Chūson-ji, a World Heritage site in Japan
Location of Hiraizumi in Iwate Prefecture
|• Mayor||Masayoshi Sugawara (since September 2010)|
|• Total||63.39 km2 (24.48 sq mi)|
|Population (April 1, 2011)|
|• Density||131.24/km2 (339.9/sq mi)|
|Time zone||Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)|
|- Flower||Cherry blossom|
|- Bird||Cettia diphone|
|Address||45-2 Hiraizumi Shirayama, Hiraizumi-chō, Nishi-Iwai-gun, Iwate-ken
Hiraizumi (平泉町 Hiraizumi-chō?) is a town located in Nishiiwai District, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. It was the home of the Hiraizumi Fujiwaras for about 100 years in the late Heian era and most of the following Kamakura period. At the same time it served as the de facto capital of Oshu, an area containing nearly a third of the Japanese land area. At its height the population of Hiraizumi reached 50,000 or more than 100,000, rivaling Kyoto in size and splendor.
The first structure built in Hiraizumi may have been Hakusan Shrine on top of Mount Kanzan (Barrier Mountain). A writer in 1334 recorded that the shrine was already 700 years old. Although rebuilt many times, the same shrine is still standing in the same location.
In about 1100, Fujiwara no Kiyohira moved his home from Fort Toyoda in present day Esashi Ward, Oshu City to Mount Kanzan in Hiraizumi. This location was significant for several reasons. Kanzan is situated at the junction of two rivers, the Kitakami and the Koromo. Traditionally the Koromo River served as the boundary between Japan to the south and the Emishi peoples to the north. By building his home south of the Koromo, Kiyohira (half Emishi himself) demonstrated his intention to rule Oshu without official sanction from the court in Kyoto. Kanzan was also directly on the Frontier Way, the main road leading from Kyoto to the northern lands as they opened up. Kanzan was also seen as the exact center of Oshu which stretched from the Shirakawa Barrier in the south to Sotogahama in present day Aomori Prefecture.
Kiyohira built the large temple complex on Kanzan known as Chūson-ji. The first structure was a large pagoda at the very top of the mountain. In conjunction with this he placed small umbrella reliquaries (kasa sotoba) every hundred meters along the Frontier Way decorated with placards depicting Amida Buddha painted in gold. Other pagodas, temples and gardens followed including the Konjikido, a jewel box of a building intended to represent the Buddhist Pure Land and the final resting place of the Fujiwara lords.
Hiraizumi's golden age lasted for nearly 100 years, but after the fall of the Fujiwaras the town sank back into relative obscurity, and most of the buildings that gave the town its cultural prominence were destroyed. When the poet Matsuo Bashō saw the state of the town in 1689 he penned a famous haiku about the impermanence of human glory:
- Natsu kusa ya! / Tsuwamono-domo ga / yume no ato
- Ah, summer grasses! / All that remains / Of the warriors' dreams. (1689) 
The town lost some land to the city of Ichinoseki from September 1, 1956 to May 1, 1964.
Hiraizumi has a number of officially listed National Treasures and other culturally or historically notable sites.
- Chūson-ji, including the Konjikidō Golden Hall
- Mōtsū-ji with its 'Pure Land' style Jōdo Garden
- The ruins of Kanjizaiō-in with its 'Pure Land' style Jōdo Garden
- The ruins of Muryokō-in (無量光院)
- Takkoku no Iwaya Bishamon Hall (達谷窟毘沙門堂)
- Hiraizumi Station on the Tōhoku Main Line has hourly connections to Ichinoseki and Morioka.
- A bus connects the temple Chūson-ji with the train station, running on to Ichinoseki.
- Bicycles can be rented next to the JR station.
- Tertius Chandler, "Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census", The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston (1987).
- Toshio Sanuki, "Toshi no Seisui Rankingu (Rise and Fall Ranking of Urbans)", Jiji Tsushin Sha, Tokyo (1996).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hiraizumi, Iwate.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hiraizumi.|