauga 34B  Highway 401 west – London Signed as exit 34 westbound
39.7 24.7 39 Regional Road 1 (Mississauga Road)
Brampton 42.9 26.7 42 Regional Road 18 (Mavis Road)
45.2 28.1 44 Hurontario Street Formerly  Highway 10
47.3 29.4 46  Highway 410
49.6 30.8 48 Regional Road 4 (Dixie Road)
51.1 31.8 50 Bramalea Road Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
54.2 33.7 53 Regional Road 7 (Airport Road)
55.7 34.6 54 Goreway Drive Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
York Vaughan 58.9 36.6 58  Highway 427 – Toronto, Pearson International Airport
60.2 37.4 59  Regional Road 27 – Toronto, Barrie Former  Highway 27
64.2 39.9 63  Regional Road 57 (Pine Valley Drive) changeable message sign eastbound prior to overpass
66.4 41.3 65  Regional Road 56 (Weston Road) Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
67.1 41.7 66  Highway 400 – Toronto, Barrie No access to Highway 7 or Steeles via Highway 400
68.3 42.4 67  Regional Road 55 (Jane Street)
70.5 43.8 69  Regional Road 6 (Keele Street)
74.0 46.0 73  Regional Road 53 (Dufferin Street)
76.2 47.3 75  Regional Road 38 (Bathurst Street)
Richmond HillMarkham–Vaughan 78.4 48.7 77  Regional Road 1 (Yonge Street) Former  Highway 11
Markham 80.3 49.9 79  Regional Road 34 (Bayview Avenue)
82.4 51.2 81  Regional Road 12 (Leslie Street) Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
83.4 51.8 82  Highway 404 – Toronto, Newmarket No access to Highway 7 via Highway 404
84.4 52.4 84  Regional Road 8 (Woodbine Avenue)
86.5 53.7 86  Regional Road 65 (Warden Avenue) New changeable message sign installed
88.4 54.9 88  Regional Road 3 (Kennedy Road)
90.5 56.2 90  Regional Road 67 (McCowan Road)
92.6 57.5 92  Regional Road 68 (Markham Road) – Whitchurch-Stouffville Former  Highway 48
94.7 58.8 94  Regional Road 69 (9th Line) New ramps being added 2009 - Westbound ramp from northbound Ninth Line
96.4 59.9 96  Regional Road 48 (Donald Cousens Parkway)
York–Durham Markham–Pickering 99.4 61.8 98  Regional Road 30 (York-Durham Line)
Durham Pickering 100 North Road Future interchange on existing freeway
102 Pickering Airport Connector Future interchange on existing freeway
103 Pickering Sideline 24 Future interchange on existing freeway
106.5 66.2 106  Regional Road 1 (Brock Road) At-grade intersection; end of freeway
107.3 66.7 108  Highway 7 Eastern terminus; at-grade intersection
Ajax 111  Regional Road 31 (Westney Road) To be owned by the province
112 Salem Road
115  Regional Road 23 (Lake Ridge Road) Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; to be owned by the province
Whitby
116 West Durham Link (proposed freeway) To be owned by the province
118 Cochrane Street Eastbound entrance and westbound exit; to be owned by the province
120  Highway 12 (Baldwin Street) To be owned by the province
122  Regional Road 26 (Thickson Road)
Oshawa 126  Regional Road 2 (Simcoe Street)
129  Regional Road 33 (Harmony Road)
Clarington 134  Regional Road 34 (Enfield Road)
136 East Durham Link To be owned by the province; proposed connector freeway to Highway 401
138 Durham Regional Road 57 To be owned by the province
145 Darlington-Clarke Townline
149 Highway 35/115 Proposed eastern terminus of Highway 407; to be owned by the province
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
  •       Unopened

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Sewell, John (2009). The Shape of the Suburbs: Understanding Toronto's Sprawl. University of Toronto Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8020-9884-9. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c Department of Highways p. 11
  3. ^ a b c "Map / Toll Calculator". 407 ETR. February 1, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2014. 
  4. ^ Maier, Hanna (October 9, 2007). "Chapter 2". Long-Life Concrete Pavements in Europe and Canada (Report). Federal Highway Administration. http://international.fhwa.dot.gov/pubs/pl07027/llcp_07_02.cfm. Retrieved May 1, 2010. "The key high-volume highways in Ontario are the 400-series highways in the southern part of the province. The most important of these is the 401, the busiest highway in North America, with average annual daily traffic (AADT) of more than 425,000 vehicles in 2004, and daily traffic sometimes exceeding 500,000 vehicles."
  5. ^ http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_98h28_e.htm#BK14 Highway 407 Act, 1998, Sections 12(1) and 12(2)
  6. ^ Canadian Press (February 15, 2013). "Highway 407 profits soar". Toronto Star. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Peter Heiler Ltd (2011). Golden Horseshoe (Map). Cartography by MapArt. pp. 258, 353–357, 451–453, 457–459, 464, 469–470, 474–475, section H2–9, V3–Z42, Y8–R56. ISBN 978-1-55198-213-7.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Google Inc. "Highway 407 - length and route". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. http://goo.gl/maps/4elRM. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
  9. ^ Jim Trautman. "Did Ontario taxpayers get taken for a ride on Highway 407?". Eye Weekly. Retrieved July 29, 2014. 
  10. ^ Mitchell, Bob (June 6, 1997). News. "At Last — Opening Bell Tolls for the 407". The Toronto Star. pp. A1, A6. 
  11. ^ Mitchell, Bob (December 13, 1997). News. "Highway 407 Extends to West". The Toronto Star. p. A5. "Highway 407's 13 kilometre western extension opens today from Highway 410 in Brampton to Highway 401 in Mississauga." 
  12. ^ Mitchell, Bob; Keung, Nicholas (February 18, 1998). Greater Toronto. "Highway 407 Grows a Controversial 7 Kilometres". The Toronto Star. p. B1, B3. "Highway 407 grows again today with the opening of a controversial seven-kilometre stretch from Highway 404 to McCowan Road. As of 2:30 p.m., motorists will be able to travel Canada's first tollway from Highway 401 on the Mississauga/Milton border to McCowan Rd. in Markham." 
  13. ^ Swainson, Gail (June 28, 1999). Greater Toronto. "Highway Bypass Put on Fast Track". The Toronto Star. p. B5. "The eastern section of Highway 407, running from McCowan Rd. to Markham Rd., opened Thursday to howls of protest from Markham residents." 
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ [2]
  16. ^ CPP to Buy 10% of 407 Toll Road OCT2010
  17. ^ Highway 407 East Technically Recommended Route
  18. ^ Canada’s New Government announces investment to cut commute times, clear the air and drive the economy in the Greater Toronto Area, Web site of the Prime Minister of Canada, retrieved March 7, 2007
  19. ^ Province to Own Highway 407 Extension, CNW, retrieved January 27, 2009
  20. ^ McGuinty announces $1B extension of Highway 407
  21. ^ Liberals to extend Highway 407
  22. ^ Eastward extension of Highway 407 coming, tolls will be ‘reasonable’

External links[edit]

Official links
Other links