Historic states represented in Turkish presidential seal

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Presidential Seal of Turkey

16 Great Turkish Empires[1][2][3] (Turkish: 16 Büyük Türk Devleti) is a discourse of Turkic history that was forged[4] in accordance with the Turkish-Islamic Synthesis[1] in 1969 to explain the meaning of 16 stars of the presidential seal of Turkey.[1]

It[clarification needed] was inaugurated in 1985 for what is still the presidential seal of today.[1] Each star symbolizes a "historic Turkish empire" according to the Presidency of the Republic of Turkey.[5] Before this thesis was asserted, the 16 stars of the presidential Seal of Turkey was explained as "16 Turkish beyliks".[6] (Beyliks were Turkish principalities emerged between the 13th-15th centuries, after the fall of Seljuks)

The list[edit]

The names of 16 "Great Turkish Empires" are listed below.

Turkish name[7] English translation[8] Founder [note 1] Article Dates[note 2]
Büyük Hun İmparatorluğu Great Hunnic Empire Touman Xiongnu 220 BC-46 BC
Batı Hun İmparatorluğu Western Hunnic Empire Panu (possibly Southern Xiongnu) 48-216
Avrupa Hun İmparatorluğu European Hunnic Empire Balamber Hunnic Empire 375-469
Akhun İmparatorluğu White Hunnic Empire Khingila Hephthalite 390-577
Göktürk İmparatorluğu Göktürk Empire Bumin Khan Göktürks 552-745
Avar İmparatorluğu Avar Empire Bayan I Avar Khaganate 565-835
Hazar İmparatorluğu Khazar Empire Ziebel Khazar Khaganate 651-983
Uygur Devleti Uighur State Kutluk Bilge Köl Uyghur Khaganate 745-1369
Karahanlılar Karahanids Bilge Kul Qadir-Khan Kara-Khanid Khanate 840-1212
Gazneliler Gaznavids Alp Tekin Ghaznavids 962-1186
Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu Great Seljukid Empire Selçuk Bey Great Seljuq Empire 1040–1157
Harzemşahlar Harzemshahs Muhammad I of Khwarazm Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty 1097–1231
Altınordu Devleti Golden Horde State Batu Khan Golden Horde 1236–1502
Büyük Timur İmparatorluğu Great Timur Empire Timur Timurid Empire 1368–1501
Babür İmparatorluğu Babür Empire Babur Mughal Empire 1526-1858
Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Ottoman Empire Osman I Ottoman Empire 1299-1922

Criticism[edit]

It needs further linguistic evidence to list the first four and the sixth (Avar) as Turkic states. It is also questionable to list Ghaznavids and the Mughal Empire as Turkic states. Because, although founded by Turks, they were quickly assimilated in the local population.

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ In ancient states the name of the founder is not always evident. The name of the earliest monarch cited in Wikipedia is shown.
  2. ^ Dates are as shown in the original document
References
  1. ^ a b c d Central Eurasian Studies Review, Vol. 3, Central Eurasian Studies Society, 2004, p. 23
  2. ^ H. Feridun Demokan, Contemporary Turkey: Geography, History, Economy, Art, Tourism, Demokan, 1978, p. 4.
  3. ^ Necdet Evliyagil, Sami Güner, Basın-Yayın Genel Müdürlüğü, Ajans-Türk, Türkiye: Cumhuriyetin 50. Yıl Kitabı, Ajans-Türk Matbaacılık Sanayii, 1973.
  4. ^ Hüseyin Nihâl Atsız, "16 Devlet Masalı ve Uydurma Bayraklar" (16 State tales and fake flags), Ötüken , 65. sayı, 1969.(Turkish)
  5. ^ Official website ot the presidency
  6. ^ X. Türk Tarih Kongresi, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1994, p. 2947. (Turkish))
  7. ^ Official website of the presidency (Turkish)
  8. ^ "The Meaning of the Sun and the Stars in the Flag of Office" in the official website of the presidency (in English)

External links[edit]