Hindu temple architecture

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Mahadeva Temple at Itagi, Koppal district in Karnataka, also called Devalaya Chakravarti,[1][2][3] 1112 CE, an example of dravida articulation with a nagara superstructure
Angkor Wat, a World Heritage Site and one of the world's largest Hindu temples.[4] This Cambodian temple deploys the same circles and squares grid architecture as described in ancient Indian Vastu Sastras.
Shiva temple, the main shrine of Prambanan, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia.
The cross section of Shiva temple, one of the largest Hindu temples in south-east Asia, Central Java

The Hindu temple architecture is an open, symmetry driven structure, with many variations, on a square grid of padas, deploying perfect geometric shapes such as circles and squares.[5][6] A Hindu temple consists of an inner sanctum, the garbha griha or womb-chamber, where the primary idol or deity is housed along with Purusa. The garbhagriha is crowned by a tower-like Shikhara, also called the Vimana. The architecture includes an ambulatory for parikrama (circumambulation), a congregation hall, and sometimes an antechamber and porch.

The Hindu temple architecture reflects a synthesis of arts, the ideals of dharma, beliefs, values and the way of life cherished under Hinduism. It is a link between man, deities, and the Universal Purusa in a sacred space.[7]

In ancient Indian texts, a temple is a place for Tirtha - pilgrimage.[8] It is a sacred site whose ambience and design attempts to symbolically condense the ideal tenets of Hindu way of life.[7] All the cosmic elements that create and celebrate life in Hindu pantheon, are present in a Hindu temple - from fire to water, from images of nature to deities, from the feminine to the masculine, from kama to artha, from the fleeting sounds and incense smells to Purusha - the eternal nothingness yet universality - is part of a Hindu temple architecture.[8]

The architectural principles of Hindu temples in India are described in Shilpa Shastras and Vastu Sastras.[9][10] The Hindu culture has encouraged aesthetic independence to its temple builders, and its architects have sometimes exercised considerable flexibility in creative expression by adopting other perfect geometries and mathematical principles in Mandir construction to express the Hindu way of life.[5]

Design[edit]

Susan Lewandowski states[11] that the underlying principle in a Hindu temple is built around the belief that all things are one, everything is connected. The pilgrim is welcomed through mathematically structured spaces, a network of art, pillars with carvings and statues that display and celebrate the four important and necessary principles of human life - the pursuit of artha (prosperity, wealth), the pursuit of kama (pleasure, sex), the pursuit of dharma (virtues, ethical life) and the pursuit of moksha (release, self-knowledge).[12][13]

Hindu temple sites cover a wide range. The most common sites are those near water bodies, embedded in nature, such as the above at Badami, Karnataka.

At the center of the temple, typically below and sometimes above or next to the deity, is mere hollow space with no decoration, symbolically representing Purusa, the Supreme Principle, the sacred Universal, one without form, which is present everywhere, connects everything, and is the essence of everyone. A Hindu temple is meant to encourage reflection, facilitate purification of one’s mind, and trigger the process of inner realization within the devotee.[8] The specific process is left to the devotee’s school of belief. The primary deity of different Hindu temples varies to reflect this spiritual spectrum.

The site[edit]

The appropriate site for a Mandir, suggest ancient Sanskrit texts, is near water and gardens, where lotus and flowers bloom, where swans, ducks and other birds are heard, where animals rest without fear of injury or harm.[8] These harmonious places were recommended in these texts with the explanation that such are the places where gods play, and thus the best site for Hindu temples.[11][8]

While major Hindu Mandirs are recommended at sangams (confluence of rivers), river banks, lakes and seashore, Brhat Samhita and Puranas suggest temples may also be built where a natural source of water is not present. Here too, they recommend that a pond be built preferably in front or to the left of the temple with water gardens. If water is neither present naturally nor by design, water is symbolically present at the consecration of temple or the deity. Temples may also be built, suggests Visnudharmottara in Part III of Chapter 93,[14] inside caves and carved stones, on hill tops affording peaceful views, mountain slopes overlooking beautiful valleys, inside forests and hermitages, next to gardens, or at the head of a town street.

