Hindu calendar

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A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72.

Hindu calendar is a collective name for most of the luni-sidereal calendars and sidereal calendars used in India since ancient times. Since ancient times it has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization and today there are several regional Indian Hindu calendars. It has also been standardized as Indian national calendar. Some of the more prominent regional Hindu calendars include the Nepali calendar, Assamese Calendar, Bengali calendar, Malayalam calendar, Tamil calendar, Telugu calendar, and Kannada calendar.[1][2] The common feature of all regional Hindu calendars is that the names of the twelve months are the same (because the names are based in Sanskrit) though the spelling and pronunciation have come to vary slightly from region to region over thousands of years. The month which starts the year also varies from region to region. The Buddhist calendar and the traditional lunisolar calendars of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand are also based on an older version of the Hindu calendar.

Most of the Hindu calendars are inherited from a system first enunciated in Vedāṅga Jyotiṣa's of Lagadha, a late BC adjunct to the Veda-s, standardized in the Sūrya Siddhānta (3rd century) and subsequently reformed by astronomers such as Āryabhaṭa (AD 499), Varāhamihira (6th century), and Bhāskara II (12th century). Differences and regional variations abound in these computations, but the following is a general overview of Hindu lunisolar calendar.

Day[edit]

In the Hindu calendar, the day starts with the sunrise. It is allotted five "properties" or "limbs", called aṅga-s. They are:

  1. the Tithi (one of 30 divisions of a synodic month) active at sunrise
  2. the Vāsara (ancient nomeclature), vāra (modern nomeclature), like in ravi-vāra, somā-vāra, etc. or weekday
  3. the Nakṣatra (one of 27 divisions of the celestial ecliptic) in which the moon resides at sunrise
  4. the Yoga (one of 27 divisions based on the ecliptic longitude of the sun and moon) active at sunrise time
  5. the Karaṇa (divisions based on tithis) active at sunrise.

Together 5 limbs or properties are labelled under as the pañcāṅga-s (Sanskrit: pañca = five). An explanation of the terms follows.

Vāsara[edit]

Vāsara refers to the weekdays and the names of the week in many western cultures bear striking similarities with the Vāsara:

No. Sanskrit name of the day
(Day begins at sunrise)
Bengali name Hindi name Marathi name Kannada name Telugu name Tamil name Malayalam name English & Latin names of the approximate day
(Day begins at 00:00Hrs)
Celestial object
1 Ravi vāsara
रविवासर
Rôbibar vāsara
রবিবার
Ravivāra
रविवार
Ravivāra
रविवार
Bhānuvāra
ಭಾನುವಾರ
Ādivāraṁ
ఆదివారం
Nyayiru
ஞாயிறு
Njaayar
ഞായർ
Sunday/dies Solis Ravi, Aditya = Sun
2 Soma vāsara
सोमवासर
Sombar vāsara
সোমবার
Somavāra
सोमवार
Somavāra
सोमवार
Sōmavāra
ಸೋಮವಾರ
Sōmavāraṁ
సోమవారం
Thingal
திங்கள்
Thinkal
തിങ്കൾ
Monday/dies Lunae Soma = Moon
3 Maṅgala vāsara
मंगलवासर
Mônggôlbar vāsara
মঙ্গলবার
Maṅgalavāra
मंगलवार
Maṅgaḷavāra
मंगळवार
Maṁgaḷavāra
ಮಂಗಳವಾರ
Maṁgaḷavāraṁ
మంగళవారం
Chevvai
செவ்வாய்
Chovva
ചൊവ്വ
Tuesday/dies Martis Maṅgala = Mars
4 Budha vāsara
बुधवासर
Budhbar vāsara
বুধবার
Budhavāra
बुधवार
Budhavāra
बुधवार
Budhavāra
ಬುಧವಾರ
Budhavāraṁ
బుధవారం
Arivan (Tamil tradition) or Buthan (religious tradition)
அறிவன் (புதன் - பெருவாரியான பயன்பாட்டில்)
Budhan
ബുധൻ
Wednesday/dies Mercurii Budha = Mercury
5 Guru vāsara
गुरुवासर
or
Brhaspati vāsara
बृहस्पतिवासरः
Brihôspôtibarvāra
বৃহস্পতিবার
Guruvāra
गुरुवार
Guruvāra
गुरुवार
Guruvāra
ಗುರುವಾರ
Guruvāraṁ, Br̥haspativāraṁ
గురువారం, బృహస్పతివారం, లక్ష్మీవారం
Vyazhan
வியாழன்
Vyaazham
വ്യാഴം
Thursday/dies Iovis Deva-Guru Bṛhaspati = Jupiter
6 Śukra vāsara
शुक्रवासर
Shukrôbar vāsara
শুক্রবার
Śukravāra
शुक्रवार
Śukravāra
शुक्रवार
Śukravāra
ಶುಕ್ರವಾರ
Śukravāraṁ
శుక్రవారం
Velli
வெள்ளி்
Velli
വെള്ളി
Friday/dies Veneris Śukra = Venus
7 Śani vāsara
शनिवासर
Shônibar vāsara
শনিবার
Śanivāra
शनिवार
Śanivāra
शनिवार
Śanivāra
ಶನಿವಾರ
Śanivāraṁ
శనివారం
Kaari (Tamil tradition) or Sani (religious tradition)
காரி (சனி - பெருவாரியான பயன்பாட்டில்)
Shani
ശനി
Saturday/dies Saturnis Śani = Saturn

The term -vāsara is often realized as vāra or vaar in Sanskrit-derived and influenced languages. There are many variations of the names in the regional languages, mostly using alternate names of the celestial bodies involved.

Nakṣatra[edit]

The ecliptic is divided into 27 Nakṣatra-s, which are variously called lunar houses or asterisms. These reflect the moon's cycle against the fixed stars, 27 days and 7¾ hours, the fractional part being compensated by an intercalary 28th nakṣatra titled Abhijit. Nakṣatra's computation appears to have been well known at the time of the Ṛigveda (2nd–1st millennium BC).

