Hisar (city)

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This article is about the city in India. For its namesake district, see Hisar (district).
Hisar
हिसार ਹਿਸਾਰ
City
From top going clockwise: District Administrative Complex, St. Thomas Church, Fort of Firoz Shah, Sheela Mata Temple and observatory at OP Jindal Gyan Kendra.
From top going clockwise: District Administrative Complex, St. Thomas Church, Fort of Firoz Shah, Sheela Mata Temple and observatory at OP Jindal Gyan Kendra.
Nickname(s): The city of Steel
Hisar is located in Haryana
Hisar
Hisar
Coordinates: 29°09′N 75°42′E / 29.150°N 75.700°E / 29.150; 75.700Coordinates: 29°09′N 75°42′E / 29.150°N 75.700°E / 29.150; 75.700
Country India
State Haryana
District Hisar
Municipality Hisar
Urban Agglomeration Hisar[1]
Division Hisar
First settled 1354
Incorporated 1832
Founded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Named for Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Talukas Hisar Sadar
Government
 • Body Municipal Corporation, Hisar
 • Member of Parliament Dushyant Chautala
Elevation 215 m (705 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 301,249
 • Rank 141[2]
 • Density 438/km2 (1,130/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi, Punjabi
 • Regional Haryanvi, Bagri
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 125 xxx
UNLOCODE IN HSS
Telephone code 91-1662 xxx xxx
Vehicle registration HR-20 xxxx (for non-commercial vehicles)
HR-39 xxxx (for commercial vehicles)
Nearest city New Delhi, Chandigarh
Sex ratio 844[2] /
Literacy 81.04[2]%
Lok Sabha constituency Hisar
Vidhan Sabha constituency Hisar City
Planning agency HUDA
Civic agency Municipal Corporation, Hisar
Climate Cw (Köppen)
Precipitation 490.6 millimetres (19.31 in)
Avg. summer temperature 32.5 °C (90.5 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 17.6 °C (63.7 °F)
Website www.hisar.nic.in

Hisar About this sound pronunciation  (Hindi: ‍हिसार), previously spelled Hissar, is the administrative headquarters of Hisar district in the state of Haryana in northwestern India. It is located 164 kilometres to the west of New Delhi, India's capital, and has been identified as a counter-magnet city for the National Capital Region to attract migrants and develop as an alternative centre of growth to Delhi. As of June 2012, Hisar is India's largest galvanized iron manufacturing city. Due to presence of a large steel industry, it is also known as "The City of Steel".

Hisar was founded in 1354 AD, as Hisar-e-Firoza by Firuz Shah Tughlaq, the Turkic ruler, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. Firoz Shah also brought the waters of the Yamuna river to the city by means of a canal. The Ghaggar and Drishadvati rivers once flowed through the city but they have now changed their course. Hisar has a continental climate, with very hot summers and relatively cool winters. The most commonly spoken languages are Hindi, Haryanvi and Bagri.

The city was ruled by several major powers, including the Mauryans in the 3rd century BC, the Tughlaqs in the 14th century, the Mughals in the 16th century and the British in the 19th century. After India achieved independence, it was unified with the state of Punjab. When the Punjab was divided in 1966, Hisar became part of Haryana.

Etymology[edit]

Hisar or Hissar is a word of Turkish/central Asian origin which means "castle". The original name of the city was Hisar-e-Firoza, which means "The Castle of Firoz", named after Firoz Shah Tughlaq of the Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Archeological excavations at nearby locations of Rakhigarhi, Siswal and Lohari Ragho suggest the presence of human habitation from pre-Harappan period. Later, Aryan people settled around Drsadvati River. The Jain literature Uttaradhayana Sutra mentions a town Isukara in the Kuru country which is believed to be the earlier name of Hisar.[3] The kingdom of Hisar, with its capital at Agroha, possibly assisted Chandragupta Maurya in his war against the Greeks.[4] The kingdom was then included in the Mauryan Empire, as evidenced by the discovery of Ashokan pillars in the vicinity of the city. The city later came under the Kushan Empire and the Gupta Empire.[3] In the 12th century, the Chauhan king Prithviraj Chauhan made Hansi, located in the present day Hisar district, his capital and built a fort.[5] It remained a strategic place for Chauhan Empire until Prithviraj was defeated in the Second Battle of Tarain by the invading Ghurid ruler Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori.[3]

Tughlaq Era[edit]

Fort of Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Fort built by Firoz Shah Tughlaq at Hisar in 1354 AD