The layout[edit]

A Hindu temple design follows a geometrical design called vastu-purusha-mandala. The name is a composite Sanskrit word with three of the most important components of the plan. Mandala means circle, Purusha is universal essence at the core of Hindu tradition, while Vastu means the dwelling structure.[15] Vastupurushamandala is a yantra.[16] The design lays out a Hindu temple in a symmetrical, self-repeating structure derived from central beliefs, myths, cardinality and mathematical principles.[5]

The 8x8 (64) grid Manduka Hindu Temple Floor Plan, according to Vastupurusamandala. The 64 grid is the most sacred and common Hindu temple template. The bright saffron center, where diagonals intersect above, represents the Purusha of Hindu philosophy. [6] [5]

The four cardinal directions help create the axis of a Hindu temple, around which is formed a perfect square in the space available. The circle of mandala circumscribes the square. The square is considered divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of knowledge and human thought, while circle is considered earthly, human and observed in everyday life (moon, sun, horizon, water drop, rainbow). Each supports the other.[6] The square is divided into perfect square grids. In large temples, this is often a 8x8 or 64 grid structure. In ceremonial temple superstructures, this is a 81 sub-square grid. The squares are called ‘‘padas’’.[5] [17] The square is symbolic and has Vedic origins from fire altar, Agni. The alignment along cardinal direction, similarly is an extension of Vedic rituals of three fires. This symbolism is also found among Greek and other ancient civilizations, through the gnomon. In Hindu temple manuals, design plans are described with 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81 up to 1024 squares; 1 pada is considered the simplest plan, as a seat for a hermit or devotee to sit and meditate on, do yoga, or make offerings with Vedic fire in front. The second design of 4 padas has a symbolic central core at the diagonal intersection, and is also a meditative layout. The 9 pada design has a sacred surrounded center, and is the template for the smallest temple. Older Hindu temple vastumandalas may use the 9 through 49 pada series, but 64 is considered the most sacred geometric grid in Hindu temples. It is also called Manduka, Bhekapada or Ajira in various ancient Sanskrit texts. Each pada is conceptually assigned to a symbolic element, sometimes in the form of a deity or to a spirit or apasara. The central square(s) of the 64 is dedicated to the Brahman (not to be confused with Brahmin), and are called Brahma padas.

In a Hindu temple’s structure of symmetry and concentric squares, each concentric layer has significance. The outermost layer, Paisachika padas, signify aspects of Asuras and evil; the next inner concentric layer is Manusha padas signifying human life; while Devika padas signify aspects of Devas and good. The Manusha padas typically houses the ambulatory.[8] The devotees, as they walk around in clockwise fashion through this ambulatory to complete Parikrama (or Pradakshina), walk between good on inner side and evil on the outer side. In smaller temples, the Paisachika pada is not part of the temple superstructure, but may be on the boundary of the temple or just symbolically represented.

The Paisachika padas, Manusha padas and Devika padas surround Brahma padas, which signifies creative energy and serves as the location for temple’s primary idol for darsana. Finally at the very center of Brahma padas is Grabhgriya (Purusa Space), signifying Universal Principle present in everything and everyone.[6] The spire of a Hindu temple, called Shikhara in north India and Vamana in south India, is perfectly aligned above the Brahma pada(s).

A Hindu temple has a Sikhara (Vimana or Spire) that rises symmetrically above the central core of the temple. These spires come in many designs and shapes, but they all have mathematical precision and geometric symbolism. One of the common principles found in Hindu temple spires is circles and turning-squares theme (left), and a concentric layering design (right) that flows from one to the other as it rises towards the sky.[18][8]

Beneath the mandala’s central square(s) is the space for the formless shapeless all pervasive all connecting Universal Spirit, the Purusha. This space is sometimes referred to as garbha-griya (literally womb house) - a small, perfect square, windowless, enclosed space without ornamentation that represents universal essence.[15] In or near this space is typically a murti (idol). This is the main deity idol, and this varies with each temple. Often it is this idol that gives it a local name, such as Visnu temple, Krishna temple, Rama temple, Narayana temple, Siva temple, Lakshmi temple, Ganesha temple, Durga temple, Hanuman temple, Surya temple, and others.[7] It is this garbha-griya which devotees seek for ‘‘darsana’’ (literally, a sight of knowledge,[19] or vision[15]).