The ecliptic is divided into the nakṣatras eastwards starting from a reference point which is traditionally a point on the ecliptic directly opposite the star Spica called Citrā in Sanskrit. (Other slightly different definitions exist.) It is called Meṣādi - "start of Aries"; this is when the equinox — where the ecliptic meets the equator — was in Aries (today it is in Pisces, 28 degrees before Aries starts). The difference between Meṣādi and the present equinox is known as Ayanāṃśa - denoting by how much of a fraction of degrees & minutes the ecliptic has progressed from its fixed (sidereal) position. Given the 25,800 year cycle for the precession of the equinoxes, the equinox was directly opposite Spica in AD 285, around the date of the Sūrya Siddhānta.[3][4]

The nakṣatra-s with their corresponding regions of sky are given below, following Basham.[5] As always, there are many versions with minor differences. The names on the right-hand column give roughly the correspondence of the nakṣatra-s to modern names of stars. Note that nakṣatras are (in this context) not just single stars but are segments on the ecliptic characterised by one or more stars. Hence there are more than one star mentioned for each nakṣatra.

# Sanskrit/Hindi Bengali name
নক্ষত্র
Malayalam name
മലയാളം
Tamil name
தமிழ்
Telugu name
తెలుగు
Kannada name
ಕನ್ನಡ
Western star name
1 Aśvinī
अश्विनी
Aśvinī
অশ্বিনী
Ashvati
അശ്വതി
Aswini
அஸ்வினி
Aśvinī
అశ్విని
Aśvinī
ಅಶ್ವಿನಿ
β and γ Arietis
2 Bharaṇī
भरणी
Bharaṇī
ভরণী
Bharaṇi
ഭരണി
Baraṇi
பரணி
Bharaṇi
భరణి
Bharaṇi
ಭರಣಿ
35, 39, and 41 Arietis
3 Kṛttikā
कृत्तिका
Kṛttikā
কৃত্তিকা
Kārttika
കാർത്തിക
Kārthikai
கார்த்திகை
Kṛttika
కృత్తిక
Kruthike
ಕೃತಿಕೆ
Pleiades
4 Rohiṇī
रोहिणी
Rohiṇī
রোহিণী
Rōhiṇi
രോഹിണി
Rōhiṇi
ரோகிணி
Rōhiṇi
రోహిణి
Rōhiṇi
ರೋಹಿಣಿ
Aldebaran
5 Mṛgaśiras
म्रृगशीर्षा
Mṛgaśiras
মৃগশিরা
Makayiram
മകയിരം
Mirugasīridam
மிருகசீரிடம்
Mṛgaśira
మృగశిర
Mṛgaśira
ಮೃಗಶಿರ
λ, φ Orionis
6 Ārdrā
आद्रा
Ārdrā
আর্দ্রা
Ātira or Tiruvātira
ആതിര (തിരുവാതിര)
Thiruvādhirai
திருவாதிரை
Arudra
ఆరుద్ర
Aridra
ಆರಿದ್ರ
Betelgeuse
7 Punarvasu
पुनर्वसु
Punarvasu
পুনর্বসু
Puṇartam
പുണർതം
Punarpoosam
புனர்பூசம்
Punarvasu
పునర్వసు
Punarvasu
ಪುನರ್ವಸು
Castor and Pollux
8 Puṣya
पुष्य
Puṣya
পুষ্যা (তিষ্যা)
Pūyam
പൂയം
Poosam
பூசம்
Puṣyami
పుష్యమి
Puṣya
ಪುಷ್ಯ
γ, δ and θ Cancri
9 Aśleṣā
आश्ळेषा / आश्लेषा
Aśleṣā
অশ্লেষা
Āyilyam
ആയില്യം
Ayilyam
ஆயில்யம்
Aśleṣa
ఆశ్లేష
Aśleṣa
ಆಶ್ಲೇಷ
δ, ε, η, ρ, and σ Hydrae
10 Maghā
मघा
Maghā
মঘা
Makam
മകം
Magam
மகம்
Makha or Magha
మఖ or మాఘ
Makha
ಮಖ
Regulus
11 Pūrva or Pūrva Phalguṇī
पूर्व फाल्गुनी
Pūrva or Pūrva Phalguṇī
পূর্ব ফল্গুনী
Pūram
പൂരം
Pooram
பூரம்
Pūrva Phalguṇī or Pubba
పూర్వా ఫల్గుణి or పుబ్బ
Pubba
ಪುಬ್ಬ
δ and θ Leonis
12 Uttara or Uttara Phalguṇī
उत्तर फाल्गुनी
Uttara or Uttara Phalguṇī
উত্তর ফল্গুনী
Utram
ഉത്രം
Uthiram
உத்திரம்
Uttara Phalguṇi or Uttara
ఉత్తర ఫల్గుణి or ఉత్తర
Utthara
ಉತ್ತರ
Denebola
13 Hasta
हस्त
Hasta
হস্তা
Attam
അത്തം
Astham
அஸ்தம்
Hasta
హస్త
Hasta
ಹಸ್ತ
α, β, γ, δ and ε Corvi
14 Citrā
चित्रा14
Citrā
চিত্রা
Chittira (Chitra)
ചിത്തിര (ചിത്ര)
Chithirai
சித்திரை
Cittā or Citrā
చిత్తా or చిత్రా
Citta
ಚಿತ್ತ
Spica
15 Svāti
स्वाति
Svāti
স্বাতী
Chōti
ചോതി
Swathi
சுவாதி
Svāti
స్వాతి
Svāti
ಸ್ವಾತಿ
Arcturus
16 Viśākha
विशाखा
Viśākha
বিশাখা
Vishākham
വിശാഖം
Visakam
விசாகம்
Viśākha
విశాఖ
Viśākhe
ವಿಶಾಖೆ
α, β, γ and ι Librae
17 Anurādhā
अनुराधा
Anurādhā
অনুরাধা
Anizham
അനിഴം
Anusham
அனுஷம்
Anurādhā
అనూరాధ
Anurādhā
ಅನುರಾಧ
β, δ and π Scorpionis
18 Jyeṣṭha
ज्येष्ठा
Jyeṣṭha
জ্যেষ্ঠা
Kēṭṭa (Trikkēṭṭa)
കേട്ട (തൃക്കേട്ട)
Kettai
கேட்டை
Jyeṣṭha
జ్యేష్ఠ
Jyeṣṭha
ಜ್ಯೇಷ್ಠ
α, σ, and τ Scorpionis
19 Mūla
मूल/मूळ
Mūla
মূলা
Mūlam
മൂലം
Mūlam
மூலம்
Mūla
మూల
Mūla
ಮೂಲ
ε, ζ, η, θ, ι, κ, λ, μ and ν Scorpionis
20 Pūrvāṣāḍha
पूर्वाषाढा
Pūrvāṣāḍha
পূর্বাষাঢ়া
Pūrāṭam
പൂരാടം
Pūradam
பூராடம்
Pūrvāṣāḍha
పూర్వాషాఢ
Pūrvāṣāḍha
ಪೂರ್ವಾಷಾಢ
δ and ε Sagittarii
21 Uttarāṣāḍha
उत्तराषाढा
Uttarāṣāḍha
উত্তরাষাঢ়া
Utrāṭam
ഉത്രാടം
Uthirādam
உத்திராடம்
Uttarāṣāḍha
ఉత్తరాషాఢ
Uttarāṣāḍha
ಉತ್ತರಾಷಾಢ
ζ and σ Sagittarii
22 Śravaṇa
श्रवण
Śravaṇa
শ্রবণা
Tiruvōnam
ഓണം (തിരുവോണം)
Tiruvōnam
திருவோணம்
Śravaṇaṁ
శ్రవణం
Śravaṇa
ಶ್ರವಣ
α, β and γ Aquilae
23 Śraviṣṭhā or Dhaniṣṭha
श्रविष्ठा or धनिष्ठा
Śraviṣṭhā or Dhaniṣṭha
ধনিষ্ঠা (শ্রবিষ্ঠা)
Aviṭṭam
അവിട്ടം
Aviṭṭam
அவிட்டம்
Dhaniṣṭha
ధనిష్ఠ
Dhaniṣṭha
ಧನಿಷ್ಠ
α to δ Delphinus
24 Śatabhiṣak or Śatatārakā
शतभिषक् / शततारका
Śatabhiṣak or Śatatārakā
শতভিষা
Chatayam
ചതയം
Sadayam
சதயம்
Śatabhiṣaṁ
శతభిషం
Śatabhiṣa
ಶತಭಿಷ
γ Aquarii
25 Pūrva Bhādrapadā
पूर्वभाद्रपदा / पूर्वप्रोष्ठपदा
Pūrva Bhādrapadā
পূর্ব ভাদ্রপদ
Pūruruṭṭāti
പൂരുരുട്ടാതി
Pūraṭṭādhi
பூரட்டாதி
Pūrvābhādra
పూర్వాభాద్ర
Pūrvābhādra
ಪೂರ್ವಾ ಭಾದ್ರ
α and β Pegasi
26 Uttara Bhādrapadā
उत्तरभाद्रपदा / उत्तरप्रोष्ठपदा
Uttara Bhādrapadā
উত্তর ভাদ্রপদ
Uttṛṭṭāti
ഉത്രട്ടാതി
Uttṛṭṭādhi
உத்திரட்டாதி
Uttarābhādra
ఉత్తరాభాద్ర
Uttarābhādra
ಉತ್ತರಾ ಭಾದ್ರ
γ Pegasi and α Andromedae
27 Revatī
रेवती
Revatī
রেবতী
Rēvati
രേവതി
Rēvathi
ரேவதி
Rēvati
రేవతి
Rēvati
ರೇವತಿ
ζ Piscium

