Historical European martial arts
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Historical European martial arts (HEMA) refers to martial arts of European origin, particularly using arts formerly practised, but having since died out or evolved into very different forms.
While there is limited surviving documentation of the martial arts of Classical Antiquity (such as Ancient Greek wrestling or Gladiatorial combat), surviving dedicated technical treatises or combat manuals date to the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern period. For this reason, the focus of HEMA is de facto on the period of the half-millennium of ca. 1300 to 1800, with a German and an Italian school flowering in the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance (14th to 16th centuries), followed by Spanish, French, English and Scottish schools of fencing in the modern period (17th and 18th centuries). Arts of the 19th century such as classical fencing, and even early hybrid styles such as Bartitsu may also be included in the term HEMA in a wider sense, as may traditional or folkloristic styles attested in the 19th and early 20th centuries, including forms of folk wrestling and traditional stick fighting methods.
The term Western martial arts (WMA) is sometimes used in the United States and in a wider sense including modern and traditional disciplines. During the Late Middle Ages, the longsword had a position of honour among these disciplines, and sometimes Historical European Swordsmanship (HES) is used to refer to swordsmanship techniques specifically.
Modern reconstructions of some of these arts arose from the 1890s and have been practiced systematically since the 1990s.
- 1 Early history
- 2 Middle Ages
- 3 Renaissance
- 4 Early modern period
- 5 Development into modern sports
- 6 Stick fighting
- 7 Revival
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
There are no known manuals predating the Late Middle Ages (except for fragmentary instructions on Greek wrestling, see P.Oxy. III 466), although Ancient and Medieval literature (e.g. Icelandic sagas and Middle High German epics) record specific martial deeds and military knowledge; in addition, historical artwork depicts combat and weaponry (e.g. the Bayeux tapestry, the Morgan Bible). Some researchers have attempted to reconstruct older fighting methods such as Pankration and gladiatorial combat by reference to these sources and practical experimentation, though such recreations necessarily remain more speculative than those based on actual instructions.
The so-called MS I.33 (also known as the Walpurgis or Tower Fechtbuch), dated to between ca. 1290 (by Alphonse Lhotsky) and the early-to-mid-14th century (by R. Leng, of the University of Würzburg), is the oldest surviving fechtbuch, teaching sword and buckler combat.
The central figure of late medieval martial arts, at least in Germany, is Johannes Liechtenauer. Though no manuscript written by him is known to have survived, his teachings were first recorded in the late 14th century MS 3227a. From the 15th century into the 17th, numerous Fechtbücher (German "fencing-books") were produced, of which some several hundred are extant; a great many of these describe methods descended from Liechtenauer's.
Normally, several modes of combat were taught alongside one another, typically unarmed grappling (Kampfringen or abrazare), dagger (Degen or daga, often of the rondel variety), long knife (Messer) or Dussack, half- or quarterstaff, pole arms, longsword (langes Schwert, spada longa, spadone), and combat in plate armour (Harnischfechten or armazare), both on foot and on horseback. Some Fechtbücher have sections on dueling shields (Stechschild), special weapons used only in judicial duels.
Important 15th-century German fencing masters include Sigmund Ringeck, Peter von Danzig, Hans Talhoffer and Paulus Kal, all of whom taught the teachings of Liechtenhauer. From the late 15th century, there were "brotherhoods" of fencers (Fechtbruderschaften), most notably the Marx brothers (attested 1474) and the Federfechter.
The earliest master to write in the Italian was Fiore dei Liberi, commissioned by the Marquis di Ferrara. Between 1407 and 1410, he documented comprehensive fighting techniques in a treatise entitled Flos Duellatorum covering grappling, dagger, arming sword, longsword, pole-weapons, armoured combat and mounted combat. The Italian school is continued by Filippo Vadi (1482–1487) and Pietro Monte (1492, Latin with Italian and Spanish terms)
In the 16th century, German fencing had developed sportive tendencies. The treatises of Paulus Hector Mair and Joachim Meyer derived from the teachings of the earlier centuries within the Liechtenauer tradition, but with new and distinctive characteristics. The printed fechtbuch of Jacob Sutor (1612) is one of the last in the German tradition.
