Hisham II

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Hisham II
ھشام ثانی
17 Caliph of Umayyad Dynasty
3rd Caliph of Córdoba
Reign 976–1009
1010–1013
Predecessor Al-Hakam II
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam
Successor Muhammad II
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam
Father Al-Hakam II
Mother Subh
Born 966
Died 19 April 1013

Hisham II (Arabic: ھشام‎) was the third Caliph of Cordoba, of the Umayyad dynasty. He ruled 976–1009, and 1010–1013 in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia, which became part of modern Spain).

Hisham II succeeded his father Al-Hakam II as Caliph of Cordoba in 976 at the age of 10, with his mother Subh and the first minister Jafar al-Mushafi acting as regents. General Ghalib and Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (Almansor) managed to prevent the eunuchs from placing a brother of al-Hakam II on the throne. Subh advanced Al-Mansur and appointed him to the treasury of the Caliphate. Hisham II himself was kept from government and exercised no political influence, and in 997 he was even forced to officially hand over sole control of the government to Al-Mansur, under whom the Caliphate reached its greatest extent and attained its greatest success over the Christian states.

After Al-Mansur's death in 1002 his son Abd al-Malik (1002–1008) came to power and secured his position in the Caliphate with successful campaigns against Navarre and Barcelona before being murdered by Abd ur-Rahman Sangul (1008–1009). In 1009 a popular uprising led by Muhammad II al-Mahdi deposed both Sangul and Hisham II, the latter being kept imprisoned in Cordoba under the new regime.

The next few years saw rapid changes of leadership as a result of wars between Berber and Arab armies, as well as of Slavic[clarification needed] mercenaries, with al-Mahdi losing out to Sulaiman al-Mustain in 1009 before regaining power in 1010. Finally the Slavic troops of the Caliphate under al-Wahdid restored Hisham II as Caliph (1010–1013).

Hisham II was now under the influence of al-Wahdid, who was nevertheless unable to gain control of the Berber troops - these still supported Sulaiman, and the civil war continued. It is known that Hisham openly kept a male harem.[1] In 1013 the Berbers took Cordoba with much plundering and destruction. What happened to Hisham after that is uncertain – supposedly he was killed on 19 April 1013 by the Berbers. In any case, Sulaiman al-Mustain (1013–1016) became Caliph.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michael Gerli, Medieval Iberia: An encyclopaedia, 2003 Routledge

External links[edit]

Hisham II
Cadet branch of the Banu Quraish
Preceded by
Al-Hakam II
Caliph of Cordoba
976–1009
Succeeded by
Mohammed II
Preceded by
Sulaiman al-Mustain
Caliph of Cordoba
1010–1013
Succeeded by
Sulaiman al-Mustain