Males of the species have ornate patterns and markings, a combination of an orange crown and face set against a black head and streaked throat. Females lack the head markings but share the variegated wings and grey-streaked underparts of the male. Four subspecies have been identified on the basis of differences on the head markings on the male. The length of this species is roughly 27–30 cm (11–12 in) and weight can vary between 230 g (8 oz) for a small female to 390 g (14 oz) for a large fat male.
Hill partridges are mostly seen in pairs or small coveys of up to 10 individuals that may be made up of family groups.
Indian populations of hill partridges breed between April and June, although earlier breeding has been recorded at lower altitudes. The average clutch size is 3-5 eggs but up to nine eggs have also been observed. Incubation times are unrecorded in wild birds but are reported to be 24 days for captive birds. The nest is shaped like a bowl, with a dome of grass when it is placed in a bank.
The food of the hill partridge comprises seeds and various invertebrates, which it collects by scratching in leaf litter. It has a hen-like contact call that is constantly uttered when it is feeding.
Distribution and habitat
The hill partridge range spans over a narrow band from the western Himalayas to north Vietnam. It is found in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. The species is not globally threatened and is common in most parts of its range.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Arborophila torqueola". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Hume, A.O.; Marshall, C.H.T. (1880). Game Birds of India, Burmah and Ceylon II. Calcutta: A.O. Hume and C.H.T. Marshall. p. 72.
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