In Italy, the 16th century is a period of big change. It opens with the two treatises of Bolognese masters Antonio Manciolino and Achille Marozzo, who describe a variation of the eclectic knightly arts of the previous century. From sword and buckler to sword and dagger, sword alone to two-handed sword, from polearms to wrestling (though absent in Manciolino), early 16th-century Italian fencing reflects the versatility that a martial artist of the time was supposed to achieve.
Towards the mid-century, however, polearms and companion weapons beside the dagger and the cape gradually begin to fade out of treatises. In 1553, Camillo Agrippa is the first to define the prima, seconda, terza and quarta guards (or hand-positions), which would remain the mainstay of Italian fencing into the next century and beyond. From the late 16th century, Italian rapier fencing attained considerable popularity all over Europe, notably with the treatise by Salvator Fabris (1606).
- Antonio Manciolino (1531) (Italian)
- Achille Marozzo (1536) (Italian)
- Angelo Viggiani (1551) (Italian)
- Camillo Agrippa (1553) (Italian)
- Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza (1569) (Spanish)
- Giacomo di Grassi (1570) (Italian)
- Giovanni Dall'Agocchie (1572) (Italian)
- Henry de Sainct-Didier (1573) (French)
- Angelo Viggiani (1575) (Italian)
- Frederico Ghisliero (1587) (Italian)
- Vincentio Saviolo (1590) (Italian)
- Girolamo Cavalcabo (1597 (French)
Early modern period
During the Baroque period, wrestling fell from favour among the upper classes, being now seen as unrefined and rustic. The fencing styles practice also needed to conform with the new ideals of elegance and harmony.
This ideology was taken to great lengths in Spain in particular, where La Verdadera Destreza "the true art (of swordsmanship)" was now based on Renaissance humanism and scientific principles, contrasting with the traditional "vulgar" approach to fencing inherited from the medieval period. Significant masters of Destreza included Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza ("the father of Destreza", d. 1600) and Luis Pacheco de Narváez (1600, 1632). Girard Thibault (1630) was a Dutch master influenced by these ideals.
The French school of fencing also moves away from its Italian roots, developing its own terminology, rules and systems of teaching. French masters of the Baroque period include Le Perche du Coudray (1635, 1676, teacher of Cyrano de Bergerac), Besnard (1653, teacher of Descartes), François Dancie (1623) and Philibert de la Touche (1670).
In Italy, 17th century swordsmanship is dominated by Salvator Fabris, whose De lo schermo overo scienza d’arme of 1606 exerted great influence not only in Italy but also in Germany, where it all but extinguished the native German traditions of fencing. Fabris was followed by Italian masters such as Nicoletto Giganti (1606), Ridolfo Capo Ferro (1610), Francesco Alfieri (1640), Francesco Antonio Marcelli (1686) and Bondi' di Mazo (1696).
The Elizabethan and Jacobean eras produce English fencing masters, such as George Silver (1599) and Joseph Swetnam (1617). The English verb to fence is first attested in Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor (1597).
The French school of fencing originates in the 16th century, based on the Italian school, and develops into its classic form in the Baroque period.
By the year 1715, the rapier had been largely replaced by the lighter smallsword throughout most of Europe, although treatments of the former continued to be included by authors such as Donald McBane (1728), P. J. F. Girard (1736) and Domenico Angelo (1763).
In the course of the 18th century, the French school became the western European standard to the extent that Angelo, an Italian-born master teaching in England, published his L'Ecole des Armes in French in 1763. It was extremely successful and became a standard fencing manual over the following 50 years, throughout the Napoleonic period. Angelo's text was so influential that it was chosen to be included under the heading of "Éscrime" in the Encyclopédie of Diderot.
Development into modern sports
In the course of the long 19th century, Western martial arts became divided into modern sports on one hand and applications that retain military significance on the other. In the latter category are the methods of close-quarter combat with the bayonet besides use of the sabre and the lance by cavalrists and of the cutlass by naval forces.
Fencing in the 19th century transformed into a pure sport. While duels remained common among members of the aristocratic and officer classes, they became increasingly frowned upon in society during the course of the century, and such duels as were fought to the death were increasingly fought with pistols, not bladed weapons.
Styles of stick fighting include walking-stick fighting (including Irish bata or shillelagh, French la canne and English singlestick or cane) and Bartitsu (an early hybrid of Eastern and Western schools popularized at the turn of the 20th century).