Above the vastu-purusha-mandala is a superstructure with a dome called Shikhara in north India, and Vimana in south India, that stretches towards the sky.[15] Sometimes, in makeshift temples, the dome may be replaced with symbolic bamboo with few leaves at the top. The vertical dimension's cupola or dome is designed as a pyramid, conical or other mountain-like shape, once again using principle of concentric circles and squares (see below).[8] Scholars suggest that this shape is inspired by cosmic mountain of Meru or Himalayan Kailasa, the abode of gods according to Vedic mythology.[15]

In larger temples, the outer three padas are visually decorated with carvings, paintings or images meant to inspire the devotee.[8] In some temples, these images or wall reliefs may be stories from Hindu Epics, in others they may be Vedic tales about right and wrong or virtues and vice, in some they may be idols of minor or regional deities. The pillars, walls and ceilings typically also have highly ornate carvings or images of the four just and necessary pursuits of life - kama, artha, dharma and moksa. This walk around is called pradakshina.[15]

An illustration of Hindu temple Spires (Sikhara, Vimana) built using concentric circle and rotating-squares principle. The left is from Vijayanagar in Karnataka, the right is from Pushkar in Rajasthan.

Large temples also have pillared halls called mandapa. One on the east side, serves as the waiting room for pilgrims and devotees. The mandapa may be a separate structure in older temples, but in newer temples this space is integrated into the temple superstructure. Mega temple sites have a main temple surrounded by smaller temples and shrines, but these are still arranged by principles of symmetry, grids and mathematical precision. An important principle found in the layout of Hindu temples is mirroring and repeating fractal-like design structure,[20] each unique yet also repeating the central common principle, one which Susan Lewandowski refers to as “an organism of repeating cells”.[21]

Exceptions to the square grid principle

Predominant number of Hindu temples exhibit the perfect square grid principle.[22] However, there are some exceptions. For example, the Teli-ka-mandir in Gwalior, built in 8th century CE is not a square but is a rentangle in 2:3 proportion. Further, the temple explores a number of structures and shrines in 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:5, 3:5 and 4:5 ratios. These ratios are exact, suggesting the architect intended to use these harmonic ratios, and the rectangle pattern was not a mistake, nor an arbitrary approximation. Other examples of non-square harmonic ratios are found at Naresar temple site of Madhya Pradesh and Nakti-Mata temple near Jaipur, Rajasthan. Michael Meister suggests that these exceptions mean the ancient Sanskrit manuals for temple building were guidelines, and Hinduism permitted its artisans flexibility in expression and aesthetic independence.[5]

Different styles of architecture[edit]

Nagara architecture[edit]

Architecture of the Khajuraho temples

Nagara temples have two distinct features :

  • In plan, the temple is a square with a number of graduated projections in the middle of each side giving a cruciform shape with a number of re-entrant angles on each side.
  • In elevation, a Sikhara, i.e., tower gradually inclines inwards in a convex curve, using a concentric rotating-squares and circles principle.

The projections in the plan are also carried upwards to the top of the Sikhara and, thus, there is strong emphasis on vertical lines in elevation. The Nagara style is widely distributed over a greater part of India, exhibiting distinct varieties and ramifications in lines of evolution and elaboration according to each locality. An example of Nagara architecture is the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple.

Dravidian architecture[edit]

Dravida Style Thanjavur temple, Tamil Nadu

Dravidian style temples consist almost invariably of the four following parts, differing only according to the age in which they were executed:[23]

  1. The principal part, the temple itself, is called the Vimana (or Vimanam). It is always square in plan and surmounted by a pyramidal roof of one or more stories; it contains the cell where the image of the god or his emblem is placed.
  2. The porches or Mandapas (or Mantapams), which always cover and precede the door leading to the cell.
  3. Gate-pyramids, Gopurams, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples.
  4. Pillared halls or Chaultris—properly Chawadis -- used for various purposes, and which are the invariable accompaniments of these temples.

Besides these, a temple always contains temple tanks or wells for water (used for sacred purposes or the convenience of the priests), dwellings for all grades of the priesthood are attached to it, and other buildings for state or convenience.[23]


Badami Chalukya architecture[edit]

The Badami Chalukya Architecture|Chalukya style originated during 450 CE in Aihole and perfected in Pattadakal and Badami.[24]

Chalukya Architecture of temples at Aihole & Pattadakal

The Virupaksha temple (or Lokesvara temple) at Pattadakal, built by queen Lokamahadevi (queen of Badami Chalukya King Vikramaditya II) around 740 CE, now a World Heritage Site

The period of Badami Chalukyas was a glorious era in the history of Indian architecture. The capital of the Chalukyas, Vatapi (Badami, in Bagalkot district, North Karnataka in Karnataka) is situated at the mouth of a ravine between two rocky hills. Between 500 and 757 CE, Badami Chalukyas established the foundations of cave temple architecture, on the banks of the Malaprabha River. Those styles mainly include Aihole, Pattadakal and Badami. The sites were built out of sandstone cut into enormous blocks from the outcrops in the chains of the Kaladgi hills.

