Highways in Greece
Highways in Greece are generally organized so that the odd numbered highways are of north-south alignment and even numbered highways are of east-west alignment. However there are many exceptions.
The designation of some important roads of Greece as "national" was decided by a 1955 decree, while a minister's decision in 1963 determined the numbering of these roads. In 1998, a survey of the Hellenic Statistical Authority defined some new national roads that were constructed after the 1963 decision. Furthermore motorway numbers in Greece are different and irrelevant to other highways' numbers. For example, Motorway 6 (A6) refers to the Attiki Odos motorway, while "GR-6" refers to a different road.
Greece's motorway network has been extensively modernised throughout the 2000s and part of it is still under construction, expected to be complete around 2015. There are a total of 10 main routes throughout the Greek mainland and Crete, from which some feature numerous branches/auxiliary routes, as described in the listing below.
Motorway 1 (A1), colloquially referred to as the PAThE motorway (derived from the initials of the route: Patras – Athens – Thessaloniki – Evzoni (the border crossing with the Republic of Macedonia)); is the oldest and most important motorway of Greece, connecting the country's largest cities, Athens and Thessaloniki and passing through many important regions of Greece on a south-north direction. A few parts of this route are not up to motorway standards yet, but works are under way in upgrading them to such, namely along the Malian Gulf and Tempe Valley.
As of summer 2008, works were in progress around the Malian Gulf, due to be completed in 2011, while a large part of the route around the bay, was completed in April 2008. At Tempe valley, works were due to start in 2008, to be completed around 2012, to include 11 km of tunnels, made mostly for environmental protection. Furthermore the section between Thessaloniki – Evzoni, is yet to be converted into motorway; and is in planning to happen some time in the future.
The full length of this motorway is around 553 km or 346 miles, including 14 km or 8.7 mi of shared route with the A2 (Egnatia Odos). Note that until recently, the "P" in "PAThE" referred to Patras, but the Patra – Athens section has now become part of the A8 (Olympia Odos) motorway, belonging to a different project.
- Motorway 11 (A11) is a branch of the A1, connecting it with the city of Chalcis.
- Motorway 12 (A12) is another branch of the A1, connecting it with the city of Volos, and serving as a bypass for the city. Although it is a dual carriageway throughout its length, parts of it remain with traffic lights and not all sections of the branch are up to motorway standards. Ongoing construction has been happening to upgrade it to such.
- Motorway 13 (A13) is a planned branch of the A1, from Thiva to Elefsina; connecting it with the Olympia Odos motorway and serving as a bypass of Athens' Metropolitan Area.
A2 (Egnatia Odos)
The Egnatia Odos is also known as the "horizontal road axis" of Greece, connecting almost all of Northern Greece from west to east; and provides access to various other locations, as well as international borders with various "vertical routes" that begin from various locations along the A2.
Specifically, there are auxiliary routes to Albania and Bulgaria, with the main route leading to Turkey. The Republic of Macedonia is accessed through the A1 (PAThE), as described above. Another auxiliary route runs close to the Evros river in the prefecture of the same name, reaching a point where Greece's, Turkey's and Bulgaria's borders meet. Some of those auxiliary routes are not motorways, but typical 2-lane highways, but are of considerable higher quality than other similar highways in the rest of Greece. The project (including the auxiliary routes), was completed in 2009, with the length of the main route being 670 kilometres or 416 miles, making it the longest motorway in Greece.
- Motorway 21 (A21) is a branch of the A2 (Egnatia Odos) and connects Egnatia Odos at the town of Ardanio (near the Greek-Turkish border) with the Greek-Bulgarian border at Ormenio
- Motorway 25 (A25) is a branch of the A2 (Egnatia Odos) and lies between Thessaloniki to the Greek–Bulgarian border crossing, via Serres (taking over parts of the GR-12); and between Thessaloniki towards Nea Moudania, referred to in this part of its section as the Thessaloniki – Nea Moudania Motorway or Chalkidiki Motorway. As it passes through Thessaloniki the A25 is shared with the A16, which is used to number the ring road bypassing the city (namely the Esoteriki Peripheriaki Odos (Greek: Εσωτερική Περιφεριακή Οδός, inner ring road)).
