Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa
Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa (Jawi: حكاية مروڠ مهاوڠسا ), alternatively spelt Hikayat Marong Mahawangsa and also known as The Kedah Annals, is a work of Malay literature that chronicles the bloodline of Merong Mahawangsa and the foundation of the Kedah, a state in Malaysia. The work is thought to have been written in the late 18th century or some time in the 19th century. Though there are historical accuracies, there are many incredible assertions. The era covered by the text ranged from the opening of Kedah by Merong Mahawangsa, allegedly a descendant of Alexander the Great of Macedonia till the acceptance of Islam.
The initial part of the story to submit stories of kings and the opening of the state based on myths and legends or fantasy stories of a trusted community, whether local character, the character of Hindu or stories that come from the influence of Islam. In part this is the saga of this state that the ancestors of the kings of Kedah is Merong Mahawangsa king, a king who not only has family ties to the King of the Romans but also the trust of the King Roman dignitaries.
The Royal Fleet of Merong Mahawangsa was sailing from Rome to China and was suddenly attacked by a legendary giant Phoenix called Garuda. He crashed into the shore of the modern day Kedah. He opened a state called Langkasuka and became king. He returned to Rome after his son, King Merong Merong Mahapudisat became king. Langkasuka changed its name to the Kedah Zamin Turan. Guided by the advice given by his father, King Mahapudisat would later divide the Kingdom into three; King of Siam to his eldest son; King of Perak to his second and King of Pattani to his youngest. The youngest son of replacing their father as King of Kedah with the title King Series Mahawangsa. The Kings traditional start is when they send flower with gold and silver flowers as gifts to their sons and daughters every year, and later to their ancestors.
King Series Mahawangsa dies after upset with his son who do not obey the order and replaced by the prince with the title King of the Series is Inderawangsa. Next is the son of the King Series Inderawangsa became king with the title of Raja Ong Maha Perita greater sense of well known in the history of the state of Kedah as King Bersiong . When the king after the abdication Bersiong resisted because of his wickedness, his son crowned King Phra Ong Mahapudisat. King was succeeded by his son, King Phra Ong Mahawangsa which later became the first king of Kedah converted to Islam. Sheikh Abdullah Yamani Mudzafar changed his name to Sultan Shah
The annal also describes Chola's empire trades on Kedah. The tribute was sent to the Chola Empire on every year by the Kedah Sultanate to the Chola Empire and after to the Siam. We still can find the antique and god statue of Chola Dynasty in Kedah. The descendants of Phra Ong Mahawangsa is still ruling Kedah able to trace their lineage from Merong Mahawangsa. He named Kedah at that time 'Langkasuka', for which 'Langka' meant 'the land of glory' in Sanskrit, while 'suka' was from the name of the Indian emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire.
The descendants of Merong Mahawangsa
Below is the list of the descendants of Merong Mahawangsa according to the Kedah Annals:
- King Merong Mahawangsa, A ruler from Rome and later settled in Bujang Valley and founded the Kingdom of Langkasuka. He is said to be a descendent to Alexander the great. He was a ruler and he was a Hindu. Merong have 3 son, Merong Mahapudisat is the eldest, Ganjil Sarjuna is the second eldest and Seri Mahawangsa, the youngest in the family. Merong also had a daughter, Raja Puteri is the second youngest in the family. He was later succeeded by his eldest son, Merong Mahapudisat. Merong then left to Rome, leaving his son the ruler of Langkasuka
- King Merong Mahapudisat, He became the king of Langkasuka after his father, Merong Mahawangsa went back to his original home, which is Rome. Merong Mahapudisat was the eldest son. He was also the first king of Siam.
- King Ganjil Sarjuna, Ganjil Sarjuna was crowned king after his brother's death. He was the second eldest in the family. He founded and became the first king of the Gangga Negara kingdom.
- Raja Puteri (in English, King Princess), She became the King of Langkasuka after his brother, Ganjil Sarjuna died. She is the youngest daughter in the family. She was also the first king of Pattani.
- King Seri Mahawangsa, He became the king of Langkasuka after his brother, Ganjil Sarjuna died.
- Seri Maha Inderawangsa, He is the son of Seri Mahawangsa. He was called King Bersiong because of his cannibal behaviour and described to have drink human blood. He was the original succeeder of Seri Mahawangsa, But because of his behaviour, Seri Mahawangsa had no choice but to imprison him. Seri Maha Inderawangsa fled to Mount Jerai. He remained hidden for a long time and later had son, called Phra Ong Mahapudisat. Before the death of Seri Mahawangsa some years later after Phra Ong Maapudist was born, he asked his soldiers of Langkasuka to hunt Seri Maha Inderawangsa and kill him. He was later found and was ambushed by the soldiers of Langkasuka. He died but his son, Phra Ong Mahapudisat was spare because he was the only person that was next to the throne.
- King Phra Ong Mahapudisat, After Seri Mahawangsa's death, Langkasuka needed a succeder that had a royal blood. Phra Ong Mahapudist was crowned king after his father's death.
- Phra Ong Mahawangsa, He was the only son of Phra Ong Mahapudisat. He was originally Hindu, but when Islam first came to the Malay Peninsula, he accepted Islam and later became a Muslim. He later changed his name into Sultan Mudzafar Shah and changed the kingdom of Lankasuka into the Kedah Sultanate.
In Popular Culture
KRU Studios has completed the production of its feature film entitled "Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa", which is also internationally retitled as "The Malay Chronicles: Bloodlines" even though the history states that Merong Mahawangsa is of Indian lineage. This epic action adventure, directed by Yusry A. Halim, is loosely based on the myth of its namesake.
KD Mahawangsa is a Royal Malaysian Navy vessel named in the ancient monarch's honor.
- "Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa". Malaysia Factbook.
- Michel Jacq-Hergoualc'h. The Malay Peninsula: Crossroads of the Maritime Silk-Road (100 BC-1300 AD). Victoria Hobson (translator). Brill. p. 164-165. ISBN 9789004119734.