At Badami, Chalukyas carved some of the finest cave temples. Mahakuta, the large trees under which the shrine nestles.

In Aihole, known as the "Cradle of Indian architecture," there are over 150 temples scattered around the village. The Lad Khan Temple is the oldest. The Durga Temple is notable for its semi-circular apse, elevated plinth and the gallery that encircles the sanctum sanctorum. A sculpture of Vishnu sitting atop a large cobra is at Hutchimali Temple. The Ravalphadi cave temple celebrates the many forms of Shiva. Other temples include the Konthi temple complex and the Meguti Jain temple.

Pattadakal is a (World Heritage Site), where one finds the Virupaksha temple; it is the biggest temple, having carved scenes from the great epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Other temples at Pattadakal are Mallikarjuna, Kashivishwanatha, Galaganatha and Papanath.

Gadag Architecture style[edit]

The Gadag style of architecture is also called Western Chalukya architecture.[25] The style flourished for 150 years (1050 to 1200 CE); in this period, about 50 temples were built. Some examples are the Saraswati temple in the Trikuteshwara temple complex at Gadag, the Doddabasappa Temple at Dambal, the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, and the Amriteshwara temple at Annigeri. which is marked by ornate pillars with intricate sculpture.[26] This style originated during the period of the Kalyani Chalukyas (also known as Western Chalukya) Someswara I.

Kalinga architecture style[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Kalinga architecture.
Simplified schema of a Kalinga architecture temple

The design which flourished in eastern Indian state of Odisha and Northern Andhra Pradesh are called Kalinga style of architecture. The style consists of three distinct type of temples namely Rekha Deula, Pidha Deula and Khakhara Deula. Deula means "temple" in the local language. The former two are associated with Vishnu, Surya and Shiva temple while the third is mainly with Chamunda and Durga temples.The Rekha deula and Khakhara deula houses the sanctum sanctorum while the Pidha Deula constitutes outer dancing and offering halls.

The prominent examples of Rekha Deula are Lingaraj Temple of Bhubaneswar and Jagannath Temple of Puri. One of the prominent example of Khakhara Deula is Vaital Deula. The Konark Sun Temple is a living example of Pidha Deula.

The three types of Deulas

Rekha Deula of the Lingaraj Temple in Bhubaneswar.
Pidha Deula of the Konark Sun Temple .
Khakhara Deula of the Vaital Deula.

Māru-Gurjara temple architecture[edit]

Māru-Gurjara temple architecture originated somewhere in 6th century in and around areas of Rajasthan. Māru-Gurjara architecture show the deep understanding of structures and refined skills of Rajasthani craftmen of bygone era. Māru-Gurjara architecture has two prominent styles: Maha-Maru and Maru-Gurjara. According to M. A. Dhaky, Maha-Maru style developed primarily in Marudesa, Sapadalaksa, Surasena and parts of Uparamala whereas Maru-Gurjara originated in Medapata, Gurjaradesa-Arbuda, Gurjaradesa-Anarta and some areas of Gujarat.[27] Scholars such as George Michell, M.A. Dhaky, Michael W. Meister and U.S. Moorti believe that Māru-Gurjara temple architecture is entirely Western Indian architecture and is quite different from the North Indian temple architecture.[28]

This further shows the cultural and ethnic separation of Rajasthanis from north Indian culture. There is a connecting link between Māru-Gurjara architecture and Hoysala temple architecture. In both of these styles architecture is treated sculpturally.[29]

Examples of Māru-Gurjara temple architecture

Carved elephants on the walls of Jagdish Temple, Udaipur, 1651 CE, an example of Māru-Gurjara architecture
Chennakesava Temple, a protected heritage site by Archeological Survey of India and amongst the finest examples of Hoysala architecture, Somanathapura

Indonesian candi[edit]

Further information: Candi of Indonesia

Khmer architecture[edit]

Further information: Khmer architecture

Champa architecture[edit]

Contemporary architecture[edit]

Vaidyanatha Ganapati Sthapati

Amongst the foremost interpreters of Indian art and architecture are Dr. V. Ganapati Sthapati, Stella Kramrisch, Vidya Dehija, M.A. Dhaky, Lokesh Chandra, Kapila Vatsyayan, and Dr. Jessie J. Mercay. The greatest living traditional temple architect is Dr. V. Ganapati Sthapati (Chennai), the only living Shilpi Guru. He is followed by his grand nephew Santhanam Krishna Sthapati of Chennai. Both are associated with The American University of Mayonic Science and Technology, which teaches Vaastu Shastras and Sthaptya Veda architecture.

The BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir & Complex in Lilburn, Georgia (USA) is a great example of how traditional Hindu architectural elements have been combined with modern building codes and construction techiques. Tony Patel, partner with Newport Design Group Architects in Alpharetta, Georgia served as the project coordinating Architect. The firm has been involved in several other significant Indian religious projects as well.


Chronology[edit]

The temple is a representation of the macrocosm (the universe) as well as the microcosm (the inner space).

The Magadha empire rose with the Shishunaga dynasty in around 650 BCE. The Ashtadhyayi of Panini, the great grammarian of the 5th century BCE speaks of images that were used in Hindu temple worship. The ordinary images were called pratikriti and the images for worship were called archa (see As. 5.3.96–100). Patanjali, the 2nd-century BCE author of the Mahabhashya commentary on the Ashtadhyayi, tells us more about the images.

Deity images for sale were called Shivaka etc., but an archa of Shiva was just called Shiva. Patanjali mentions Shiva and Skanda deities. There is also mention of the worship of Vasudeva (Krishna). We are also told that some images could be moved and some were immoveable. Panini also says that an archa was not to be sold and that there were people (priests) who obtained their livelihood by taking care of it.

Panini and Patanjali mention temples which were called prasadas.

The earlier Shatapatha Brahmana of the period of the Vedas, informs us of an image in the shape of Purusha which was placed within the altar. The Vedic books describe the plan of the temple to be square. This plan is divided into 64 or 81 smaller squares, where each of these represent a specific divinity.

Historical Chronology[edit]

Early temples in approximate chronological order:[30]

Glossary[edit]

Simplified schema of a Hindu temple

In design/plan of a temple, several parts of Temple architecture are considered, most common amongst these are:

Jagati[edit]

Jagati is a term used to refer a raised surface, platform or terrace upon which the temple is placed.[31]

Antarala[edit]

Antarala is a small antichamber or foyer between the garbhagriha/ garbha graha (shrine) and the mandapa, more typical of north Indian temples.[32][33]

Mandapa[edit]

Mandapa (or Mandapam) (मंडप in Hindi/Sanskrit, also spelled mantapa or mandapam) is a term to refer to pillared outdoor hall or pavilion for public rituals.[34]

  • Ardha Mandapam — intermediary space between the temple exterior and the garba griha (sanctum sanctorum) or the other mandapas of the temple
  • Asthana Mandapam — assembly hall
  • Kalyana Mandapam — dedicated to ritual marriage celebration of the Lord with Goddess
  • Maha Mandapam — (Maha=big) When there are several mandapas in the temple, it is the biggest and the tallest. It is used for conducting religious discourses.
  • Nandi Mandapam (or Nandi mandir) - In the Shiva temples, pavilion with a statue of the sacred bull Nandi, looking at the statue or the lingam of Shiva.

Sreekovil or Garbhagriha[edit]

Sreekovil or Garbhagriha the part in which the idol of the deity in a Hindu temple is installed i.e.Sanctum sanctorum. The area around is referred as to the Chuttapalam, which generally includes other deities and the main boundary wall of the temple. Typically there is also a Pradakshina area in the Sreekovil and one outside, where devotees can take Pradakshinas.[33]

Śikhara or Vimanam[edit]

Śikhara or vimanam literally means "mountain peak", refer to the rising tower over the sanctum sanctorum where the presiding deity is enshrined is the most prominent and visible part of a Hindu temples.

Amalaka[edit]

An amalaka is a stone disk, often with ridges, that sits on a temple's main tower (Sikhara).[33]

Gopuram[edit]

Gopuras (or Gopurams) are the elaborate gateway-towers of south Indian temples, not to be confused with Shikharas.

Urushringa[edit]