Some existing forms of European stick fighting can be traced to direct teacher-student lineages from the 19th century. Notable examples include the methods of la canne and Bâton français, Portuguese Jogo do Pau, Italian Paranza or Bastone Siciliano and some styles of Canarian Juego del Palo.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the greatstick (pau/bâton/bastone) was employed by some Portuguese, French and Italian military academies as a method of exercise, recreation and as preparation for bayonet training.
A third category might be traditional "folk styles", mostly folk wrestling. Greco-Roman wrestling was a discipline at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896. Inclusion of Freestyle wrestling followed in 1904.
Attempts at reconstructing the discontinued traditions of European systems of combat began in the late 19th century, with a revival of interest in the Middle Ages. The movement was led in England by the soldier, writer, antiquarian and swordsman, Alfred Hutton.
Hutton learned fencing at the school founded by Domenico Angelo. In 1862, he organized in his regiment stationed in India the Cameron Fencing Club, for which he prepared his first work, a 12-page booklet entitled Swordsmanship.
After returning from India in 1865, Hutton focused on the study and revival of older fencing systems and schools. He began tutoring groups of students in the art of 'ancient swordplay' at a club attached to the London Rifle Brigade School of Arms in the 1880s. In 1889 Hutton published his most influential work Cold Steel: A Practical Treatise on the Sabre, which presented the historical method of military sabre use on foot, combining the 18th century English backsword with modern Italian duelling sabre.
Hutton's pioneering advocacy and practice of historical fencing included reconstructions of the fencing systems of several historical masters including George Silver and Achille Marozzo. He delivered numerous practical demonstrations with his colleague Egerton Castle of these systems during the 1890s, both in order to benefit various military charities and to encourage patronage of the contemporary methods of competitive fencing. Exhibitions were held at the Bath Club and a fund-raising event was arranged at Guy’s Hospital.
Among his many acolytes were Egerton Castle, Captain Carl Thimm, Colonel Cyril Matthey, Captain Percy Rolt, Captain Ernest George Stenson Cooke, Captain Frank Herbert Whittow, Esme Beringer, Sir Frederick and Walter Herries Pollock. Despite this revival and the interest that it received in late Victorian England, the practice died out soon after the death of Hutton in 1910. Interest in the physical application of historical fencing techniques remained largely dormant during the first half of the 20th century due to a number of factors.
Similar work, although more academic than practical in nature, occurred in other European countries. In Germany, Karl Wassmannsdorf conducted research on the German school and Gustav Hergsell reprinted three of Hans Talhoffer's manuals. In France there was the work of the Academie D'Armes circa 1880-1914. Italy's Jacopo Gelli and Francesco Novati published a facsimile of the "Flos Duellatorum" of Fiore dei Liberi, and Giuseppe Cerri's book on the Bastone drew inspiration from the two-handed sword of Achille Marozzo. Baron Leguina's bibliography of Spanish swordsmanship is still a standard reference today.
Throughout the 20th century a small number of researchers, principally academics with access to some of the sources, continued exploring the field of historical European martial arts from a largely academic perspective. In 1972, James Jackson published a book called Three Elizabethan Manuals of Fence. This work reprinted the works of George Silver, Giacomo di Grassi, and Vincentio Saviolo. In 1965, Martin Wierschin published a bibliography of German fencing manuals, along with a transcription of Codex Ringeck and a glossary of terms. In turn, this led to the publication of Hans-Peter Hils' seminal work on Johannes Liechtenauer in 1985.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Patri J. Pugliese began making photocopies of historical treatises available to interested parties, greatly spurring on research. 1994 saw the rise of the Hammerterz Forum, a publication devoted entirely to the history of swordsmanship. During the late 1990s, translations and interpretations of historical sources began appearing in print as well as online.
The modern HEMA community
Since the 1990s, there have emerged flourishing Historical European Martial Arts communities in Europe, North America and the wider Anglosphere. These groups are engaged in attempting to reconstruct Historical European Martial Arts using various training methods. Although the focus generally is on the martial arts of Medieval and Renaissance masters, nineteenth and early twentieth century martial arts teachers are also studied and their systems are reconstructed, including Edward William Barton-Wright, the founder of Bartitsu; combat savate and stick fighting master Pierre Vigny; London-based boxer and fencer Rowland George Allanson-Winn; French journalist and self-defence enthusiast Jean Joseph-Renaud; and British quarterstaff expert Thomas McCarthy.
