|— Designated city —|
|広島市 · Hiroshima City|
|• Mayor||Kazumi Matsui|
|• Total||905.01 km2 (349.43 sq mi)|
|Population (January 2010)|
|• Density||1,297.2/km2 (3,360/sq mi)|
|Time zone||Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)|
|- Tree||Camphor Laurel|
Naka-ku, Hiroshima-shi 730-8586
Hiroshima (広島市 Hiroshima-shi ) ( listen (help·info)) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan. It is best known as the first city in history to be targeted by a nuclear weapon when the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 a.m. on August 6, 1945, near the end of World War II. Its name 広島 means "Wide Island".
History of Hiroshima 
Sengoku period 
Hiroshima was founded on the river delta coastline of the Seto Inland Sea in 1589 by the powerful warlord Mōri Terumoto, who made it his capital after leaving Koriyama Castle in Aki Province. Hiroshima Castle was quickly built, and Terumoto moved in, in 1593. Terumoto was on the losing side at the Battle of Sekigahara. The winner, Tokugawa Ieyasu, deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki Province to Masanori Fukushima, a daimyo who had supported Tokugawa.
Tokugawa period 
The castle passed to Asano Nagaakira in 1619, and Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area. Under Asano rule, the city prospered, developed, and expanded, with few military conflicts or disturbances. Asano's descendants continued to rule until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima Domain during the Tokugawa period.
Imperial period 
After the han was abolished in 1871, the city became the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture. Hiroshima became a major urban center during the imperial period as the Japanese economy shifted from primarily rural to urban industries.
During 1870s, one of the seven government-sponsored English language schools was established in Hiroshima. Ujina Harbor was constructed through the efforts of Hiroshima Governor Sadaaki Senda in the 1880s, allowing Hiroshima to become an important port city.
The Sanyo Railway was extended to Hiroshima in 1894, and a rail line from the main station to the harbor was constructed for military transportation during the First Sino-Japanese War. During that war, the Japanese government moved temporarily to Hiroshima, and Emperor Meiji maintained his headquarters at Hiroshima Castle from September 15, 1894 to April 27, 1895. The significance of Hiroshima for the Japanese government can be discerned from the fact that the first round of talks between Chinese and Japanese representatives to end the Sino-Japanese War was held in Hiroshima from February 1 to February 4, 1895. New industrial plants, including cotton mills, were established in Hiroshima in the late 19th century. Further industrialization in Hiroshima was stimulated during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, which required development and production of military supplies. The Hiroshima Prefectural Commercial Exhibition Hall was constructed in 1915 as a center for trade and exhibition of new products. Later, its name was changed to Hiroshima Prefectural Product Exhibition Hall, and again to Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall.
During World War I, Hiroshima became a focal point of military activity, as the Japanese government entered the war on the Allied side. About 500 German prisoners of war were held in Ninoshima Island in Hiroshima Bay.
The growth of Hiroshima as a city continued after the First World War, as the city now attracted the attention of the Catholic Church, and on May 4, 1923, an Apostolic Vicar was appointed for that city.
World War II and atomic bombing 
During World War II, the 2nd General Army and Chugoku Regional Army were headquartered in Hiroshima, and the Army Marine Headquarters was located at Ujina port. The city also had large depots of military supplies, and was a key center for shipping.
The bombing of Tokyo and other cities in Japan during World War II caused widespread destruction and hundreds of thousands of deaths. For example, Toyama, an urban area of 128,000, was nearly fully destroyed, and incendiary attacks on Tokyo claimed the lives of 100,000 people. There were no such air raids in Hiroshima. However, the threat was certainly there and to protect against potential firebombings in Hiroshima, students (between 11–14 years) were mobilized to demolish houses and create firebreaks.
On Monday, August 6, 1945, at 8:15 a.m., the Atomic Bomb "Little Boy" was dropped on Hiroshima by an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay, flown by Paul Tibbets, directly killing an estimated 80,000 people. By the end of the year, injury and radiation brought total casualties to 90,000–140,000. The population before the bombing was around 340,000 to 350,000. Approximately 69% of the city's buildings were completely destroyed, and another 7% severely damaged.
