Historical United States Census totals for Washington County, Maine

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This article shows U.S. Census totals for Washington County, Maine, broken down by municipality, from 1900 to 2000.

There are two types of incorporated municipalities in Maine, towns and cities. The tables below differentiate between towns and cities.

Most areas of New England are entirely divided into incorporated municipalities, with no unincorporated territory. In the three northern New England states, however, some unincorporated territory does exist, generally in areas that are very sparsely populated. Maine contains significantly more unincorporated territory than the other states, with the bulk of it in interior and northern counties, including Washington County.

Some unincorporated territory in Maine is organized into a third type of town-level municipality unique to Maine, called a plantation (considered to be “organized”, but not incorporated), while some is entirely unorganized. Washington County also contains two Indian reservations, which are considered to be distinct entities independent from any municipality, although this has not always been the case in the past. Due to the large extent of unincorporated territory in Washington County, separate sections with detailed historical census totals for such areas follow the main tables below. For any census, adding up the totals for each town-level municipality, including any plantations, unorganized entities and Indian reservations (when recognized as independent entities), should yield the county total.

For more information on the New England municipal system, see New England town.

Corporate changes since 1900[edit]

  • 1924 – Forest City disincorporated and reverted to unorganized territory
  • 1925 – New town of Beals formed from Jonesport
  • 1938 – Edmunds disincorporated; may have been briefly subsequently organized as plantation, but ultimately reverted to unorganized territory
  • 1939 – Marion disincorporated and reverted to unorganized territory
  • 1940 – Topsfield disincorporated and reverted to unorganized territory; subsequently organized as a plantation, but later reverted to unorganized territory
  • 1942 – Baring disincorporated and reverted to unorganized territory
  • 1942 – Brookton disincorporated; may have been briefly subsequently organized as plantation, but ultimately reverted to unorganized territory
  • 1945 – Trescott disincorporated and reverted to unorganized territory
  • 1960 – Topsfield re-incorporated as a town
  • 2004 – Centerville disincorporated and reverted to unorganized territory

1900[edit]

County Total: 45,232

  • Calais (city) 7,655
  • Eastport (city) 5,311
  • Lubec 3,005
  • Jonesport 2,124
  • Machias 2,082
  • Milbridge 1,921
  • Cherryfield 1,859
  • Pembroke 1,652
  • East Machias 1,521
  • Perry 1,245
  • Machiasport 1,218
  • Harrington 1,165
  • Princeton 1,094
  • Danforth 1,092
  • Addison 1,059
  • Steuben 901
  • Robbinston 844
  • Jonesboro 606
  • Columbia Falls 569
  • Cutler 565
  • Vanceboro 550
  • Columbia 516
  • Edmunds 492
  • Dennysville 482
  • Trescott 463
  • Whitneyville 424
  • Whiting 399
  • Alexander 333
  • Charlotte 315
  • Brookton 285
  • Topsfield 282
  • Baring 231
  • Marshfield 227
  • Baileyville 215
  • Cooper 207
  • Wesley 198
  • Roque Bluffs 168
  • Meddybemps 154
  • Forest City 151
  • Waite 135
  • Northfield 126
  • Crawford 112
  • Marion 95
  • Talmadge 93
  • Centerville 91
  • Beddington 86
  • Deblois 73

Unincorporated territory reported 841 residents. This consisted of 611 residents in organized plantations, and 230 residents in unorganized territory.