In the United States, scholarship and reconstruction of the techniques of the Italian fencing masters was initiated by the founders of various HEMA schools and academies, such as Brian R. Price of the Schola Saint George and Bob Charron of St. Martin's Academy (both studying Fiore dei Liberi),[year needed] and Gregory Mele of the Chicago Swordplay Guild (studying Vadi).[year needed] Similar study has been carried out by Matt Easton, founder of London's Schola Gladiatoria,[year needed] and Guy Windsor, of Finland's School of European Swordsmanship.[year needed]
Research in to Italian sword forms and their influence on the French styles of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries has been undertaken by Rob Runacres of England's Renaissance Sword Club.[year needed]
Other fencing traditions are represented in the scholarship of Paul Wagner and Stephen Hand of Australia’s Stoccata School of Defence,[year needed] focusing on the works of George Silver and the techniques depicted in the Royal Armouries’ Manuscript I.33, and of Henry Christian Tobler on the German school of swordsmanship.
Since 1999 a number of these groups have held the Western Martial arts Workshop (WMAW) in the United States. In 2000, The Association for Renaissance Martial Arts (ARMA), then known as the "Historical Armed Combat Association" (HACA), held the Inaugural Swordplay Symposium International conference and since 2003 has held the ARMA International Gathering every two to three years. The Fiore-oriented Schola Saint George has hosted a Medieval Swordsmanship Symposium annually in the United States since 2001.
An annual Australian Historical Swordplay Convention has been hosted and attended by diverse Australian groups since 1999. FightCamp has been running since 2004 and it is organized by London-based Schola Gladiatoria.
Since 1998, Sala d'Arme Achille Marozzo organizes every year a great championship in Italy. Due to the excessive number of participants, in 2011 this competitive event was split in two separate events: military weapons (in autumn) and civil weapons (in spring), extending the organization in a larger coalition of Italian HEMA club. The civil weapons championship is currently the largest HEMA tournament in the world.
In 2001 the Historical European Martial Arts Coalition (HEMAC) was created to act as an umbrella organization for groups in Europe, with 4 sets of goals: martial (reconstruct historical martial arts from primary sources; refine interpretations into viable, effective martial arts; test martial skills in a variety of competitive environments), research (locate, transcribe, translate primary sources; have a better understanding of the socio-historical context of the arts), outreach (promote and publicise HEMA; dispel misconceptions & stereotypes; educate the general public) and community (establish a network of individuals and groups devoted to HEMA; foster close friendships and a sense of community among members; organise at least one annual HEMAC event). Since 2002, HEMAC has organized the annual International Historical European Martial arts Gathering in Dijon, France.
In 2003, the Australian Historical Swordplay Federation became the umbrella organization for groups in Australia.
In 2010 several dozen HEMA schools and clubs from around the world united under the umbrella of the HEMA Alliance, a US-based martial arts federation dedicated to developing and sharing the Historical European Martial Arts and assisting HEMA schools and instructors with such things as instructor certification, insurance, and equipment development.