Yoga[edit]

The Sanskrit word Yoga means "union", but in astronomical calculations it is used in the sense of "alignment". First one computes the angular distance along the ecliptic of each object, taking the ecliptic to start at Meṣa or Aries (Meṣādi, as defined above): this is called the longitude of that object. The longitude of the sun and the longitude of the moon are added, and normalized to a value ranging between 0° to 360° (if greater than 360, one subtracts 360). This sum is divided into 27 parts. Each part will now equal 800' (where ' is the symbol of the arcminute which means 1/60 of a degree). These parts are called the yogas. They are labeled:

Again, minor variations may exist. The yoga that is active during sunrise of a day is the prevailing yoga for the day.

Karaṇa[edit]

A karaṇa is half of a tithi. To be precise, a karaṇas is the time required for the angular distance between the sun and the moon to increase in steps of 6° starting from 0°. (Compare with the definition of a tithi above.)

Since the tithis are 30 in number, and since 1 tithi = 2 karaṇa, therefore one would logically expect there to be 60 karaṇa-s. But there are only 11 such karaṇa which fill up those slots to accommodate for those '30 tithi'-s. There are actually 4 "fixed" (sthira) karaṇa-s and 7 "repeating" (cara) karaṇa.

The 4 "fixed" karaṇa-s are:

  1. Śakuni (शकुनि)
  2. Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद)
  3. Nāga (नाग)
  4. Kiṃstughna(किंस्तुघ्न)

The 7 "repeating" karaṇa-s are:

  1. Vava or Bava (बव)
  2. Valava or Bālava (बालव)
  3. Kaulava (कौलव)
  4. Taitila or Taitula (तैतिल)
  5. Gara or Garaja (गरज)
  6. Vaṇija (वणिज)
  7. Viṣṭi (Bhadra) (भद्रा)
  • Now the first half of the 1st tithi (of Śukla Pakṣa) is always Kiṃtughna karaṇa. Hence this karaṇa' is "fixed".
  • Next, the 7-repeating karaṇa-s repeat eight times to cover the next 56 half-tithis. Thus these are the "repeating" (cara) karaṇa-s.
  • The 3 remaining half-tithi-s take the remaining "fixed" karaṇa-s in order. Thus these are also "fixed" (sthira).
  • Thus one gets 60 karaṇa-s from those 11 preset karaṇa-s.