Research about the effects of the attack was restricted during the occupation of Japan, and information censored until the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951, restoring control to the Japanese.
Postwar period 
On September 17, 1945, Hiroshima was struck by the Makurazaki Typhoon (Typhoon Ida). Hiroshima prefecture suffered more than 3,000 deaths and injuries, about half the national total. More than half the bridges in the city were destroyed, along with heavy damage to roads and railroads, further devastating the city.
Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with the help from the national government through the Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law passed in 1949. It provided financial assistance for reconstruction, along with land donated that was previously owned by the national government and used for military purposes.
In 1949, a design was selected for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation, was designated the Genbaku Dome (原爆ドーム) or "Atomic Dome", a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum was opened in 1955 in the Peace Park.
Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament in 1949, at the initiative of its mayor, Shinzo Hamai (1905–1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima received more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate interpretation for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of all nuclear weapons and the Mayor of Hiroshima is the president of Mayors for Peace, an international mayoral organization mobilizing cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020.
Hiroshima has eight wards (ku):
|Population as of October 31, 2006|
|Climate data for Hiroshima, Japan (1971-2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||9.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.3
|Average low °C (°F)||1.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||46.9
|Snowfall cm (inches)||5
|Avg. snowy days||7.8||7.6||2.4||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.3||4.3||22.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||137.5||131.1||166.3||189.1||205.7||158.8||182.9||201.5||154.9||180.2||149.3||147.8||2,004.9|
As of 2006, the city has an estimated population of 1,154,391, while the total population for the metropolitan area was estimated as 2,043,788 in 2000. The total area of the city is 905.08 km², with a population density of 1275.4 persons per km².
The population around 1910 was 143,000. Before World War II, Hiroshima's population had grown to 360,000, and peaked at 419,182 in 1942. Following the atomic bombing in 1945, the population dropped to 137,197. By 1955, the city's population had returned to pre-war levels.
Hiroshima is the center of industry for the Chūgoku-Shikoku region, and is by and large centered along the coastal areas. Hiroshima Bank is the leading regional bank in Hiroshima. Hiroshima has long been a port city and Hiroshima port or Hiroshima International Airport can be used for the transportation of goods.
Its largest industry is the manufacturing industry with core industries being the production of Mazda cars, car parts and industrial equipment. Mazda Motor Corporation is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda accounts for 32% of Hiroshima's GDP. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata, Mazda Demio (Mazda2), Mazda CX-9 and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 has been built there since early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hōfu and Flat Rock, Michigan.
General machinery and equipment also account for a large portion of exports. Because these industries require research and design capabilities, it has also had the offshoot that Hiroshima has many innovative companies actively engaged in new growth fields (for example, Hiroshima Vehicle Engineering Company (HIVEC)). Many of these companies hold the top market shares in Japan and the world, or are alone in their particular field. Tertiary industries in the wholesale and retail areas are also very developed.
Another result of the concentration of industry is an accumulation of skilled personnel and fundamental technologies. This is considered by business to be a major reason for location in Hiroshima. Business setup costs are also much lower than other large cities in the country and there is a comprehensive system of tax breaks, etc. on offer for businesses which locate in Hiroshima. This is especially true of two projects: the Hiroshima Station Urban Development District and the Seifu Shinto area which offer capital installments (up to 501 million yen over 5 years), tax breaks and employee subsidies. Seifu Shinto, which translates as West Wind, New Town is the largest construction project in the region and is an attempt to build "a city within a city." It is attempting to design from the ground up a place to work, play, relax and live.
One important industry in Hiroshima is the steel industry. The Japan Steel Works (formerly Nihon Seiko, established in 1907) has one of its plants in Hiroshima out of total of three plants (the other two are at Muroran and Yokohama).