- Motorway 27 (A27) is another branch of the A2 (Egnatia Odos), at Kozani which leads towards Ptolemaida and from there to Florina and the border crossing with the Republic of Macedonia. Within 2012 tenders were announced for the construction of the section from Florina up to the border crossing with the Republic of Macedonia and is expected to start construction soon, while the section from Ptolemaida to Florina remains in planning.
- Motorway 29 (A29) is a branch of the A2 (Egnatia Odos) motorway, connecting it with the city of Kastoria and the Greek–Albanian border crossing at Krystallopigi.
Motorway 3 (A3), or the Central Greece motorway is currently under construction starting from Lamia (at the A1) and ending at the A2 (Egnatia Odos), close to Grevena. It will be part of the E65 and be 175 kilometres or 109 miles long. Construction started on June 2007, and it is expected to be complete after 5 years.
Motorway 4 (A4) is a planned motorway from Larissa to Trikala, connecting the A1 motorway with the A3 respectively. It will carry the E92 and it will be an upgrade of the existing GR-6 between those cities. Construction and completion dates remain unknown as of late 2010.
A5 (Ionia Odos)
Motorway 5 (A5), referred to as the Ionia Odos, or Via Ionia is another motorway currently under construction. It starts from Ioannina at the A2 (Egnatia Odos) interchange, and ends at Rio, in Patras, after crossing the Corinthian Gulf through the Rio-Antirrio bridge. There, it connects to the A8 and A9 motorways (see below).
The route passes through most of western continental Greece, along the Ionian Sea, hence its name "Ionia Odos". Work on the majority of the highway began in spring 2006 and will span 6 years, to be completed by 2012. Some parts that were previously completed included the Arta bypass and the Agrinio bypass.
- Motorway 52 (A52) is a branch of the A5 (Ionia Odos) connecting it with the island of Lefkada and the undersea-tunnel of Aktio, leading to Preveza. This section of motorway is expected to serve the popular tourist region around the Ambracian Gulf. At 48,6 km long the motorway was expected to finish in 2012, having started construction in 2009. Earthworks were largely completed by April 2012 but structures have not commenced as of that time.
A6 (Attiki Odos)
Motorway 6 (A6), or Attiki Odos forms part of the urban motorway network of Athens's metropolitan area. Its full length is 65 kilometres (40 mi) and it is also planned to be extended to various directions, bringing its total length to 141 km (88 mi). The Attiki Odos has various auxiliary routes, namely the Aigaleo Beltway (A65) and the Hymettus Beltway (A64), serving parts of western and eastern Athens respectively; while the 6 km (4 mi) section leading from the main route to the Athens International Airport is numbered as the A62.
- Motorway 64 (A64) is a section of the Attiki Odos which branches off the main A6 route. It is referred to as the Hymettus Beltway (A64) (Greek: Περιφερειακή Υμηττού), serving parts of eastern Athens, while it is also expected to be extended further southwards to Vouliagmeni and further eastwards towards Rafina.
- Motorway 65 (A65) is a second auxiliary route that branches off the main A6 route. The A64 section of the Attiki Odos is referred to as the Aigaleo Beltway (A65) (Greek: Περιφερειακή Αιγαλέου) and serves parts of western Athens. A small part of the A65 remains still unconstructed, and it is yet unknown when it will be completed.
- Motorway 642 (A642) is a small branch of Attiki Odos which connects Attiki Odos with Hymettus Beltway. It serves as a small detour of the main route and its length is 2 km.
Motorway 7 (A7), known as the Moreas Motorway or Eastern Peloponnese motorway starts from Corinth, at the interchange with the A8 (Olympia Odos) and continues to Kalamata, passing through Tripoli. It replaced the old GR-7 as the main road, with the section between Corinth and Tripoli, constructed between 1984 and 1990 and officially becoming part of the Greek road network in 1992.