The karaṇa-s at sunrise of a particular day shall be the prevailing karaṇa-s for the whole day. Note. The day changes at every sunrise i.e. from Sunrise 1 to Sunrise 2 - is 1 Vedic day.

Months of the lunisolar calendar[edit]

The astronomical basis of the Hindu lunar day. Also illustrates Kshaya Tithi (Vaishaka-Krishna-Chaturdashi (i.e. 14th)) and Adhika Tithi (Jyeshta- Shukla-Dashami(i.e. 10th))

When a new moon occurs before sunrise on a day, that day is said to be the first day of the lunar month. So it is evident that the end of the lunar month will coincide with a new moon. A lunar month has 29 or 30 days (according to the movement of the moon).

The tithi at sunrise of a day is the only label of the day. There is no running day number from the first day to the last day of the month. This has some unique results, as explained below:

Sometimes two successive days have the same tithi. In such a case, the latter is called an adhika tithi where adhika means "extra". Sometimes, one tithi may never touch a sunrise, and hence no day will be labeled by that tithi. It is then said to be a Tithi Kṣaya where Kṣaya means "loss".

Month names[edit]

There are 12 months in Hindu lunar Calendar:

  1. Chaitra [(Mīna-Meṣa),(Pisces-Aries)]
  2. Vaiśākha [(Meṣa-Vṛṣabha),(Aries-Taurus)]
  3. Jyeṣṭha [(Vṛṣabha-Mithuna),(Taurus-Gemini)]
  4. Āṣāḍha [(Mithuna-Kadaga),(Gemini-Cancer)]
  5. Śrāvaṇa [(Kadaga-Siṃha),(Cancer-Leo)]
  6. Bhādrapada or Bhādra also Proṣṭhapada [(Siṃha-Kanyā),(Leo-Virgo)]
  7. Āśvina [(Kanyā-Tulā),(Virgo-Libra)]
  8. Kārtika [(Tulā-Vṛścik‌‌‌a),(Libra-Scorpio)]
  9. Agrahāyaṇa or, Mārgaśīrṣa [(Vṛścik‌‌‌a-Dhanur),(Scorpio-Sagitarius)]
  10. Pauṣa [(Dhanur-Makara),(Sagitarius-Capricorn)]
  11. Māgha [(Makara-Kumbha),(Capricorn-Aquarius)]
  12. Phālguna [(Kumbha-Mīna),(Aquarius-Pisces)]

Determining, which name a lunar month takes is somewhat indirect. It is based on the rāshi (Zodiac sign) into which the sun transits within a lunar month, i.e. before the new moon ending the month.

There are 12 rāśi names, there are twelve lunar month names. When the sun transits into the Meṣa rāśi in a lunar month, then the name of the lunar month is Chaitra which has both Mīna rāśi and Meṣa rāśi . When the sun transits into Vṛṣabha rāśi, then the lunar month is Vaiśākha which has both Meṣa rāśi and Vṛṣabha rāśi. So on.

If the transits of the Sun through various constellations of the zodiac (Rāśi) are used, then we get Solar months, which do not shift with reference to the Gregorian calendar. The Solar months along with the corresponding Hindu seasons and Gregorian months are:

(Rāśi)
Saura Māsa
(solar months)
Ṛtu
(season)
Bengali name Kannada name Telugu name Tamil name Gregorian
Tropical months
Sidereal Vedic Zodiac
Meṣa Grīṣma

(summer)

বসন্ত (Bôsôntô) ವಸಂತ ಋತು (Vasaṃta Ṛtu) వసంత ఋతువు (Vasaṃta Ṛtuvu) இளவேனில் (ilavenil) Apr-May Aries
Vṛṣabha May–June Taurus
Mithuna Varṣā

(monsoon)

গ্রীষ্ম (Grishmô) ಗ್ರೀಷ್ಮ ಋತು (Grīṣma Ṛtu) గ్రీష్మ ఋతువు (Grīṣma Ṛtuvu) முதுவேனில் (mudhuvenil) June–July Gemini
Karkaṭa July-Aug Cancer
Siṃha Śarad

(autumn)

বর্ষা (Bôrsha) ವರ್ಷ ಋತು (Varṣa Ṛtu) వర్ష ఋతువు (Varṣa Ṛtuvu) கார் (kaar) Aug-Sept Leo
Kanyā Sept-Oct Virgo
Tulā Hemanta

(winter)

শরৎ(Shôrôt) ಶರದೃತು (Śaradṛtu) శరదృతువు (Śaradṛtuvu) குளிர் (kulir) Oct-Nov Libra
Vṛścik‌‌‌a Nov-Dec Scorpius
Dhanu Śiśira

(prevernal)

হেমন্ত (Hemôntô) ಹೇಮಂತ ಋತು (Hēmaṃta Ṛtu) హేమంత ఋతువు (Hēmaṃta Ṛtuvu) முன்பனி (munpani) Dec-Jan Sagittarius
Makara Jan-Feb Capricornus
Kumbha Vasanta

(spring)

শীত (Shīth) ಶಿಶಿರ ಋತು (Śiśira Ṛtu) శిశిర ఋతువు (Śiśira Ṛtuvu) பின்பனி (pinpani) Feb-Mar Aquarius
Mīna Mar-Apr Pisces


The Sanskrit grammatical derivation of the lunar month names Chaitra etc., is: the (lunar) month which has its central full moon occurring at or near the Citrā nakṣatra is called Chaitra. Another example is let's say when Pūrṇimā occurs in or near Viśākha nakṣatra, this in turn results to the initiation of the lunar month titled Vaiśākha Māsa.[6]

Similarly, for the nakṣatra-s Viśākha, Jyeṣṭhā, (Pūrva) Āṣāḍhā, Śravaṇa, Bhādrapadā, Aśvinī (old name Aśvayuj), Kṛttikā, Mṛgaśiras, Puṣya, Meghā and (Pūrva/Uttara) Phalguṇī the names Vaiśākha etc. at pūrṇimā, the other Lunar names are derived subsequently.