Hiroshima recently[when?] made it onto Lonely Planet's list of the top cities in the world. Commuting times rank among the shortest in Japan and the cost of living is lower than other large cities in Japan such as Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, or Fukuoka.
Hiroshima has a professional symphony orchestra, which has performed at Wel City Hiroshima since 1963. There are also many museums in Hiroshima, including the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, along with several art museums. The Hiroshima Museum of Art, which has a large collection of French renaissance art, opened in 1978. The Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum opened in 1968, and is located near Shukkei-en gardens. The Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, which opened in 1989, is located near Hijiyama Park. Festivals include Hiroshima Flower Festival and Hiroshima International Animation Festival.
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, which includes the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, draws many visitors from around the world, especially for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony, an annual commemoration held on the date of the atomic bombing. The park also contains a large collection of monuments, including the Children's Peace Monument, the Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims and many others.
Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine is within the walls of the castle. Other attractions in Hiroshima include Shukkei-en, Fudōin, Mitaki-dera, and Hijiyama Park.
Hiroshima is known for okonomiyaki, cooked on a hot-plate (usually in front of the customer). It is cooked with various ingredients, which are layered rather than mixed together as done with the Osaka version of okonomiyaki. The layers are typically egg, cabbage, bean sprouts (moyashi), sliced pork/bacon with optional items (mayonnaise, fried squid, octopus, cheese, mochi, kimchi, etc.), and noodles (soba, udon) topped with another layer of egg and a generous dollop of okonomiyaki sauce (Carp and Otafuku are two popular brands). The amount of cabbage used is usually 3 to 4 times the amount used in the Osaka style, therefore arguably a healthier version. It starts out piled very high and is generally pushed down as the cabbage cooks. The order of the layers may vary slightly depending on the chef's style and preference, and ingredients will vary depending on the preference of the customer.
The Chugoku Shimbun is the local newspaper serving Hiroshima. It publishes both morning paper and evening editions. Television stations include Hiroshima Home Television, Hiroshima TV, TV Shinhiroshima, and the RCC Broadcasting Company. Radio stations include Hiroshima FM, Chugoku Communication Network, FM Fukuyama, FM Nanami, and Onomichi FM. Hiroshima is also served by NHK, Japan's public broadcaster, with television and radio broadcasting.
Hiroshima is home to several professional and non-professional sports teams. Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. Kohei Matsuda, owner of Toyo Kogyo, was primary owner of the team from the 1970s until his death in 2002. The team is now owned by members of the Matsuda family, while Mazda has minority ownership of the team. Hiroshima Municipal Stadium, which was built in 1957, was the home of the Hiroshima Carp from the time it was built until the end of the 2008 season. The stadium is located in central Hiroshima, across from the A-Bomb Dome. The city is building a new baseball stadium near the JR Hiroshima Station, to be ready for the 2009 season. Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's professional football team; they won the Japanese league championship five times in the late 1960s and have remained one of Japan's traditionally strong football clubs. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.
|Hiroshima Toyo Carp||Baseball||Central League||Mazda Stadium||1949|
|Sanfrecce Hiroshima||Soccer||J. League||Hiroshima Big Arch||1938|
|JT Thunders||Volleyball||V.League||Nekota Kinen Taiikukan||1931|
|Hiroshima Maple Reds||Handball||Japan Handball League||Hirogin no mori Taiikukan||1994|
Hiroshima University was established in 1949, as part of a national restructuring of the education system. One national university was set up in each prefecture, including Hiroshima University, which combined eight existing institutions (Hiroshima University of Literature and Science, Hiroshima School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education, Hiroshima Women's School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education for Youth, Hiroshima Higher School, Hiroshima Higher Technical School, and Hiroshima Municipal Higher Technical School), with the Hiroshima Prefectural Medical College added in 1953.