The A7 has recently undergone extensive improvement to full motorway standards. As of December 2012, the motorway section between Corinth and Kalamata is fully constructed and operational, except a remaining bridge section near Kalamata to be completed by 2013. Its total length is 205 kilometres or 127 miles.
- Motorway 71 (A71) is a branch of the A7 (Moreas) motorway from Lefktro, connecting it with Sparta. Parts of this motorway are still under construction, due to open in 2012.
A8 (Olympia Odos)
The Elefsina–Corinth section has been completed to motorway standards, while the Corinth – Patras section begun construction in 2008, and is due to be completed in 2012. It will mostly include the widening and general reconstruction of the GR-8A.
A9 (Olympia Odos)
Motorway 9 (A9), part of Olympia Odos is the planned motorway that will start from Patras, to Pyrgos and join with the A7 (Moreas) at Tsakona. The point where this part of the Olympia Odos splits with the A8 is at Patras, were the interchange with the A5 (Ionia Odos) is located, leading to the Rio-Antirrio bridge.
Construction on this motorway began along with the A8, but will be completed on 2014. The A8 and A9 together are also referred to as the Northwestern Peloponese Motorway, since the A8 runs along the north of the Peloponnese, and the A9 to the west.
Motorway 90 (A90) is a temporary name for a motorway under construction in Crete. It is more widely known as North Road Axis of Crete (Greek: Βόρειος Οδικός Άξονας Κρήτης, BOAK) and is Greece's only motorway that is not on its mainland, but on an island. Certain parts have already been completed, as of summer 2007, at Heraklion and Chania. Its full length will be 310 kilometres or 193 miles. Other sources claim it to be 250 km or 156 mi.
List of Motorways
- Main Motorways
|Pireaus - Athens (Junction with ) – Lamia – Larissa (Junction with ) – Thessaloniki (Junction with ) – Evzonoi - Former Republic of Macedonia|
|Ioannina − Metsovo − Grevena − Siatista (Junction with ) − Kozani (Junction with ) − Veria − Klidi (Junction with ) − Axios − Thessaloniki − Langadas (Junction with ) – Kavala – Xanthi – Komotini – Alexandroupoli − Kipoi - Turkey|
|Panagia (Junction with ) - Kalambaka – Trikala (Junction with ) – Karditsa − Lamia (Junction with )|
|Trikala (Junction with ) - Farkadona − Gonni - Larissa (Junction with )|
|Albania - Ktismata - Kalpaki − Ioannina (Junction with ) - Filippiada − Arta − Amfilochia (Junction with ) − Agrinio − Angelokastro − Mesolongi − Rio-Andirrio-Brücke − Rio − Patras (Junction with )|
|Elefsina (Junction with ) - Marousi − Metamorfosi − Glyka Nera - Spata (Junction with )|
|Corinth (Junction with ) - Nestani - Tripoli – Megalopoli (Junction with ) - Tsakona - Kalamata|
|Corinth (Junction with ) - Nestani - Tripoli – Megalopoli (Junction with ) - Tsakona - Kalamata|
|Patras (Junction with ) - Andravida − Amaliada − Pyrgos − Kyparissia - (Junction with )|
|Schimatari (Junction with ) - Chalkida|
|Velestino (Junction with ) - Volos|
|Thiva (Junction with ) - Elefsina (Junction with|
|Bulgaria Promachonas - Serres - Lagkadas (Junction with ) - Thessaloniki − Kato Scholari - Nea Kallikratia - Nea Moudania|
|Former Republic of Macedonia - Niki - Florina - Amyndeo - Ptolemaida - Kozani (Junction with )|
|Albania - Krystallopigi - Koromilia - Kastoria - Neapoli - Mikrokastro - Siatista (Junction with )|
|Preveza - Aktio - Vonitsa - Amfilochia (Junction with )|