The lunar months are split into two Pakṣas of 15 days. The waxing paksha is called Śukla Pakṣa, light half, and the waning paksha the Kṛṣṇa Pakṣa, dark half. There are two different systems for making the lunar calendar:

  • Amāvāsyanta or mukhya mana system – a month begins with a new moon and ends at new moon, mostly followed in the southern states
  • Pūrṇimānta or gauna mana system – a month begins with a full moon and ends at full moon, followed more in the North.

p.s. Pūrṇimānta is also known as Śuklānta Māsa. And this system is recommended by Varāhamihira.

Extra months (Adhika Māsa)[edit]

The astronomical basis of the Hindu lunar months. Also illustrates Adhika Masa (Year 2-Bhadrapada) repeats twice; the first time the Sun moves entirely within Simha Rashi thus rendering it an Ashika Masa

When the sun does not at all transit into any rāśi but simply keeps moving within a rāśi in a lunar month (i.e. before a new moon), then that lunar month will be named according to the first upcoming transit. It will also take the epithet of adhika or "extra". For example, if a lunar month elapsed without a solar transit and the next transit is into Meṣa, then this month without transit is labeled Adhika Chaitra Māsa. The next month will be labeled according to its transit as usual and will get the epithet nija ("original") or Śuddha ("unmixed"). In the animation above, Year 2 illustrates this concept with Bhadrapada repeating twice; the first time the Sun stays entirely within Simha rashi thus resulting in an Adhika Bhakradapada.

Extra Month, or adhika māsa (māsa = lunar month in this context) falls every 32.5 months. It is also known as puruśottama māsa, so as to give it a devotional name. Thus 12 Hindu mas (māsa) is equal to approximate 356 days, while solar year have 365 or 366 (in leap year) which create difference of 9 to 10 days, which is offset every 3rd year. No adhika māsa falls during Kārtika to Māgh.

A month long fair is celebrated in Machhegaun during adhika māsa. It is general belief that one can wash away all one's sins by taking a bath in the Machhenarayan's pond.

Lost months (Kṣaya Māsa)[edit]

If the sun transits into two rāshis within a lunar month, then the month will have to be labeled by both transits and will take the epithet kṣaya or "loss". There is considered to be a "loss" because in this case, there is only one month labeled by both transits. If the sun had transited into only one raashi in a lunar month as is usual, there would have been two separate months labeled by the two transits in question.

For example, if the sun transits into Meṣa and Vṛṣabha in a lunar month, then it will be called Chaitra-Vaiśākha kṣaya-māsa. There will be no separate months labeled Chaitra and Vaiśākha.

A Kṣaya-Māsa occurs very rarely. Known gaps between occurrence of Kṣaya-Māsas are 19 and 141 years. The last was in 1983. January 15 through February 12 were Pauṣa-Māgha kṣaya-māsa. February 13 onwards was (Adhika) Phālguna.

Special Case:

If there is no solar transit in one lunar month but there are two transits in the next lunar month,

  • the first month will be labelled by the first transit of the second month and take the epithet Adhika and
  • the next month will be labelled by both its transits as is usual for a Kṣaya-Māsa

This is a very very rare occurrence. The last was in 1315. October 8 to November 5 were Kārtika Adhika-Māsa. November 6 to December 5 were Kārtika-Mārgaśīrṣa Kṣaya-Māsa. December 6 onwards was Pauṣa.

Religious observances in case of extra and lost months[edit]

Among normal months, adhika months, and kshaya months, the earlier are considered "better" for religious purposes. That means, if a festival should fall on the 10th tithi of the Āshvayuja month (this is called Vijayadashamī) and there are two Āśvayuja (Āśvina)' months caused by the existence of an adhika Āśvayuja, the first adhika month will not see the festival, and the festival will be observed only in the second nija month. However, if the second month is āshvayuja kshaya then the festival will be observed in the first adhika month itself.

When two months are rolled into one in the case of a kshaya māsa, the festivals of both months will also be rolled into this Kṣaya Māsa'. For example, the festival of Mahāshivarātri which is to be observed on the fourteenth tithi of the Māgha Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa was, in 1983, observed on the corresponding tithi of Pauṣa-Māgha Kṣaya Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa, since in that year, Pauṣa and Māgha were rolled into one, as mentioned above. When two months are rolled into one in the case of a Kṣaya Māsa, the festivals of both months will also be rolled into this kṣaya māsa.

Vaiṣṇava calendar[edit]

Main article: Gaurabda
Month Presiding Deity
of the month
Agrahāyaṇa Keśava
Pauṣa Nārāyaṇa
Maghā Mādhava
Phālguna Govinda
Chaitra Viṣṇu
Vaiśākha Madhusudana
Jyeṣṭha Trivikrama
Āṣāḍha Vāmana
Śrāvaṇa Śrīdhara
Bhādrapada Hṛṣīkeśa
Āśvina Padmanābha
Kārtika Dāmodara

Year of the lunisolar calendar[edit]

The new year day is the first day of the shukla paksha of Chaitra. In the case of adhika or kshaya months relating to Chaitra, the aforementioned religious rules apply giving rise to the following results:

  • If an adhika Chaitra is followed by a nija Chaitra, the new year starts with the nija Chaitra.
  • If an adhika Chaitra is followed by a Chaitra-Vaishākha kshaya, the new year starts with the adhika Chaitra.
  • If a Chaitra-Vaiśākha Kṣaya occurs with no adhika Chaitra before it, then it starts the new year.
  • If a Chaitra-Phālguna Kṣaya' occurs, it starts the new year.

Another kind of lunisolar calendar[edit]

There is another kind of lunisolar calendar which differs from the former in the way the months are named. When a full moon (instead of new moon) occurs before sunrise on a day, that day is said to be the first day of the lunar month. In this case, the end of the lunar month will coincide with a full moon. This is called the pūrṇimānta māna - full-moon-ending reckoning, as against the amānta māna - new-moon-ending reckoning used before.