Hisar was founded in 1354 AD, as 'Hisar-e-Firoza' by Firoz Shah Tughlaq, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388.[6] He built a walled fort with four gates which were subsequently named as the Delhi Gate and Mori Gate to the east, the Nagori Gate to the south and Talaqi Gate to the west.[7] The construction of the fort started in 1354 AD and was completed in 1356 AD.[7] In the middle of the fort stood the Firoz Shah Palace. Apart from its several underground apartments, the complex had different buildings like Baradari, Lat ki Masjid, Diwan-e-Aam and Shahi Darwaza.[4] Near to the palace was the Gujri Mahal built by the emperor for his wife Gujri.[7] The city was named as Hisar-e-Firoza, which means Fort of Firoz in Arabic. Timur invaded the city in 1398 AD and his soldiers set fire to the fort.[4]

The city later come under the rule of Sayyid dynasty and Lodi dynasty before Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat.[4]

Mughal Era[edit]

Areas under the East India company's control, 1765-1805

When Babur invaded India in the 1524–1526, Hisar was an important strategic center of Ibrahim Lodi’s empire.[4] Before the battle of Panipat in 1526, on reaching the Ghaggar, Babur learnt that the troops from Hisar, led by Hamid Khan, were advancing towards him. He dispatched prince Humayun with a sufficient number of soldiers who succeeded in defeating the enemy. Babur handed over the city of Hisar to Humayun as a reward for his success on his first military expedition.[4] During his first reign a mosque known as Jama Masjid was built there by Amir Muhammad in 1535.

In 1540, Hisar came under the control of Sher Shah Suri when he defeated Humayun but Humayun took it back in 1555 and assigned it to Akbar.[4]

During Akbar’s reign (1556–1605) Hisar became once more a place of considerable importance.[4] It was made the headquarters of the revenue Division known as Sirkar; some of Mughal Princes who were attached to Hisar subsequently became the Emperors.

The city of Hisar became known in the history of India as the Duke of Wellington of Mughal era. The city remained under the rule of Mughals until 1760.[4]

British Era[edit]

James Skinner CB (1778–1841), 19th century. Probably from Thomas Metcalfe's book dated 1843.

The city was occupied by George Thomas in 1798. This arrangement continued up to 1801 when George Thomas was driven out from here by the Sikh-Maratha-French confederacy.[3] George Thomas, an Irish adventurer who rose from an ordinary sailor to become an independent king, formed Hansi as his capital. Hansi came under British East India Company rule in 1802. From 1819–1832, Hansi was a District HQ which was later shifted to Hisar in 1832.

Colonel James Skinner CB (1778 – 4 December 1841) was an Anglo-Indian military adventurer in India, who became known as Sikandar Sahib later in life, and most known for two cavalry regiments he raised for the British, later known as 1st Skinner's Horse and 3rd Skinner's Horse (formerly 2nd Skinner's Horse) at Hansi in 1803, which still are a part of the Indian Army [8]

In 1803, Hisar came under East India Company and remained its part until the Indian Rebellion of 1857 when Muhammad Azim, a descendant of the Mughal family took it away from the Company for a short period. The Company sent forces under General Van Cortlandt who defeated Muhammad Azim and Rao Tula Ram on 16 November 1857.[3]

Between 1803 till 1879, British constructed a 4,000 km long Great Hedge of India, for levying the customs duty on salt and sugar, that ran through Hisar and Hansi.

In 1833, a cattle farm was established at Hisar which survives to date and municipality was created in 1867 to manage the city.[9]

Hisar took active part in 1857 war of liberation (Gadar), Lala Hukam Chand Jain was martyred in 1857 by Britishers. Raham Ali ibn Mohammad Hussain ibn Maulana Abul Khair of Palwal was martyred along with Aulia Khan Balooch at Pargana Hansi.[10] Raham Ali was brother-in-law of Qazi Syed Mohammad Rafi.

The city remained as a major centre of the Indian independence movement from Indian Rebellion of 1857 until the independence as many national leaders visited the city during the movement such as Lala Lajpat Rai in 1886,[11] Subhas Chandra Bose in 1938,[4] and Jawaharlal Nehru in 1946.[12] After independence, the city became a part of Punjab.

Post-independence[edit]

The city became an important centre of education after independence when the Veterinary College, the Fateh Chand College for Women and Dayanand Brahma Mahavidyalaya were shifted there from Lahore.[11]

It gained importance in the early 1960s when Haryana Agriculture University was located there.

The setup of Guru Jambheshwar University and Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences further bolstered the image of the city as an education hub.