1910[edit]

County Total: 42,905

  • Calais (city) 6,116
  • Eastport (city) 4,961
  • Lubec 3,363
  • Machias 2,089
  • Jonesport 2,074
  • Milbridge 1,550
  • Cherryfield 1,499
  • East Machias 1,392
  • Pembroke 1,378
  • Danforth 1,295
  • Machiasport 1,218
  • Perry 1,153
  • Baileyville 1,137
  • Princeton 1,091
  • Harrington 1,020
  • Addison 985
  • Steuben 890
  • Robbinston 691
  • Columbia Falls 663
  • Vanceboro 623
  • Edmunds 616
  • Cutler 585
  • Columbia 564
  • Jonesboro 519
  • Trescott 461
  • Dennysville 459
  • Alexander 374
  • Whiting 368
  • Charlotte 290
  • Topsfield 259
  • Whitneyville 258
  • Brookton 237
  • Baring 228
  • Cooper 190
  • Marshfield 178
  • Wesley 172
  • Waite 162
  • Meddybemps 124
  • Crawford 114
  • Marion 114
  • Roque Bluffs 105
  • Talmadge 100
  • Centerville 91
  • Northfield 81
  • Forest City 79
  • Deblois 69
  • Beddington 58

Unincorporated territory reported 862 residents. This consisted of 670 residents in organized plantations, and 192 residents in unorganized territory.

1920[edit]

County Total: 41,709

  • Calais (city) 6,084
  • Eastport (city) 4,494
  • Lubec 3,371
  • Baileyville 2,243
  • Machias 2,152
  • Jonesport 2,129
  • East Machias 1,353
  • Cherryfield 1,304
  • Milbridge 1,196
  • Pembroke 1,168
  • Danforth 1,201
  • Machiasport 1,117
  • Perry 1,046
  • Harrington 1,024
  • Princeton 934
  • Addison 838
  • Robbinston 747
  • Steuben 714
  • Columbia Falls 658
  • Vanceboro 585
  • Cutler 584
  • Columbia 536
  • Edmunds 520
  • Jonesboro 461
  • Trescott 435
  • Dennysville 434
  • Whiting 374
  • Alexander 371
  • Charlotte 289
  • Topsfield 272
  • Baring 227
  • Brookton 216
  • Whitneyville 210
  • Cooper 197
  • Marshfield 187
  • Waite 186
  • Wesley 146
  • Crawford 119
  • Meddybemps 106
  • Centerville 104
  • Marion 100
  • Roque Bluffs 98
  • Northfield 83
  • Talmadge 80
  • Deblois 75
  • Forest City 65
  • Beddington 40

Unincorporated territory reported 836 residents. This consisted of 623 residents in organized plantations, and 213 residents in unorganized territory.

1930[edit]

County Total: 37,826

  • Calais (city) 5,470
  • Eastport (city) 3,466
  • Lubec 2,994
  • Baileyville 2,017
  • Machias 1,856
  • Jonesport 1,641
  • Danforth 1,467
  • East Machias 1,257
  • Milbridge 1,213
  • Cherryfield 1,112
  • Perry 992
  • Princeton 985
  • Pembroke 965
  • Addison 867
  • Harrington 865
  • Machiasport 851
  • Vanceboro 713
  • Steuben 684
  • Columbia Falls 583
  • Robbinston 583
  • Beals 524
  • Cutler 492
  • Jonesboro 468
  • Dennysville 443
  • Columbia 409
  • Edmunds 395
  • Trescott 366
  • Whiting 327
  • Alexander 312
  • Charlotte 250
  • Brookton 240
  • Whitneyville 229
  • Topsfield 224
  • Baring 204
  • Marshfield 197
  • Wesley 170
  • Waite 165
  • Cooper 153
  • Crawford 120
  • Roque Bluffs 108
  • Meddybemps 99
  • Marion 77
  • Northfield 73
  • Centerville 65
  • Deblois 62
  • Talmadge 46
  • Beddington 35

Unincorporated territory reported 992 residents. This consisted of 490 residents in organized plantations, and 502 residents in unorganized territory.