This definition leads to a lot of complications:

  • The first pakṣa of the month will fall on Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa whilst the second will be Śukla-Pakṣa in Pūrṇimānta system.
  • The new year is still on the first day of the Chaitra Śukla-Pakṣa. The subsequentPakṣa-s will, for example, be -
Lunar Month
Candra Māsa
First Pakṣa Ending (2nd) Pakṣa
Vaiśākha Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Jyaiṣṭha Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Āṣāḍha Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Śrāvaṇa Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Bhādrapada Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Āśvina Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Kārtika Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Mārgaśīrṣa Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Pauṣa Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Māgha Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Phālguna Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
Chaitra Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa Śukla-Pakṣa

Note:

  1. Phālguna Māsa is the last Lunar month, with the last pakṣa of the year in this pūrṇimānta system being Phālguna Śukla-Pakṣa.
  • The Śukla Pakṣa of a given month, say Chaitra, comprises the same actual days in both systems, as can be deduces from a careful analysis of the rules. However, the Chaitra Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa-s defined by the 2 systems will be on different days, since the Chaitra Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa precedes the Chaitra Śukla-Pakṣa in the pūrnimānta system but follows it in the amānta system.
  • Though the regular months are defined by the full moon, the adhika and kṣaya lunar months are still defined by the new moon. That is, even if the pūrnimānta system is followed, adhika or kṣaya months will start with the first sunrise after the new moon, and end with the new moon.
  • The adhika month will therefore get sandwiched between the 2pakṣa-s of the nija months. For example, a Śrāvaṇa Adhika Māsa will be inserted as follows:
    1. nija Śrāvaṇa Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa
    2. adhika Śrāvaṇa Śukla-Pakṣa
    3. adhika Śrāvaṇa Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa and
    4. nija Shrāvana Śukla-Pakṣa
      after which Bhādrapada Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa will follow subsequently as usual.
  • If there is an adhika Chaitra, then it will follow the (nija) Chaitra Krṣṇa-Pakṣa at the end of the year. Only with the nija Chaitra Śukla-Pakṣa will the new year start. The only exception is when it is followed by a kṣaya, and that will be mentioned later.
  • The kṣaya month is more complicated. If in the amānta system there is a Pauṣa-Māgha Kṣaya Māsa, then in the pūrnimānta system there will be the following pakṣa-s:
    1. Pauṣa Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa
    2. Pauṣa-Maagha kshaya Śukla-Pakṣa
    3. Māgha-Phālguna Kṣaya Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa and a
    4. Phālguna Śukla-Pakṣa.
  • The special Kṣaya case where an adhika māsa precedes a kshaya māsa gets even more convoluted. First, we should remember that the Āśvina Śukla-Pakṣa is the same in both the systems. After this come the following Pakṣa-s:
    1. nija Kārtika Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa
    2. adhika Kārtika Śukla-Pakṣa
    3. adhika Kārtika Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa
    4. Kārtika-Māgaśīrṣa Kṣaya Śukla-Pakṣa
    5. Māgaśīrsa-Pauṣa Kṣaya Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa
    6. Pauṣa Śukla-Pakṣa
      followed by the Māgha Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa etc., as usual.
  • The considerations for the new year are:
    1. If there is a Chaitra-Vaiśākha Kṣaya Śukla-Pakṣa:
      1. if an adhika Chaitra' precedes it, then the adhika Chaitra Śukla-Pakṣa starts the new year
      2. if not, the Kṣaya Śukla-Pakṣa starts the new year
    2. If there is a Phālguna-Chaitra Kṣaya Śukla-Pakṣa then it starts the new year

However, none of these above complications cause a change in the day of religious observances. Since only the name of the Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa-s of the months will change in the two systems, festivals which fall on the Kṛṣṇa-Pakṣa will be defined by the appropriate changed name. That is, the Mahāśivarātri, defined in the amānta māna to be observed on the fourteenth of the Māgha krishna paksha will now (in the pūrnimānta māna) be defined by the Phālguna krishna paksha.

Correspondence of the lunisolar calendar to the solar calendar[edit]

A lunisolar calendar is always a calendar based on the moon's celestial motion, which in a way keeps itself close to a solar calendar based on the sun's (apparent) celestial motion. That is, the lunisolar calendar's new year is to kept always close (within certain limits) to a solar calendar's new year.

Since the Hindu lunar month names are based on solar transits, and the month of Chaitra will, as defined above, always be close to the solar month of Meṣa (Aries), the Hindu lunisolar calendar will always keep in track with the Hindu solar calendar.

The Hindu solar calendar by contrast starts on April 14–15 each year. This signifies the sun's "entry" into Mesha rashi and is celebrated as the New Year in Assam, Bengal, Odisha, Manipur, Kerala, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Tripura. The first month of the year is called "Chitterai (சித்திரை)" in Tamil, "Medam" in Malayalam and Bohag in Assamese, Baisakh in Bengali/Punjabi and Nepali. This solar new year is celebrated on the same day in Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Nepal and Thailand.

Year numbering[edit]

The epoch (starting point or first day of the zeroth year) of the current era of Hindu calendar (both solar and lunisolar) is February 18, 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar or January 23, 3102 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. According to the Purāṇa-s this was the moment when Śrī Kṛṣṇa returned to his eternal abode.[7][8] Both the solar and lunisolar calendars started on this date. After that, each year is labeled by the number of years elapsed since the epoch.

This is an unusual feature of the Hindu calendar. Most systems use the current ordinal number of the year as the year label. But just as a person's true age is measured by the number of years that have elapsed starting from the date of the person's birth, the Hindu calendar measures the number of years elapsed. As of August 31, 2014, 5116 years have elapsed in the Hindu calendar. However, the lunisolar calendar year usually starts earlier than the solar calendar year,[citation needed] so the exact year will not begin on the same day every year.