The government's industrial policy has attracted a large number of entrepreneurs and has led to the emergence of various corporate groups such as the Jindal Group, the Dora Group the Essel Group, the Action Group[13] and the Quality Group.[14]

Geography[edit]

The present city of Hisar, one of the important cities of North India, is located at 29°05′N 75°26′E / 29.09°N 75.43°E / 29.09; 75.43 in western Haryana. It has an average elevation of 215 above mean sea level. The district is part of the alluvial or Ghaggar-Yamuna plain and its southern and western portions mark a gradual transition to the desert.[4] Ghaggar[15] and Drishadvati[16] rivers once used to flow through the city. Sand dune generally occurs along the western fringe of the city. Minerals found around the city are Kankar and Saltpetre. According to tectonic map, the district lies on Delhi-Lahore Ridge which is bounded by thrusts. No earthquake of any significance has originated in the zone in the past.[4] There has been only one recorded instance of a famine occurring in the city. It occurred in 1837–38.[17]

The city, which was once marked by the recurring droughts and famines is now an agriculturally developed city due to the establishment of Haryana Agricultural University.[4] It has brought spectacular transformation and the city which earlier grew only coarse grains, is now the cotton belt of Haryana.[4]

Climate[edit]

A mustard farm in Hisar.JPG

Hisar has a continental climate, with very hot summers and relatively cool winters.[18] The main characteristics of climate in Hisar are dryness, extremes of temperature and scanty rainfall.[19] The city witnesses very hot summers and cool winters. The maximum day temperature during the summer varies between 40 to 46-degree Celsius. During winter its ranges between 1.5-degree to 4-degree Celsius. Although temperature can get to as low as minus 4 °C.[20] Maximum temperature recorded is 48.3 °C in May 1944 whereas the minimum temperature recorded is −3.9 °C in January 1929. Annual average maximum and minimum temperature is 31.5 and 16.2 °C, respectively. Relative humidity varies from 5 to 100 per cent.[19]

Hisar is located on the outer margins of the South-west monsoon region. The average annual rainfall is around 450 mm most of which occurs during the months of July and August. The annual highest rainfall of 793.6 mm was recorded in 1976 and the lowest of 145.2 mm in 2000. Dew is observed in December and January. Hot winds, locally known as Loo, are strong and frequent from May to July.[19]

Occasionally dust-storms are experienced during summer months and hail-storms during February to April. Fog prevails generally in December and January months. Thunder-storms also occur during post monsoon season and summer months.[19]


Climate data for Hisar (1951–1980)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21.4
(70.5)
24.7
(76.5)
30.5
(86.9)
36.8
(98.2)
40.7
(105.3)
41.0
(105.8)
37.0
(98.6)
35.1
(95.2)
35.4
(95.7)
34.3
(93.7)
29.1
(84.4)
23.5
(74.3)
32.5
(90.5)
Average low °C (°F) 05.5
(41.9)
08.3
(46.9)
13.7
(56.7)
19.4
(66.9)
24.2
(75.6)
27.7
(81.9)
27.0
(80.6)
26.0
(78.8)
23.7
(74.7)
17.8
(64)
11.0
(51.8)
06.5
(43.7)
17.6
(63.7)
Rainfall mm (inches) 013.4
(0.528)
015.5
(0.61)
012.1
(0.476)
005.6
(0.22)
020.3
(0.799)
042.9
(1.689)
140.7
(5.539)
146.9
(5.783)
065.0
(2.559)
014.8
(0.583)
006.1
(0.24)
007.3
(0.287)
490.6
(19.313)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.1 1.2 1.3 0.6 1.3 3.0 6.9 7.5 3.5 0.9 0.5 0.7 28.5
Source: India Meteorological Department[21]

Civic administration[edit]

Hisar District Administrative Complex
District Administrative Complex of the city.

Hisar is a separate municipality since 1867.[11] The current city of Hisar was made the headquarters of the Hisar district in 1832. It is now changed to Nagar Nigam Hisar. The Nagar Nigam is headed by Mayor, Elections Held in June 2013. The functions of the Nagar Nigam include water supply, drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management, street lighting, and building regulation. Law and order in the city is maintained by Haryana Police, which is headed by Superintendent of Police.[22] The city also serves as headquarters of the Hisar Range of Haryana Police which covers Sirsa, Jind, Bhiwani and Hisar and is headed by Inspector General of Police.[23] District court was set up at Hisar in 1832[24] and was upgraded as a Sessions Division in 1915. It is headed by Chief Judicial Magistrate.[24] The district court has a Bar Association which was founded in 1870.[11] Lala Lajpat Rai practiced as a lawyer in Hisar in 1886.[4]