|Athens International Airport - Attiki odos (Junction with )|
|East Athens - Attiki odos (Junction with )|
|Aspropyrgos - Egaleo (Junction with )|
|Megalopoli (Junction with ) - Sparta - Gythio|
|Kastelli - Chania - Souda - Rethymno – Iraklio - Malia - Chersonisso - Agios Nikolaos - Pachia Ammos - Sitia|
- Other Motorways planned
|- Angelokastro - Agrinio - Dytika Frangista - Karpenisi - Lianokladi - Lamia (Junction with )|
|Thessaloniki - Efkarpia - Chalkidiki - Thessaloniki International Airport - Kalamaria - (Junction with )|
|- Alexandroupoli Centre|
|- Kastanies - Orestiada - Didymoticho - Soufli - Ormenio - Bulgaria|
|- Serres - Nea Zichni - Kavala (Junction with )|
|- Komotini - Nemfea - Bulgaria|
|Rafina - Athens (Junction with )|
|Thessaloniki Charilaou - Efkarpia − Kalamaria - Thessaloniki International Airport - Kato Scholari (Junction with )|
|- Pyrgos - Ancient Olympia - Langadia - Vytina - Nestani (Junction with )|
|- Irakleio - Siva - Agia Varvara - Agioi Deka (Junction with )|
|- Pachia Ammos - Agios Georgios - Ierapetra - Agioi Deka (Junction with )|
The Motor-Roads in Greece constructed in Regions how connected Motorways or other Main-Roads. The most Motor-Roads constructed in the Regions of Athens and Thessaloniki. A lot Motor-Roads constructed by the Egnatia A.E. and connected the A2 with other Roads and Regions. All the Greek motorroads more detail in the list:
|Edessa - Skydra - Giannitsa - Gefyra (Junction with ) - Thessaloniki|
|Elassona) - Tsiritsani - Tyrnavos - Larissa|
|- Veria - Naoussa - Edessa|
|Neo Monastiri - Karditsa - Trikala|
|Thessaloniki - Liti (Junction with ) - Kilkis - Doirani|
|- Neos Kavouras - Keratea - Lavrio|
|Andrea Syngrou Avenue|
- Additional National Roads according to the register of the National Roads 1998
|Greek National Road 8A: Athens – Corinth – Patras new road (partly motorway)|
|Greek National Road 16A: Greek National Road 16 – Polygyros|
|Greek National Road 34A: Volos – Portaria - Horefto|
|Greek National Road 111: Agia Triada – Lambia - Lalas - Ancient Olympia|
Correlation with European routes
This is a list of European routes that shows which parts of them run through Greece.
|Preveza – Rio - – Patras - - Pyrgos - – Kalamata|
|Medžitlija-Níki (border with the Republic of Macedonia) – Florina – Florina – Kozani - Kozani – Elassona – Larissa – Lamia - Amfissa – Galaxidi - Galaxidi – Antirio - Rio – Corinth - Corinth – Kalamata - Kissamos – Chania|
|border with the Republic of Macedonia – Thessaloniki – Athens - Chania – Aghios Nikolaos (will be replaced by )|
|Bulgarian border – Serres through GR-57, Serres – Thessaloniki|
|Greek National Road 51|
|Albanian border at Kristalopigi – Florina – Edessa – Giannitsa – Gefyra (west of Thessaloniki|
|Egnatia Odos or Via Egnatia, Igoumenitsa - Thessaloniki - border with Turkey|
|Greek National Road 6 (will be replaced by )|
|Attiki Odos - Athens – Corinth|
|Kakavia (Albanian border) -|
|Greek National Road 5 (will be replaced by )|
|Preveza-Amfilochia - Karpenisi – Lamia|
|Greek National Road 39|
|Elefsina – Thiva (will be replaced by )|
Note: when certain highways that carry European routes are replaced with motorways, the European routes will be re-assigned to the new motorways. For example, GR-7 carries the E65 from Tripoli to Kalamata. When the Corinth – Tripoli – Kalamata motorway is complete, E65 will run through it and not through GR-7 any more.