Year names[edit]

Apart from the numbering system outlined above, there is also a cycle of 60 calendar year names, called Samvatsaras, which started at the first year (at elapsed years zero) and runs continuously:

This system contains the concept of leap year also.Every 4th year will have 366 days and the others only 365.The starting point is Meshadi or Mesha Sankranti, ( 1st of the month Meṣa or the Hindu solar new year).It is also calculated a day by day mode.beginning from 1 presently it runs 1864000+.... days.This means these much days have passed in the present Kaliyuga (1/10 of Catur-Yuga's total)

Eras[edit]

Hinduism follows Hindu units of time containing four eras (or yuga, meaning age). The four yugas are:

  1. Kṛta Yuga or Satya Yuga
  2. Treta Yuga
  3. Dwapar Yuga
  4. Kali Yuga

They are often translated into English as the Golden, Silver, Bronze and Iron Ages, respectively. The ages follow a gradual decline of dharma, wisdom, knowledge, intellectual capability, life span and emotional and physical strength. The Kali Yuga began approximately five thousand years ago, and it has a duration of 432,000 years years long. The Dvāpara, Tretā, and Kṛta Yugas are two, three, and four times the length of the Kali Yuga, respectively. Thus, the ages together constitute a 1,200,000 year period—half the time required for the Sun to orbit the Galactic Sun which resides at the centre of the universe.

A thousand and a thousand (i.e. two thousand) Catur-Yugas are said to be one day and night of the creator Brahmā. Brahmā lives for 100 years of 360 "days" and at the end, he is said to dissolve, along with his entire Creation, into the Eternal Soul or Paramātman.

History[edit]

The Hindu Calendar descends from the Vedic times. There are many references to calendrics in the Vedas. The (6) Vedāṅga-s (auto Veda) called Jyotiṣa (literally, "celestial body study") prescribed all the aspects of the Hindu calendars. After the Vedic period, there were many scholars such as Āryabhaṭa (5th century), Varāhamihira (6th century) and Bhāskara (12th century) who were experts scholars in Jyotiṣa and contributed to the development of the Hindu Calendar.

The most widely used authoritative text for the Hindu Calendars is the "Sūrya Siddhānta", a text of uncertain age, though some place it at 10th century.

The traditional Vedic calendar used to start with the month of agrahayan (agra=first + ayan = travel of the sun, equinox) or Mārgaśīṣa. This is the month where the Sun crosses the equator, i.e. the vernal equinox. This month was called mārgashirsha after the fifth nakshatra (around lambda orionis). Due to the precession of the Earth's axis, the vernal equinox is now in Pisces, and corresponds to the month of chaitra. This shift over the years is what has led to various calendar reforms in different regions to assert different months as the start month for the year. Thus, some calendars (e.g. Vikram) start with Chaitra, which is the present-day month of the vernal equinox, as the first month. Others may start with Vaiśākha (e.g. Bangabda). The shift in the vernal equinox by nearly four months from Agrahāyaṇa to Chaitra in sidereal terms seems to indicate that the original naming conventions may date to the fourth or fifth millennium BC, since the period of precession in the Earth's axis is about 25,800 years.

Regional variants[edit]

The Indian Calendar Reform Committee, appointed in 1952, identified more than thirty well-developed calendars, all variants of the Surya Siddhanta calendar outlined here, in systematic use across different parts of India. These include the widespread Vikrama and Shalivahana calendars and regional variations thereof. The Tamil calendar, a solar calendar, is used in Tamil Nadu and Kollavarsham Calendar is used in Kerala.

Vikrama and Shalivahana calendars[edit]

The two calendars most widely used in India today are the Vikrama calendar followed in Western and Northern India and Nepal, and the Shalivahana or Saka calendar which is followed in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Goa.

In the year 56 BC, Vikrama Samvat era was founded by the emperor Vikramaditya of Ujjain following his victory over the Sakas. Later, in a similar fashion, Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni initiated the Saka era to celebrate his victory against the Sakas in the year AD 78.

Both the Vikrama and the Shalivahana are lunisolar calendars, and feature annual cycles of twelve lunar months, each month divided into two phases: the 'bright half' (Śukla Pakṣa) and the 'dark half' (Kṛṣṇa Pakṣa); these correspond respectively to the periods of the 'waxing' and the 'waning' of the moon. Thus, the period beginning from the first day after the new moon and ending on the full moon day constitutes the Śukla Pakṣa, 'bright part' of the month; the period beginning from the day after Pūrṇimā (the full moon) until and including the next new moon day constitutes the Kṛṣṇa Pakṣa, the'dark part' of the month.

The names of the 12 months, as also their sequence, are the same in both calendars; however, the new year is celebrated at separate points during the year and the "year zero" for the two calendars is different. In the Vikrama calendar, the zero year corresponds to 56 BC, while in the Shalivahana calendar, it corresponds to AD 78. The Vikrama calendar begins with the month of Baiśākha or Vaiśākha (April), or Kartak (October/November) in Gujarat. The Shalivahana calendar begins with the month of Chaitra (March) and the Ugadi/Gudi Padwa festivals mark the new year.

Another little-known difference between the two calendars exists: while each month in the Shalivahana calendar begins with the 'bright half' and is followed by the 'dark half', the opposite obtains in the Vikrama calendar. Thus, each month of the Shalivahana calendar ends with the no-moon day and the new month begins on the day after that, while the full-moon day brings each month of the Vikrama calendar to a close (This is an exception in Gujarati Calendar, its month (and hence new year) starts on a sunrise of the day after new moon, and ends on the new moon, though it follows Vikram Samvat).

In Gujarat, Diwali is held on the final day of the Vikram Calendar and the next day marks the beginning of the New Year and is also referred as ‘Annakut’ or Nutan Varsh or Bestu Varash. In the Hindu calendar popularly used in North India the year begins with Chaitra Shukala Pratipadha (March – April).

Samvat calendars[edit]

Samvat is one of the several Hindu calendars in India:

Most holidays in India are based on the first two calendars. A few are based on the solar cycle, Sankranti (solar sidereal) and Baisakhi (solar tropical).