Hisar City officials
Member of Parliament Dushyant Chautala[25]
Member of Legislative Assembly Dr. Kamal gupta[26]
Municipal Commissioner Amit Kumar Aggarwal[27]
Superintendent of Police Anil Dhawan[28]

Offices of the Municipal Corporation, Hisar and Haryana Police are located at District Administrative Complex also known as Mini Secretariat which was completed in 1980 whereas the offices of Hisar Sessions Division and Hisar District Bar Association are located at Judiciary Complex adjoining District Administrative Complex. This administrative and judiciary complex is largest in Haryana and at a district headquarters may be one of the largest in the country.[7]

The city falls under the Hisar Lok Sabha constituency, thus contributing one Member of Parliament (MP). It is a battalion Headquarters of 33rd Battalion of Border Security Force[7] and 3rd Battalion of Haryana Armed Police.[22] The 33rd Armoured Division of Indian Army is stationed at Hisar[29] and is a part of I Corps. In 1996, Brigade of the Guards arrived here for conversion to mechanised profile. The unit is now a fully mechanised battalion.[30]

Economy[edit]

Naveen Jindal
Naveen Jindal, CMD of Jindal Steel and Power is from Hisar

The city has a large steel industry due to which it is also known as "The City of Steel".[14][31][32][33] As of June 2012, Hisar is India's largest galvanized iron manufacturing city,[34] beginning with Pipe Unit Jindal India Limited in 1964 and followed by Jindal Strips Limited in 1969.[35] Other prominent steel and pipe manufacturing companies are Quality Foils Private Limited,[14] Hisar Metal Industries Limited,[32] Haryana Concast Limited, Haryana Tube Manufacturing Private Limited, Ravindra Tube Limited and Janak Steel Tubes Private Limited.[4]

Additionally, a large textile industry is based in the city. Major textile companies are Hisar Textile Mills, Hansi Cooperative Spinning Mills[4] and H.P. Cotton Textile Mills Limited.[36] The Oxygen manufacturing unit Haryana Oxygen is also present.

Hisar has Asia's largest automobile repair and spare parts market in terms of radius and area.[37] It also has a large number of livestock farms. Asia's largest and world's second largest cattle farm, Central Livestock Farm, formed there in 1809.[38] Another major farm is the Central Sheep Breeding Farm.[39]

Eminent business persons from Hisar are Subhash Chandra, Chairman of Essel Group; O. P. Jindal, founder of Jindal Steel and Power; Prithviraj Jindal, VC of Jindal Saw Limited; Sajjan Jindal, CMD of JSW Steel; Ratan Jindal, VC and CEO of Jindal Steel and Power; Naveen Jindal, CMD of Jindal Steel and Power; Mange Ram Agarwal, Founder of Action Group;,[13] Arjun Das Agarwal, Founder of Dora Group; B K Goenka, Vice Chairman and Managing Director of Welspun Group[40] and Kuldip Bhargava, Managing Director of Quality Group.,[14] Yashpal Sihag, Managing Director of Achariya Technologies Sandeep Rahar, Managing Director of Levitate Solutions. Savitri Jindal, non-executive chairperson of Jindal Group and a resident of Hisar is the wealthiest woman in India and the 10th wealthiest woman in the world.[41]

The city has been identified as a counter-magnet city for the National Capital Region to attract migrants and develop as an alternative centre of growth to Delhi.[42] The liberalization of the economy has encouraged many international brands to open retail outlets in the city.[43] The first mall, Suncity Mall, was opened to the general public in 2006.[44] Connaught Place, planned as a one stop luxury location with multiple 5 star facilities, is under construction in Sector 25.[45] Metropolis Mall is also being made.[46]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census of India, Hisar city has a population of 301,249 (not to be confused with the population of Hisar district[47]) and is currently the 141st most populated city in India.[48] Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. There are 844 females per thousand males. Hisar has an average literacy rate of 81.04%, higher than the national average: male literacy is 86.13% and female literacy is 75.00%. In Hisar, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age and the child sex ratio of girls to boys is 860 per thousand boys. Although Hisar city has population of 301,249; its urban population is 306,893 of which 166,623 are males and 140,270 are females.[1] The decadal growth rate was 27.06%.[49] In the 1960s, the per capita income of the city was the highest in the country.[11]

Hisar has the highest number of permanent immigrants to the US among all districts in Haryana. According to a recent report on permanent immigration from the Northern Indian Districts of Indian subcontinent by the US Department of Homeland Security on the state of Haryana, Hisar ranks number 1 (with 893); Faridabad (812) and Karnal (656) are second and third.[31]

Religions and Communities[edit]

Over 97% of the population belongs to Hinduism, bulk of remaining 3% belong to Sikhism and Jainism and very few follow Islam or Christianity.[49][verification needed]

Though originally the city had more Muslims than Hindus, most of them shifted to Pakistan during Partition of India.[4]

It was also a major centre of learning for Digambara Jains and was once the seat of Bhattaraka, head of Digambara Jain institutions.[50]

Culture[edit]

Most of the popular Indian festivals are celebrated in the city, the most important being Diwali, Dussehra, Ram Navami, Janamashtami, Shivratri, Gugga Navami, Holi, Basant Panchami, Teej and Makar Sankranti.