Local public transportation in Hiroshima is provided by a Tram system, operated by Hiroshima Electric Railway called "Hiroden" (広電) for short. Hiroden also operates buses in and around Hiroshima Prefecture. Hiroshima Electric Railway was established on June 18, 1910, in Hiroshima. While many other Japanese cities abandoned the streetcar system by the 1980s, Hiroshima retained it because the construction of a subway system was too expensive for the city to afford, as it is located on a delta. During the 1960s, Hiroshima Electric Railway, or Hiroden, bought extra trams from other Japanese cities. Although trams in Hiroshima are now being replaced by newer models, most retain their original appearance. Thus, the tram system is sometimes called a "Moving Museum" by railroad buffs. Of the four trams that survived the war, two are still in operation as of July 2006 (Hiroden Numbers 651 and 652). There are seven tram lines, many of which terminate at Hiroshima Station.
The Astram Line opened for the 1994 Asian Games in Hiroshima, with one line from central Hiroshima to Seifu Shinto and Hiroshima Big Arch, the main stadium of the Asian Games. Astram uses rubber-tyred metro cars, and provides service to areas towards the suburbs that are not served by Hiroden streetcars. The Skyrail Midorizaka Line is a monorail that operates between Midoriguchi and Midori-Chūō, serving three stops.
The JR West Hiroshima Station offers inter-city rail service, including Sanyō Shinkansen which provides high speed service between Shin-Ōsaka and Fukuoka. Sanyō Shinkansen began providing service to Hiroshima in 1975, when the Osaka-Hakata extension opened. Other rail service includes the Sanyō Main Line, Kabe Line, Geibi Line, and Kure Line.
Ferries are operated by JR Miyajima Ferry and Miyajima Matsudai Kisen to Miyajima. Hiroden provides service to Miyajimaguchi Station, which is located near the ferry terminal for service to Miyajima. Hiroshima Port is the main passenger ferry terminal for Hiroshima, with service to Etajima, Matsuyama, and other destinations. There is also an international ferry terminal which has service to Busan and Ulsan in South Korea, Shanghai, Dalian, Qingdao and Ningbo in China, Keelung and Kaohsiung in Taiwan, as well as Hong Kong. There is also a boat taxi service that runs along the ota-gawa channels into the city center.
Hiroshima Airport, located nearby in the city of Mihara, provides air service within Japan to Tokyo, Sapporo, Okinawa, and Sendai. International air service is provided to Seoul, Guam, Bangkok, Taipei, Shanghai, Beijing, and Dalian. Commuter air service is also available at Hiroshima-Nishi Airport.
International relations 
Twin towns and sister cities 
- Honolulu, United States (1959)
- Volgograd, Russia (1972)
- Hanover, Germany (1983)
- Chongqing, People's Republic of China (1986)
- Daegu, South Korea (1997)
- Montreal, Canada (1998)
Within Japan, Hiroshima has a similar relationship with Nagasaki.
Further reading 
- Pacific War Research Society, Japan's Longest Day (Kodansha, 2002, ISBN 4-7700-2887-3), the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
- Richard B. Frank, Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0-14-100146-1)
- Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
- Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 0-679-76285-X
- John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0-679-72103-7
- Michihiko Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary: The Journal of a Japanese Physician, August 6 - September 30, 1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1955), since reprinted.
- Masuji Ibuse, Black Rain, ISBN 0-87011-364-X
- Tamiki Hara, Summer Flowers ISBN 0-691-00837-X
- Robert Jay Lifton Death in life: The survivors of Hiroshima, Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1st edition (1968) ISBN 0-297-76466-7
See also 
- Barefoot Gen
- Masaharu Morimoto, celebrity chef born and raised in Hiroshima and perhaps the city's most famous former resident by way of the popular show Iron Chef
- Yōko Ōta, author of several works of Atomic bomb literature
- Perfume, a pop group from Hiroshima
- Sadako Kurihara
- Sadako Sasaki (1943–1955)
- Town of Evening Calm, Country of Cherry Blossoms
- Yoshito Matsushige
- Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6.
- "The Origin of Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
- Scott O'Bryan (2009). "Hiroshima: History, City, Event". About Japan: A Teacher's Resource. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
- Kosaikai, Yoshiteru (2007). "History of Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Reader. Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation.
- Terry, Thomas Philip (1914). Terry's Japanese Empire. Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 640.
- Bingham (US Legation in Tokyo) to Fish (US Department of State), September 20, 1876, in Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, transmitted to congress, with the annual message of the president, December 4, 1876, p. 384
- Kosakai, Hiroshima Peace Reader
- Dun (US Legation in Tokyo) to Gresham, February 4, 1895, in Foreign relations of United States, 1894, Appendix I, p. 97
- Jacobs, Norman (1958). The Origin of Modern Capitalism and Eastern Asia. Hong Kong University. p. 51.
- Sanko (1998). Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome). The City of Hiroshima and the Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation.
- David M. Cheney (2011-05-21). "Diocese of Hiroshima". Catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- United States Strategic Bombing Survey (June 1946). "U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki". nuclearfiles.org. Archived from the original on 2004-10-11. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- Pape, Robert (1996). Bombing to Win: Airpower and Coercion in War. Cornell University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-8014-8311-0.
- "Japan in the Modern Age and Hiroshima as a Military City". The Chugoku Shimbun. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of History and Heritage Resources.
- "Frequently Asked Questions - Radiation Effects Research Foundation". Rerf.or.jp. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- Ishikawa and Swain (1981), p. 5
- "広島市 市の木・市の花". Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- Makurazaki Typhoon
- Ishikawa and also Swain (1981), p. 6
- "Peace Memorial City, Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- "Fifty Years for the Peace Memorial Museum". Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
- "Surviving the Atomic Attack on Hiroshima, 1944". Eyewitnesstohistory.com. 1945-08-06. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "Library: Media Gallery: Video Files: Rare film documents devastation at Hiroshima". Nuclear Files. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "気象庁 / 平年値（年・月ごとの値）". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- "Population of Japan, Table 92". Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- "2006 Statistical Profile". The City of Hiroshima. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- de Rham-Azimi, Nassrine, Matt Fuller, and Hiroko Nakayama (2003). Post-conflict Reconstruction in Japan, Republic of Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, East Timor. United Nations Publications. p. 69.
- Parker, J. (2004). "In Praise of Japanese Engineering; In Praise of Hiroshima". Circuits and Systems. 1. 47th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems.
- "Hiroshima Vehicle Engineering Company". HIVEC. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "広島市：ひろしま西風新都". Seifu-shinto.jp. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- JSW directory
- "Wel City Hiroshima". Wel-hknk.com. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- "Carp owner dies". The Japan Times. July 12, 2002. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- Graczyk, Wayne (March 4, 2007). "New stadium in Hiroshima looking good for 2009 season". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- "History of Hiroshima University". Hiroshima University. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
- "Astram Line". Design Soken Hiroshima Inc. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- "Shinkansen". japan-guide.com. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
- "Access-Sea Transport". Chugoku Bureau of Economy,Trade and Industry. Archived from the original on 2006-01-06. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- "Introduction to our Sister and Friendship Cities". City.hiroshima.jp. Retrieved 2010-05-10.
- "Friendly relationship at Official website of Volgograd". Volgadmin.ru. 1994-12-01. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- "Hanover - Twin Towns" (in German). © 2007-2009 Hanover.de - Offizielles Portal der Landeshauptstadt und der Region Hannover in Zusammenarbeit mit hier.de. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Gyanpedia.in[dead link]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hiroshima|
|Wikivoyage has travel information related to: Hiroshima|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hiroshima in ruins|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Hiroshima.|
- Official website in English
- Peter Rance's 1951 Hiroshima Photographs
- City Mayors article
- CBC Digital Archives - Shadows of Hiroshima
- Hiroshima Map - interactive with points of interest
- BBC World Service BBC Witness programme interviews a schoolgirl who survived the bomb