Months and approximate correspondence[edit]

*** It is occording to Saka Calendar

Indian months are listed below. Shaka and Chaitradi Vikram (UP, Rajasthan, Maharashtra etc.) start with Chaitra, Kartikadi Vikram (Gujarat) start in Kartika.

# Indian Gregorian
1 Chaitra March–April
2 Vaisākha April–May
3 Jyeshta May–June
4 Āshāda June–July
5 Shraavana July–August
6 Bhādrapada August–September
7 Ashwina September–October
8 Kartika October–November
9 Mārgasirsa
(Agrahayana)
November–December
10 Pausha December–January
11 Māgha January–February
12 Phālguna February–March

Nakshatras are divisions of ecliptic, each 13° 20', starting from 0° Aries. The purnima of each month is synchronized with a nakshatra.

Time cycles in India[edit]

The time cycles in India are:

  • 60-year cycle
  • Year
  • 6 seasons of a year
  • about 60 days (2 months) in a season
  • Month (lunar)
  • 2 pakshas in a month, shukla (waxing) and krishna (waning)
  • 15 tithis in a paksha (1-14, 15th is purnima or amavasya)
  • 60 ghatikas (or 30 muhurtas or 8 praharas) in a 24-hour period (ahoratra).
  • 30 Kala (approx) in 1 muhurta
  • 30 Kastha in 1 kala
  • 15 Nimisha in 1 kastha

Years are synchronized with the solar sidereal year by adding a month every three years. The extra month is termed as "Adhik Mass" (extra month). This extra month is called Mala Masa (impure month) in Eastern India.

Date conversion[edit]

Converting a date from an Indian calendar to the common era can require a complex computation. To obtain the approximate year in AD):

  • Chaitradi Vikram (past) : Chaitra-Pausha: subtract 57; Pausha-Phalguna: subtract 56.
  • Shaka: add 78-79
  • Kalachuri: add 248-249
  • Gupta/Valabhi: add 319-320
  • Bangla: add 593-594
  • Vira Nirvana Samvat: subtract 527-526
  • Yudhishthira Samvat: Subtract 3101 (Ascension of Lord Krishna at age 125) from AD
  • Sri Krishna Samvat: Subtract 3226 (Birth of Lord Sri Krishna) from AD
  • Balabhi Samvat: add 320 to AD
  • Kyoto University Panchanga Converter Program

Variations[edit]

  • In Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and many northern region of India months are Purnimanta (means month ends on Purnima or Full Moon). In Gujarat, Maharashtra, and other parts of many south Indian region, months are Amanta (months end on Amavasya).
  • In inscriptions, the years may be gata (past) or current.

National calendars in South and South East Asia[edit]

A variant of the Shalivahana Calendar was reformed and standardized as the Indian National calendar in 1957. This official calendar follows the Shalivahan Shak calendar in beginning from the month of Chaitra and counting years with AD 78 being year zero. It features a constant number of days in every month (with leap years).

The Bengali Calendar, or Bengali calendar (introduced 1584), is widely used in eastern India in the state of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam. A reformation of this calendar was introduced in present-day Bangladesh in 1966, with constant days in each month and a leap year system; this serves as the national calendar for Bangladesh. Nepal follows the Bikram Sambat. Parallel months and roughly the same periods apply to the Buddhist calendars used in Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

Correspondence between calendars[edit]

As an indicator of this variation, Whitaker's Almanac reports that the Gregorian year AD 2000 corresponds, respectively with:

  1. Year 5102 in the Kaliyuga calendar; (3102 BC)
  2. Year 2544 in the Buddha Nirvana calendar; (544 BC)
  3. Year 2543 in the Buddhist Era (BE) of the Thai solar calendar (543 BC)
  4. Year 2057 in the Bikram Samvat calendar; (57 BC)
  5. Year 1922 in the Saka calendar; (AD 78)
  6. Year 1921 (shown in terms of 5-yearly cycles) of the Vedanga Jyotisa calendar; (AD 79)
  7. Year 1407 in the Bengali calendar; (AD 593)
  8. Year 1362 in the Burmese Calendar; (AD 638)
  9. Year 1176 in the Malayalam calendar or Kolla Varsham calendar; (AD 824)
  10. Year 514 in the Gaurabda Gaudiya calendar. (AD 1486)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb. (2014). Time, Space and Social Change in Rural Pakistan: An Ethnographic Study of Jhokwala Village, Lodhran District. PhD thesis. Durham University.
  2. ^ Time Measurement and Calendar Construction. Brill Archive. Retrieved 2011-09-18. 
  3. ^ Chatterjee, S.K. (1998). Indian Calendric System. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. 
  4. ^ Chia Daphne and Helmer Aslaksen (April 2001). "Indian Calendars: Comparing the Surya Siddhanta and the Astronomical Ephemeris" (PDF). Retrieved 2004-04-04. 
  5. ^ Basham, A.L. (1954). The Wonder that was India. Macmillan (Rupa and Co, Calcutta, reprint),. , Appendix II: Astronomy
  6. ^ Hindu Lunar Month Names
  7. ^ Bhāgavata Purāṇa 12.2.29-33
  8. ^ Yano, Michio, "Calendar, astrology and astronomy" in Flood, Gavin (Ed) (2003). Blackwell companion to Hinduism. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21535-2. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Reingold and Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations, Millennium Edition, Cambridge University Press, latest 2nd edition 3rd printing released November 2004. ISBN 0-521-77752-6
  • S. Balachandra Rao, Indian Astronomy: An Introduction, Universities Press, Hyderabad, 2000.
  • Rai Bahadur Pandit Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha, The Paleography of India, 2 ed., Ajmer, 1918, reprinted Manshuram Manoharlal publishers, 1993.
  • Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb. (2012). Temporal rhythm of change in Village Jhokwala, Pakistan: Ethnographic insights from calendars. Giovanni Bennardo (ed.), Cultural Models of Nature and the Environment: Self, Space, and Causality Workshop. ESE Working Paper No. 1. DeKalb, IL: Institute for the Study of the Environment, Sustainability, and Energy, Northern Illinois University, pp. 61–65.

External links[edit]