An urushringa is a subsidiary Sikhara, lower and narrower, tied against the main sikhara.[33]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cousens (1926), p. 101
  2. ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 117–118
  3. ^ Rao, Kishan. "Emperor of Temples crying for attention". The Hindu, June 10, 2002. The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  4. ^ "Angkor Temple Guide". Angkor Temple Guide. 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Michael Meister (1983), Geometry and Measure in Indian Temple Plans: Rectangular Temples, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp 266-296
  6. ^ a b c d Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3
  7. ^ a b c George Michell (1988), The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226532301, Chapter 1
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3
  9. ^ Jack Hebner (2010), Architecture of the Vastu Sastra - According to Sacred Science, in Science of the Sacred (Editor: David Osborn), ISBN 978-0557277247, pp 85-92; N Lahiri (1996), Archaeological landscapes and textual images: a study of the sacred geography of late medieval Ballabgarh, World Archaeology, 28(2), pp 244-264
  10. ^ BB Dutt (1925), Town planning in Ancient India at Google Books, ISBN 978-81-8205-487-5
  11. ^ a b Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (Editor), ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, Chapter 4
  12. ^ Alain Daniélou (2001), The Hindu Temple: Deification of Eroticism, Translated from French to English by Ken Hurry, ISBN 0-89281-854-9, pp 101-127
  13. ^ Samuel Parker (2010), Ritual as a Mode of Production: Ethnoarchaeology and Creative Practice in Hindu Temple Arts, South Asian Studies, 26(1), pp 31-57; Michael Rabe, Secret Yantras and Erotic Display for Hindu Temples, (Editor: David White), ISBN 978-8120817784, Princeton University Readings in Religion (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers), Chapter 25, pp 435-446
  14. ^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, page 5-6
  15. ^ a b c d e f Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (Editor), ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, pp 68-69
  16. ^ Stella Kramrisch (1976), The Hindu Temple Volume 1 & 2, ISBN 81-208-0223-3
  17. ^ In addition to square (4) sided layout, Brhat Samhita also describes Vastu and mandala design principles based on a perfect triangle (3), hexagon (6), octagon (8) and hexadecagon (16) sided layouts, according to Stella Kramrisch. The 49 grid design is called Sthandila and of great importance in creative expressions of Hindu temples in South India, particularly in ‘‘Prakaras’’.
  18. ^ Michael W. Meister, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Mar., 2006), pp 26-49
  19. ^ Stella Kramrisch (1976), The Hindu Temple Volume 1, ISBN 81-208-0223-3, pp 8
  20. ^ Trivedi, K. (1989). Hindu temples: models of a fractal universe. The Visual Computer, 5(4), 243-258
  21. ^ Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (Editor), ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, pp 71-73
  22. ^ Michael W. Meister, Maṇḍala and Practice in Nāgara Architecture in North India, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 99, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1979), pp. 204- 219
  23. ^ a b Fergusson, James (1997) [1910]. History of Indian and Eastern Architecture (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Low Price Publications. p. 309. 
  24. ^ "Echoes from Chalukya caves". Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  25. ^ "In search of Indian records of Supernovae1". Hrishikesh Jogleka1, Aniket Sule, M N Vahia. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  26. ^ "Kalyani Chalukyan temples, Temples of Karnataka". Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  27. ^ The sculpture of early medieval Rajasthan, by Cynthia Packert Atherton
  28. ^ Beginnings of Medieval Idiom c. A.D. 900–1000 by George Michell
  29. ^ The legacy of G.S. Ghurye: a centennial festschrift, by Govind Sadashiv Ghurye, A. R. Momin,p-205
  30. ^ Michael W. Meister Artibus Asiae , Vol. 49, No. 3/4 (1988 - 1989), pp. 254-280
  31. ^ cite web |url=http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/india/glossary1.html |title=Glossary |publisher= |accessdate=2007-04-09
  32. ^ cite web |url=http://www.indoarch.org/arch_glossary.php |title=Architecture on the Indian Subcontinent - Glossary |publisher= |accessdate=2007-01-26
  33. ^ a b c d http://personal.carthage.edu/jlochtefeld/picturepages/Khajuraho/architecture.html
  34. ^ cite book | first= Binda | last= Thapar | year= 2004 | title= Introduction to Indian Architecture | edition= | publisher= Periplus Editions | location=Singapore | isbn= 0-7946-0011-5 | page= 143

Further reading[edit]

  • Vastu-Silpa Kosha,Encyclopedia of Hindu Temple architecture and Vastu/S.K.Ramachandara Rao, Delhi, Devine Books, (Lala Murari Lal Chharia Oriental series) ISBN.978-93-81218-51-8 (Set)
  • Dehejia, V. (1997). Indian Art. Phaidon: London. ISBN 0-7148-3496-3.
  • Acharya, Prasanna Kumar (1946). An encyclopaedia of Hindu architecture. Oxford University Press. 
  • Mitchell, George (1988). The Hindu Temple, University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL. ISBN 0-226-53230-5
  • Rajan, K.V. Soundara (1998). Rock-Cut Temple Styles. Somaiya Publications: Mumbai. ISBN 81-7039-218-7

External links[edit]