- Combat reenactment
- Spanish school of swordsmanship
- French school of fencing
- German school of swordsmanship
- Italian school of swordsmanship
- Martial arts manual
- Schola Gladiatoria
- Laurentius Guild
- Tom Leoni, The Complete Renaissance Swordsman, Freelance Academy Press, 2010
- Tom Leoni, Venetian Rapier, Freelance Academy Press, 2010
- In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Sources in the V&A Museum's library
- Thimm, Carl Albert. A Complete Bibliography of Fencing and Duelling, London, 1896 Preface
- Gregory Mele, ed., In the Service of Mars: Proceedings from the Western Martial Arts Workshop 1999–2009, Volume I, Freelance Academy Press, 2010
- 136 participants in sword and dagger and 129 participants in sword and buckler http://www.achillemarozzo.it/arte-marziale/tornei/2014-vi-torneo-nazionale-di-scherma-antica-uisp-discipline-civili
- “About the HEMA Alliance”, at HEMA Alliance website. (Entry accessed 3 August 2014)
- Domenico Angelo, The School of Fencing: With a General Explanation of the Principal Attitudes and Positions Peculiar to the Art, eds. Jared Kirby, Greenhill Books, 2005. ISBN 978-1853676260
- Sydney Anglo. The Martial Arts of Renaissance Europe. Yale University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-300-08352-1
- Terry Brown. English Martial Arts. Anglo-Saxon Books, 1997. ISBN 1-898281-29-7
- John Clements. Medieval Swordsmanship: Illustrated Methods and Techniques. Paladin Press, 1998. ISBN 1-58160-004-6
- John Clements. Renaissance Swordsmanship: The Illustrated Book of Rapiers and Cut-and-Thrust Swords and Their Use. Paladin Press, 1997. ISBN 0-87364-919-2
- John Clements, et al. Masters of Medieval and Renaissance Martial Arts: Rediscovering The Western Combat Heritage. Paladin Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-58160-668-3
- William Gaugler. The History of Fencing: Foundations of Modern European Fencing. Laureate Press, 1997. ISBN 1-884528-16-3
- Hans Heim and Alex Kiermayer. The Longsword of Johannes Liechtenauer, Part I (DVD). Agilitas TV, 2005. ISBN 1-891448-20-X
- Jared Kirby (ed.), Italian Rapier Combat - Ridolfo Capo Ferro, Greenhill Books, London, 2004. ISBN 1853675806
- Jared Kirby (ed.), A Gentleman's Guide to Duelling: Of Honour and Honourable Quarrels. Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 1848325274
- David James Knight and Brian Hunt. Polearms of Paulus Hector Mair. Paladin Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-58160-644-7
- Tomasso Leoni. The Art of Dueling. The Chivalry Bookshelf, 2005. ISBN 1-891448-23-4
- Tom Leoni. Venetian Rapier. Freelance Academy Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9825911-2-3
- Tom Leoni. The Complete Renaissance Swordsman. Freelance Academy Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9825911-3-0
- David Lindholm and Peter Svärd. Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Art of the Longsword. Paladin Press, 2003. ISBN 1-58160-410-6
- David Lindholm and Peter Svärd. Knightly Arts of Combat - Sigmund Ringeck's Sword and Buckler Fighting, Wrestling, and Fighting in Armor. Paladin Press, 2006. ISBN 1-58160-499-8
- David Lindholm. Fighting with the Quarterstaff. The Chivalry Bookshelf, 2006. ISBN 1-891448-36-6
- Gregory Mele, ed. In the Service of Mars: Proceedings from the Western Martial Arts Workshop 1999–2009, Volume I. Freelance Academy Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9825911-5-4
- Brian R. Price, ed. Teaching & Interpreting Historical Swordsmanship. The Chivalry Bookshelf, 2005. ISBN 1-891448-46-3
- Rob Runacres, Treatise or Instruction for Fencing, Lulu.com (2015), ISBN 978-1-326-16469-0
- Rob Runacres and Thibault Ghesquiere. The Sword of Combat or The Use of Fighting With Weapons. Lulu.com, 2014. ISBN 978-1-29191-969-1
- Christopher Thompson. Lannaireachd: Gaelic Swordsmanship. BookSurge Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-59109-236-1
- Christian Henry Tobler. Secrets of German Medieval Swordsmanship. The Chilvarly Bookshelf, 2001. ISBN 1-891448-07-2
- Christian Henry Tobler. Fighting with the German Longsword. The Chivalry Bookshelf, 2004. ISBN 1-891448-24-2
- Jason Vail. Medieval and Renaissance Dagger Combat. Paladin Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58160-517-4
- Guy Windsor. The Swordsman's Companion: A Modern Training Manual for Medieval Longsword. The Chivalry Bookshelf, 2004. ISBN 1-891448-41-2
- Grzegorz Zabinski and Bartlomiej Walczak. The Codex Wallerstein: A Medieval Fighting Book from the Fifteenth Century on the Longsword, Falchion, Dagger, and Wrestling. Paladin Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58160-339-8
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Historical European martial arts.|
- Acta Periodica Duellatorum, a peer-reviewed journal of historical European martial arts research
- A Chronological History of the Martial arts and Combative Sports 1350–1699 by Joseph R. Svinth
- Historical European Martial Arts: Studies & Sources. On-line historical and literary magazine for Russian speaking and partly for English speaking readers.
- HROARR, an online repository of articles and other resources on historical European martial arts and sports
- Wiktenauer, the world's largest library of historical European martial arts treatises, currently complete up to the late 1500s
- AEMMA - Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts