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The Hispanidad (English: Hispanicity) are the community formed by all the people and countries that share a common Hispanic heritage and cultural pattern. The 23 nations that are included are all Spanish-speaking countries.
The community can be classified into three geographic areas: Hispanic Europe (Spain), Hispanic America, and Hispanic Africa (Equatorial Guinea and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic). A few countries in the Asia-Pacific region also have historical Spanish influence, although they no longer have Spanish as their official language.
Various countries celebrate 12 October as the Día de la Hispanidad ("Day of Hispanicity" or "Hispanic Day"). Since 1987 Spain has celebrated this holiday as its Fiesta Nacional de España. In the other nations of the community, the day is also celebrated as a commemoration of the date in 1492 when Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas, marking the beginning of the diffusion of Spanish language and culture as well as its lasting impact on the New World.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Hispanics in the world
- 4 See also
- 5 References
At the beginning of the 20th century, Hispanicity was moribund. Zacarías de Vizarra, Faustino Rodríguez-San Pedro and Ramiro de Maeztu revived interest in the concept in Spain and the Americas, changing its name to Día de la Raza or "Day of the Race". This was already a national celebration in many Hispanic countries, in honor of the meeting of Europeans and Amerindians, their mixing and the emergence of the mestizo race. Shortly thereafter, the first pan-Hispanic organizations such as the Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española began. With the restoration of democracy in Spain, all the Hispanic nations began to converge with, for example, the creation of the Cumbre Iberoamericana in 1991. Since then, the number of Hispanic American and Filipino hispanism (Filhispanismo) organizations has increased.
Currently, Hispanicity is a cooperative venture. Spain has created a base of support for Hispanic America and the Philippines due to heavy investments in these zones. Some Hispanic Americans choose to immigrate to Spain, because of its cultural, linguistic and ancestral affinity.
|Capital||Name in Spanish|
|Costa Rica||51,100||4,667,096||91.3||San José||Costa Rica|
|Dominican Republic||48,442||10,219,630||210.9||Santo Domingo||República Dominicana|
|Equatorial Guinea||28,050||622,000||24.1||Malabo||Guinea Ecuatorial|
|El Salvador||21,040||6,108,590||290.3||San Salvador||El Salvador|
|Mexico||1,972,550||118,395,054||57||Mexico City||Estados Unidos Mexicanos|
|Puerto Rico*||9,104||3,615,086||397||San Juan||Puerto Rico|
(6.1% of the global population)
*: Not a sovereign state
Largest Hispanic cities
The following is a list of the ten largest metropolitan areas in the Hispanic world.
|Gross Domestic Product
|GDP per capita
|Global economic ranking by GDP
|1.||Mexico City||Mexico||20,631,353||$411.4 billion||$19,940||15th|
|2.||Buenos Aires||Argentina||13,333,912||$348.4 billion||$26,129||20th|
Spanish in the Hispanic world
Most Spanish speakers are in Hispanic America; of all countries with a majority of Spanish speakers, only Spain and Equatorial Guinea are outside the Americas. Spanish is the official national language of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
In Europe, Spanish is the official national language of Spain, the country after which it is named and from which it originated. It is also spoken in Andorra, and by a minority of the population in Portugal, France, and the United Kingdom.
Spanish elsewhere in the Americas
Spanish is spoken in other parts of the Americas as a co-official language, second language, or a minority language. The importance of the Spanish language throughout the Americas, has spread the use of Spanish beyond the borders of Hispanic countries.
Spanish has no official recognition in the former British colony of Belize; however, per the 2000 census, it is spoken by 43% of the population. Due to their proximity to Spanish-speaking countries, Trinidad and Tobago and Brazil have implemented Spanish language teaching into their education systems. The Trinidad government launched the Spanish as a First Foreign Language (SAFFL) initiative in March 2005. In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil approved a bill, signed into law by the President, making it mandatory for schools to offer Spanish as an alternative foreign language course in both public and private secondary schools in Brazil. In many border towns and villages (especially in the Uruguayan-Brazilian and Paraguayan-Brazilian border areas), a mixed language known as Portuñol is spoken.
Spanish in the United States
According to 2006 census data, 44.3 million people of the U.S. population were Hispanic or Hispanic American by origin; 38.3 million people, 13 percent, of the population over five years old speak Spanish at home. The Spanish language has a long history and presence in the United States due to historic Spanish and later, Mexican administration over territories now forming the southwestern states as well as Florida, which was Spanish territory until 1821.
Spanish is by far the most common second language spoken and taught in the country, and with over 50 million total speakers, the United States is now the second largest Spanish-speaking country in the world after Mexico. While English is the de facto official language of the country, Spanish is often used in public services and notices at the federal and state levels. Spanish is also used in administration in the state of New Mexico. The language also has a strong influence in major metropolitan areas such as those of Los Angeles, Miami, San Antonio, New York, San Francisco, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Phoenix; as well as more recently, Chicago, Las Vegas, Boston, Houston, and Baltimore-Washington, D.C. due to 20th and 21st century immigration.
Hispanics in the world
Spanish, as a mother tongue, is spoken by more than 390 million people (second only to Chinese). The total number of Spanish speakers is more than 500 million people. Mexico contains the largest number of Spanish speakers, with over 100 million.
In Europe, Hispanics reside primarily in Spain as it is the origin of Hispanicity, although there are small communities spread throughout Europe. The native-born population is more than 44 million, plus a large immigrant Hispanic community from Hispanic America and Equatorial Guinea.
The majority of Hispanics live in Hispanic America, coinciding with recognized international borders—the number surpasses 300 million. Countries with great majority Hispanic population include Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Uruguay and Venezuela.
The United States and Belize, while not officially counted as Hispanic nations, do each have a large Hispanic population. The United States has more than 50 million Hispanic residents or about 16% of its total population, Spanish-language TV networks and other media companies are located across the United States. Additionally, Puerto Rico is a commonwealth in free association with the United States and its residents are American citizens. 43% of Belizeans commonly speak Spanish at home.
Hispanics in the African continent are concentrated in overseas territories of Spain, which are the Canary Islands, Ceuta, Melilla and largely underpopulated Plazas de soberanía. Moreover, Equatorial Guinea has Spanish as its official government language, although the people speak their respective native languages. In Morocco, some people maintain Hispanic characteristics, although it's also influenced by Arab and maybe Berber languages and cultures. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has Spanish as a co-official language and is claimed by Morocco. In Angola and Nigeria there are small populations of Spanish speakers who descend from repatriated Afro-Cubans of the colonial era. Altogether in Africa, two million speak Spanish.
Some countries in the Asia-Pacific region received influence from the Hispanic world while they were governed by the Spanish Crown via Mexico City and Madrid. The Philippines, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Palau and the Federated States of Micronesia are among those in this region that received influence from Spain and Mexico.
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- "Population Census, Major Findings" (PDF). Belize: Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Budget Management. 2000. Archived from the original on 2007-06-21. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- "FAQ". The Secretariat for The Implementation of Spanish. Trinidad and Tobago: Government of the Republic. Archived from the original on 2010-11-03. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- "Brazilian Law 11.161". Presidência da República. 2005-08-05. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- Lipski, John M (2006). Face, Timothy L; Klee, Carol A, eds. "Too close for comfort? the genesis of "portuñol/portunhol"" (PDF). Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project): 1–22. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
- U.S. Census Bureau Hispanic or Latino by specific origin.
- U.S. Census Bureau (2007). "United States. S1601. Language Spoken at Home". 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. Retrieved September 3, 2009.
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