Hippotherium

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Hippotherium
Temporal range: 15–2Ma Mid Miocene to Pleistocene
Hipparion.JPG
Skeleton of Hippotherium gracile, Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae
Tribe: Hipparionini
Genus: Hippotherium
Kaup (1832)
Species
  • H. emsliei
  • H. ingenum
  • H. plicatile
  • H. primigenius
  • H. quinni

Hippotherium is an extinct genus of horse endemic to North America, to Asia, Europe, and Africa during the Miocene through Pliocene ~13.65—3.3 Mya, existing for 10.35 million years.

Taxonomy[edit]

Skull

Hippotherium was named by Kaup in 1832 and assigned to Equidae by Kaup 1833. It was named as a subgenus of Equus; type European E. gracilis. Its type is Equus primigenius. It was synonymized subjectively with Hipparion by MacFadden (1998) and Pesquero et al. (2006). It was assigned to the tribe Hipparionini by Alroy in 2002 and 2008.[1][2]

It was synonymized subjectively with Cormohipparion occidentale by MacFadden (1984) and was considered a nomen dubium by Macdonald (1992).[3][4]

Morphology[edit]

Body mass[edit]

A single specimen was examined by M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist for body mass.[5]

  • Specimen: 61.5 kg (140 lb)

Fossil distribution[edit]

Species[edit]

Jaw and teeth
Metapodial

H. emsliei[edit]

M. elatus is exclusive to the Southeastern U.S. It was named Cormohipparion emsliei by Hulbert, Jr. in 1988 and in 2006 by Hulbert and Whitmore in 2007. It became Hippotherium emsliei in 2001 by Alroy (J. Alroy).

Body mass

A single specimen was examined by M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist for body mass. (Mendoza et al.)

  • Specimen: 48.7 kg (110 lb)

Fossil distribution

H. ingenuum[edit]

H. ingenuum is exclusive to Central America and North America. It was named by Leidy (1885). Its type locality is Mixson's Bone Bed, which is in a Hemphillian terrestrial horizon in the Alachua Formation of Florida.

It was recombined as Hipparion ingenuum by Spencer (1895), Gidley (1907), Osborn (1918), Hay (1930) and Simpson (1930); it was synonymized subjectively with Hippotherium gratum by Lucas (1896). In 1909 it was recombined as Neohipparion ingenuum by Matthew, recombined as Nannippus ingenuus by Stirton (1940), Quinn (1955), Forsten (1975) and MacFadden (1984); it was recombined as Cormohipparion ingenuum by Hulbert (1988); it was considered a nomen dubium by Macdonald (1992).

Body mass A single specimen was examined by M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist for body mass. (Mendoza et al.).

  • Specimen: 55.3 kg (120 lb)

Fossil distribution

H. plicatile[edit]

Hippotherium plicatile is exclusive to the state of Florida in North America. It was named by Leidy (1887). Its type locality is Mixson's Bone Bed, which is in a Hemphillian terrestrial horizon in the Alachua Formation of Florida.

It was recombined as Hipparion plicatile by Spencer (1895), Roger (1896), Trouessart (1898), Hay (1902), Gidley (1907), Sellards (1913), Osborn (1918), Matthew (1924), Simpson (1930), Stirton (1940) and Webb and Perrigo (1984); it was recombined as Neohipparion plicatile by Trouessart (1904), Matthew (1909) and Merriam (1913); it was recombined as Cormohipparion plicatile by Hulbert (1988); it was considered a nomen dubium by Macdonald (1992).[4][6][7]

Body mass

A single specimen was examined by M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist for body mass. (Mendoza et al.).

  • Specimen: 80.1 kg (180 lb).

Fossil distribution

H. primigenius[edit]

Skeleton of H. primigenius

E. primigenius is exclusive to Europe and Africa. Its range extended from Northern Europe to South Africa. It was named by von Meyer. It is the type species of Hippotherium. It was recombined as Hipparion primigenium by Pesquero et al. (2006); it was recombined as Hippotherium primigenium by Kaup (1832) and Alroy (2008).

Fossil distribution

  • Doue-la-Fontaine France estimated age: ~13.65—7.25 Mya.
  • Lower Bakhtiari Formation, northern Iraq, estimated age: ~11.6—9.0 Mya.
  • Kurtchuk-Tchekmedje, Turkey estimated age: ~11.61—5.33 Mya.
  • Lang. E Quarry-GM aka ETE Locality 1042, Langebaanweg, "E Quarry, GM", South Africa.

H. quinni[edit]

Cormohipparion quinni is exclusive to the Great Plains of North America and was named by Woodburne in 1996. Its type locality is Devil's Gulch Horse Quarry, which is in a Barstovian terrestrial horizon in the Valentine Formation of Nebraska. It was recombined as Hippotherium quinni by Alroy (2007).

Body mass

A single specimen was examined by M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist for body mass. (Mendoza et al.).

  • Specimen: 79.9 kg (180 lb).

References[edit]

  1. ^ B. J. MacFadden. 1998. Equidae. In C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott, and L. L. Jacobs (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America 1:537-559
  2. ^ J. Alroy. 2008. Synonymies, reidentifications, and other arbitrary pronouncements mostly concerning fossil vertebrates.
  3. ^ B. J. MacFadden. 1984. Systematics and phylogeny of Hipparion, Neohipparion, Nannippus, and Cormohipparion (Mammalia, Equidae) from the Miocene and Pliocene of the New World. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 179(1):1-195
  4. ^ a b J. R. Macdonald. 1992. An analysis of the types of 147 named horse species and subspecies. Dakoterra 4:44-48
  5. ^ M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist. 2006. Estimating the body mass of extinct ungulates: a study on the use of multiple regression. Journal of Zoology 270(1):90-101
  6. ^ H. F. Osborn. 1918. Geological Society America Bulletin 29
  7. ^ W. D. Matthew. 1909. The Carnivora and Insectivora of the Bridger Basin, middle Eocene. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History 9:289-567