The festivals of Jains, Christians, Sikhs and Muslims are also celebrated.[4]

Agrawal community traces its root to the village of Agroha in Hisar.[51] The Agrawals claim descent from the legendary king Agrasena.[52] Agroha Maha Kumbh is a festival annually held on the Sharad Purnima.[53] Other locally famous deities are Gugga Pir and Sheela Mata.[54]

Sweets are very popular in the district and rural as well as urban people are very fond of eating sweets.[4] Hansi ka Peda carry a mass popularity in and outside the district.[55]

Ghoomar is the primary folk dance performed by people during festivals and other occasions and Saang is the folk-theatre of the region.[4]

Classical Indian vocalist and Padma Vibhushan, Pandit Jasraj is from Hisar. Poets Vishnu Prabhakar (Sahitya Akademi Award and Padma Bhushan awardee), Uday Bhanu Hans (State poet of Haryana) and Bhai Parmanand also belong to Hisar.[56]

Architecture[edit]

Signs of Pre-Harappan settlements have be found at Siswal and Lohari Ragho.[57] One of the four pre-Harappan phases has been named Sothi-Siswal period (3200–2600 BC)[58] on this site.[59] Harappan settlements can be found as well in Rakhigarhi. The site covers 2180 hectares, making it the largest Harappan site known in India and the second biggest overall after Mohenjodaro.[60] All the sites are maintained by Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

Agroha is another place of historical importance. It is situated about 24 km from the city and was once the capital of king Agrasena, who is believed to have lived during the last stages of Dwapar Yuga in the Mahabharat era. Remains of his capital have been excavated, known as Agroha Mound or locally as Ther, and belong to around 3000 BC.[61]

The Agroha city was also a major centre during the Mauryan period as Buddhist and Jain temples have also been revealed in the excavations.[62]

Firoz Shah Palace Complex is another prominent historical site located inside the city. It was built by Firuz Shah Tughlaq in 1354.[4] The original town was a walled settlement inside the fort with four gates, Delhi gate, Mori gate, Nagauri gate and Talaqi gate. The palace comprises a mosque known as Lat ki Masjid. Lat is a sandstone pillar about 20 feet high and was earlier an Ashokan pillar.[63] Underground apartments are also located inside the complex. The place has also a Diwan-e-Aam. Gujri Mahal is another palace located near the palace complex also built by Firoz Shah for his wife Gujri. Its construction was completed in 1356 and stands on a massive rectangular platform.[11]

Hansi also has a few historical places. Asigarh Fort is a centrally protected monument.[7] It has completely been converted into a mound.[7] A long pillared structure with a flat roof is situated on the top of the mound and is known as Baradari.[7] Barsi Gate served as entrance to the fort and is now located in the town market. It was built in 1304–1305.[7]

Hansi also has Durgah Char Qutub built in the memory of Jamal-ud-Din Hansi (1187–1261), Burhan-ud-Din (1261–1300), Qutab-ud-Din Manuwar (1300–1303) and Nur-ud-Din (1325–1397) who were the celebrated Sufi Saints of their times and were designated as Qutbs.[7]

Historical places from the British era include St. Thomas Church, monument of the Britishers in the Krantiman Park (company Baug) who were killed in 1857 war, Jahaj Kothi which was the residence of George Thomas. The place has now been converted into a museum. It was once a Jain temple.[11] Other historical sites are the Tomb of Pranpir Badshah located inside Government College Complex.[7]

Religious places[edit]

Banbhori Devi
Banbhori Devi is worshipped by local people

Agroha Dham is a prominent religious place located on the outskirts of the city about 22 km away on Fatehabad-Sirsa-Bhatinda road.[64] Built in the honour of Maharaja Agrasena, it is considered as a sacred place by the Agrahari and Agrawal communities. The construction of the temple was completed in 1984.[65] The temple complex consists of three temples, the central one devoted to Goddess Mahalakshmi, the west end to Goddess Saraswati and the east end to Maharaja Agrasena. It also encompasses a pond Shakti Sarovar and an amusement park. A festival known as Agroha Maha Kumbh is held every year on Sharad Purnima.[53] At a distance of one km from the temple complex is the Sheela Mata Temple. The temple was opened for general public in 1988. It was constructed in the memory of Sheela Mata who ended her life as a Sati. The temple is devoted to Tridevi. Agrawal families from allover India come here for Mundan ceremony of their children.[61]

St. Thomas' Church is a major religious place for Christians living in the city. The church was consecrated in 1865[11] by Lord Bishop of Calcutta. The church has been declared as a historical monument by Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage.[11] It is named after St. Thomas who visited India in 52 AD.[11]

The city also has a Gurudwara named Shri Guru Singh Sabha built in 1925[11] which is a prominent religious place for Sikhs. A local deity Banbhori is also worshipped by local people.

Parks and recreation[edit]

O P Jindal Knowledge Centre & Observatory is modeled after Seattle tower. Observatory is at the top of the tower

The oldest park located in the city is the Krantiman Park.[11] It is a part of the St. Thomas Church Complex. The park was built in the 19th century and was then known as Company Bagh. A memorial was placed in the park in the memory of Collector John Wedderburn and 43 other people who were killed during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The park was remodeled in 1983 and was renamed as Krantiman Park.[11]

Another major park located in the city is Madhuban Park situated near the Mahabir Stadium. The park was commissioned in 1972.[11] and houses a swimming pool, children's library and a Kala Kendra.[4]

Located at the centre of the city is Town Park. The park was opened for public in 2000. It was developed and is maintained by Haryana Urban Development Authority. It adjoins the Central Jail and has an artificial waterfall.[11]

O. P. Jindal Knowledge Centre was inaugurated in 2009 in the memory of O. P. Jindal. The centre has a museum, library, herbal park, skating rink and a cafeteria. It also houses a 25-storied 282 metre high steel tower built on the lines of Space Needle, Seattle. The tower is the tallest of its kind in Asia and the second tallest steel tower in the world.[66] Another park developed by the Jindal family is the O. P. Jindal Memorial Park located near the Firoz Shah Fort Complex. Spread across an area of 23 acres, it consists of a Sundial[67] and a 63 metres high flagpole of Tiranga[68] put as a reminiscent to the initiative taken by Naveen Jindal that led to the revision of Flag code of India.[69] This is not to be confused with the Jindal Park situated near Auto Market.

There's also a Deer Park located at the outskirts of the city and maintained by the State Forest Department.[70] It was established in the year 1971. Rare species of endangered animals such as Blackbuck, Chital, Sambar and Nilgai can be found here.[70]

The city also has an artificial lake situated in the Blue Bird Lake and Tourist Resort complex maintained by the Haryana Tourism.[71]

Media[edit]

Doordarshan Kendra was set up in Hisar in 2002 which is the only Programme Production Center in Haryana.[72]

Besides Doordarshan channels, there are also a lot of other private channels operating in the city. A few local cable operators also broadcast their own channel such as SITI Channel.[73] Direct To Home (DTH) services are provided by almost all the operators.

An All India Radio station is also located at Hisar.[74] Private FM stations operating in Hisar are BIG FM, Radio Mantra, Radio Dhamaal and Radio Tarang.[75] In 2011, CCS HAU started the first Community Radio Station of North India at 91.2 MHz for farming community.[76]

Facilities[edit]

Utility services[edit]

Before independence of India, monsoon or groundwater used to be the main sources of irrigation.[77] The main sources of water now is Balsamand branch of Bhakra canal.[78] Municipal Corporation of Hisar supplies potable water to the city.[79]

The city first got electricity in 1936.[11] It is now distributed by Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Limited.[80]

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) provides landline and broadband services.[81]

Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTNL, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom.

The planning of the city is done by HUDA (Haryana Urban Development Authority).[82]

Health facilities[edit]

People from Punjab and Rajasthan come here for medical treatment.[83] Hisar has a well-developed network of health facilities,[84] including the Civil Hospital.

Hisar also has many other reputed private and charitable health institutes such as Sukhda Hospital, Sarvodaya Multispeciality & Cancer Hospital, N.C. Jindal Institute of Medical Sciences,[85] O.P. Jindal Institute of Cancer and Research,[86] Maharaja Agrasen Medical College,[87] Sewak Sabha Hospital,[11] C.M.C. Hospital[88] and Churamani Vishnudevi Maternity Hospital.[11]

Besides, there is also District Red Cross Society for specially abled people.[89]

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

The city lies on National Highway 10 and National Highway 65. National Highway 10 from Delhi to Fazilka connects it to Rohtak and Sirsa and National Highway 65 from Ambala to Pali connects it to Kaithal and Jodhpur. The state highways of Haryana that pass through Hisar are State Highway 10, 13 and 20.[90] Besides, there are district roads, village link roads and canal inspection roads.[4] In 1947, the total metalled road length in the city was 137 kilometres which increased to 1,888 kilometres in 1978.[4]

Bus service is the major means of transport in the district.[91] Bus services are provided by Haryana Roadways and other private operators. Hisar bus depot came into being on 11 August 1969 and has a sub depot at Hansi.[91] As of 2012, the depot has a total of 198 buses with daily ridership of 73.5 thousand.[91]

Bus stands are located at Hisar, Hansi, Barwala, Uklana and Adampur.[91] All the 290 villages of Hisar district are connected to the city through either public transport provided by Haryana Roadways or through private buses.[91] Auto rickshaws are a major means of transport for travelling within the city.[4] In August 2012, it was announced that city bus service will be started in the city.[92]

The city is a part of Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project which aims at developing strong road and rail connectivity between the cities lying on it and develop them as an industrial area.[93]

Rail[edit]

Hisar is a railway junction station, and it falls under Bikaner division of North Western Railway Zone.[94] The first railway line to the city was laid down in 1883 when Delhi Rewari Railway was extended to Bhatinda.[11] Currently, there are four broad gauge railway lines at the station.[4]

The railway station is a part of Western Dedicated Rail Freight Corridor according to which the city is to be developed as an export-oriented industrial units.[95]

The city is well connected to Delhi, Punjab, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir through rail links.[96]

The Gorakhdham Express originates from Hisar and travels 964 km to Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh via New Delhi, Agra, Kanpur and Lucknow.[97]

In 2011, the then Railway Minister Mamta Banerjee launched Vivek Express from Jammu Tawi to Mumbai thus connecting Hisar directly to Mumbai.[98]

Air[edit]

Hisar Airport (IATA: HSS, ICAO:VIHR)[99] is located on the outskirts of the city. It started as Hisar Aviation Club in 1965[11] but was later merged with Haryana Institute of Civil Aviation in 1999. Now, it is known as Hisar branch of HICA. A privately managed service was started from Hisar to Delhi and Patiala in 1971 but was terminated after a period of six months.[4] In 2002, all Delhi Flying Club (DFC) flights from Safdarjung Airport were shifted to Hisar.[99]

Flight training is also provided at the institute. It has a total fleet of four aircrafts including Cessna 172 and Cessna 152.[100] It provides flying training for Commercial pilot licence, Private pilot licence and Flight instructor and practical training for Aircraft maintenance engineer licence.[100] Training activities were suspended in 2010 for fourteen months after the chief flying instructor was arrested for issuing fake flying certificates and were resumed in February 2012.In August 2012, the DGCA approved the Haryana state government's plan to develop the airport to operate domestic passenger services. Its 4,000 foot runway will be extended to 6,000 feet to accommodate turboprop aircraft like the ATR-72.[6].[101]

Education[edit]

Maharaja Agrasen Medical College
Maharaja Agrasen Medical College at Agroha is a premier educational institute

Before the British Raj, indigenous schools provided elementary education. Till 1892, the city had only one middle school.[4] The first private school, CAV High School was set up by Arya Samaj in 1918.[11]

The first university that came into existence in Hisar was Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University in 1971. It is one of Asia's biggest agricultural university.[102]

Other universities located in the city are Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology and Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences. GJUST is the first Indian government run institute providing Post Graduate education in Printing Technology.[18]

Apart from universities there are some noted colleges providing education in Hisar such as Chajju Ram Memorial Jat College, Dayanand College, Fateh Chand College for Women and Govt. Post Graduate College; all established in the 1950s and 1960s. A lot of colleges have sprung up in the 1990s and 2000s (decade). Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha situated at Agroha provides medical education.[87] The city has a good number of private and government schools providing education.

A few agricultural and veterinary research centres are also situated in the city such as National Research Centre on Equines,[103] Central Sheep Breeding Farm,[39] National Institute on Pig Breeding and Research[18] Northern Region Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute[104] and Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB).[105] In 1988, the city hosted the 2nd World Buffalo Congress.[105]

The popular schools and colleges include the Thakur Dass Bhargava Senior Secondary Model School, Dayanand Post Graduate College, Hisar, CRM JAT College, Hisar, Govt Post Graduate College, Hisar, etc. Hisar is also well known for Bsc. agriculture coaching and for computer institutes.Top-notch is a famous institute in Hisar which provides Bsc. agriculture coaching and HKCL's authorised learning centre.

The important libraries in the city are Nehru Library,[106] District Library, Gandhi Adhyan Kendra, Chatterjee Memorial Library, Sushila Bhawan Trust Library, Sanatan Dharam Library, Lala Lajpat Rai Municipal Library, Singh Sabha Library, Vivekanand Library, Bar Library and the Public Relation Information Centre at Mini-Secretariat.

There is one museum in the city which is maintained by CCS HAU in its Gandhi Bhawan and exhibits evolution of agriculture and vanishing antiques.[4] Jahaaj Kothi at Firoz Shah Palace & Fort Complex also houses a museum.

Sports[edit]

In 2003[107] and 51st National Boxing Championship in 2004.[108] It also hosted 22nd Haryana State Women Sports Festival in 2008.[109]

It has Giri Centre for Sports Activities run by Sports Authority of India at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University which has a synthetic track of international standard apart from other facilities.[110] Other major sporting venue in Hisar is Mahabir Stadium for multiple sports which was completed in the year 1972. On completion it was named Nehru Stadium but renamed Mahabir Stadium in 1987.[11] It is run by District Olympic Association and Sports Council. It is the biggest centre for Judo coaching in India.[11] The seating capacity of the stadium is 25,000 and provides facilities for boxing, judo, yoga, athletics, basketball and volleyball.[11] The stadium is lit with floodlights and more than 1000 players daily use it for practice.[11]

Eminent sports persons from Hisar who have represented India are Chandgi Ram, Geetika Jakhar in wrestling, Krishna Poonia in discus throw, Manvinder Bisla has represented Kolkata Knight Riders in the Indian Premier League, Nirmala Devi in wrestling, Saina Nehwal in badminton, Udey Chand and Vikas Krishan Yadav in boxing. In April 2012, 18-year old Ajay Kumar from Hisar qualified for 2012 Summer Olympics.[111]

Sports facilities are provided in every school and college. Chajju Ram Memorial Jat College is known for its sports facilities. Many students from this college have represented India in football, judo, wrestling, hockey and handball .[112] The football program located on its campus is famous throughout the city for producing international level players under the guidance of Madan Singh Rathore[113][114] such as Manandeep Singh who earlier represented Pailan Arrows and Kingfisher East Bengal[115] and now plays for India national football team and Air India.

Tourism[edit]

Key attractions in Hisar are Blue Bird Lake, Bishnoi Mandir, Feroze Shah's Palace And Fort, Gujari Mahal, Lat Ki Masjid & Ashokan Pillar, Jahaz Kothi which was the residence of George Thomas, St. Thomas Church, Krantiman Park with monument of British people who were killed during Indian Rebellion of 1857, O.P. Jindal Knowledge Center with 25-story 282 meters high steel tower which is the highest structure in the city, Deer Park, Hisar Shatavar Vatika Herbal Park and Splash Fun Water & Amusement Park, Hissar[116] at Talwandi Rana village 9 km away.

Nearby are the Shri Hanuman Temple situated at Kajla Dham approx. 15 K.M. from the main city,[117] Bua Kanwari Dham at Kanwari village 18 km away and Agroha Dham 24 km away and Tosham rock inscription is 40 km away at Tosham.

Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites are Banawali, Lohari Ragho, Masudpur, Rakhigarhi, Siswal all with Hissar as well as Burj[disambiguation needed] and Bhirrana and Kunal and Balu in Fatehabad.[118] Another archaeological site is Agroha Mound. Kanwari Mound at Kanwari village 18 km away is encroached upon by the villagers and in the severe danger of vanishing soon if urgent actions are not taken.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Juneja, M.M. History of Hisar: From Inception To Independence, 1354–1947 1989, Haryana: Modern Book Co., 484 pp. ISBN 0439410233
  • Juneja, M.M. Hisar City: Places & Personalities 2004, Haryana: Modern Publishers, 744 pp.
  • Gazetteer Of The Hisar District 1883–84 2001, Haryana: Sang-E-Meel Publications, 72 pp. ISBN 0043948449
  • Ojha, J.S.B.S. Resource Planning Atlas Of Western Haryana: Sirsa And Hisar Districts 1996, Haryana: National Book Organisation, 207 pp. ISBN 8185135819
  • Shokoohy, M. & Shokoohy, N.H. Hisar-i Firuza: Sultanate and Early Mughal Architecture in the District of Hisar, India 1988: Araxus Books, 172 pp. ISBN 1870606019

External links[edit]