Histiocytosis

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Histiocytosis
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 C96.1, D76.0
ICD-9 202.3, 277.89
MedlinePlus 000068
eMedicine ped/1997
MeSH D015614

In medicine, histiocytosis refers to an excessive number of histiocytes,[1] (tissue macrophages), and is typically used to refer to a group of rare diseases which share this as a characteristic. Occasionally and confusingly, the term "histiocytosis" is sometimes used to refer to individual diseases.

According to the Histiocytosis Association, 1 in 200,000 children in the United States are born with histiocytosis each year.[2] HAA also states that most of the people diagnosed with histiocytosis are children under the age of 10, although the disease can afflict adults. The University of California, San Francisco, states that the disease usually occurs from birth to age 15.[3]

Histiocytosis (and malignant histiocytosis) are both important in veterinary as well as human pathology.

Classification, and relationships to other conditions[edit]

There are competing systems for classifying histiocytoses. According to the 1999 classification proposed by the World Health Organization, they can be divided into three categories.[4][5] However, the classifications in ICD10 and MeSH are slightly different, as shown below:

Name WHO ICD10 MeSH
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) I D76.0 Langerhans-cell histiocytosis
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) II D76.3 non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) II D76.1 non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis
Niemann–Pick disease II E75.2 non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis
Sea-blue histiocytosis II - non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis
Acute monocytic leukemia III C93.0 malignant histiocytic disorders
Malignant histiocytosis III C96.1 malignant histiocytic disorders
Erdheim–Chester disease II C96.1 malignant histiocytic disorders

Types of LCH have also been known as "Eosinophilic Granuloma", "Hand-Schuller-Christian Disease", "Letterer-Siwe Disease", and "Histiocytosis X". (See Langerhans cell histiocytosis for details).

Alternatively, histiocytoses may be divided into the following groups:[6]:714-724

Common treatments[edit]

Organizations[edit]

Patients and families can gain support and educational materials from the Histiocytosis Association, or the Histiocytosis Research Trust. Information concerning histiocytosis and clinicians located in European countries may be found in many languages at the web portal of Euro Histio Net (EHN). This is a project funded by the European Union, co-ordinated by Dr. Jean Donadieu, APHP, Paris, FRANCE. Additional information about Erdheim-Chester Disease can be obtained from the ECD Global Alliance.

The Histiocyte Society, a nonprofit organization, is a group of more than 200 physicians and scientists from around the world committed to improving the lives of patients with histiocytic disorders by conducting clinical and laboratory research into the causes and treatment of this disease. The Society has instituted several clinical trials and treatment plans.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Histiocytosis at eMedicine Dictionary
  2. ^ Disease information at the Histiocytosis Association of America
  3. ^ Histiocytosis - Signs and Symptoms
  4. ^ Harris N, Jaffe E, Diebold J, Flandrin G, Muller-Hermelink H, Vardiman J, Lister T, Bloomfield C (1999). "The World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Report of the Clinical Advisory Committee meeting, Airlie House, Virginia, November, 1997". Ann Oncol 10 (12): 1419–32. doi:10.1023/A:1008375931236. PMID 10643532. 
  5. ^ Histiocytosis at eMedicine
  6. ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.