1940[edit]

County Total: 37,767

  • Calais (city) 5,161
  • Eastport (city) 3,346
  • Lubec 3,108
  • Baileyville 2,018
  • Machias 1,954
  • Jonesport 1,745
  • Danforth 1,348
  • Milbridge 1,318
  • East Machias 1,183
  • Cherryfield 1,046
  • Pembroke 1,029
  • Princeton 1,009
  • Harrington 918
  • Machiasport 818
  • Addison 805
  • Perry 713
  • Steuben 690
  • Robbinston 637
  • Vanceboro 627
  • Columbia Falls 596
  • Beals 513
  • Cutler 481
  • Jonesboro 479
  • Dennysville 424
  • Columbia 399
  • Trescott 395
  • Whiting 358
  • Alexander 292
  • Charlotte 292
  • Brookton 273
  • Whitneyville 262
  • Baring 190
  • Cooper 178
  • Marshfield 173
  • Wesley 157
  • Waite 152
  • Crawford 136
  • Roque Bluffs 120
  • Meddybemps 101
  • Centerville 86
  • Northfield 57
  • Deblois 55
  • Talmadge 50
  • Beddington 31

Unincorporated territory reported 1,716 residents. This consisted of 725 residents in organized plantations, and 991 residents in unorganized territory. An additional 328 residents lived on an Indian reservation.

1950[edit]

County Total: 35,187

  • Calais (city) 4,589
  • Eastport (city) 3,123
  • Lubec 2,973
  • Machias 2,063
  • Baileyville 1,821
  • Jonesport 1,727
  • Milbridge 1,199
  • Danforth 1,174
  • East Machias 1,101
  • Pembroke 998
  • Cherryfield 904
  • Princeton 865
  • Harrington 853
  • Addison 846
  • Steuben 784
  • Machiasport 781
  • Perry 613
  • Beals 590
  • Robbinston 554
  • Columbia Falls 550
  • Vanceboro 497
  • Cutler 483
  • Jonesboro 459
  • Whiting 354
  • Columbia 352
  • Dennysville 345
  • Alexander 282
  • Charlotte 252
  • Whitneyville 227
  • Marshfield 221
  • Wesley 149
  • Cooper 128
  • Waite 117
  • Meddybemps 109
  • Crawford 83
  • Roque Bluffs 80
  • Northfield 75
  • Centerville 63
  • Talmadge 66
  • Deblois 59
  • Beddington 26

Unincorporated territory reported 2,298 residents. This consisted of 520 residents in organized plantations, and 1,778 residents in unorganized territory. An additional 354 residents lived on an Indian reservation.

1960[edit]

County Total: 32,908

  • Calais (city) 4,223
  • Lubec 2,684
  • Machias 2,614
  • Eastport (city) 2,537
  • Baileyville 1,863
  • Jonesport 1,563
  • East Machias 1,198
  • Milbridge 1,101
  • Machiasport 980
  • Pembroke 871
  • Princeton 829
  • Danforth 821
  • Cherryfield 780
  • Addison 744
  • Harrington 717
  • Steuben 673
  • Cutler 654
  • Beals 640
  • Perry 564
  • Robbinston 476
  • Columbia Falls 442
  • Jonesboro 428
  • Vanceboro 389
  • Whiting 339
  • Dennysville 303
  • Marshfield 267
  • Charlotte 260
  • Whitneyville 229
  • Alexander 220
  • Columbia 219
  • Roque Bluffs 152
  • Wesley 145
  • Cooper 106
  • Meddybemps 86
  • Crawford 83
  • Northfield 79
  • Waite 73
  • Talmadge 58
  • Centerville 47
  • Deblois 26
  • Beddington 14

Unincorporated territory reported 2,081 residents. This consisted of 376 residents in organized plantations, and 1,705 residents in unorganized territory. An additional 330 residents lived on an Indian reservation.

1970[edit]

County Total: 29,859

  • Calais (city) 4,044
  • Machias 2,441
  • Baileyville 2,167
  • Eastport (city) 1,989
  • Lubec 1,949
  • Jonesport 1,326
  • Milbridge 1,154
  • East Machias 1,057
  • Princeton 956
  • Machiasport 887
  • Danforth 794
  • Addison 773
  • Cherryfield 771
  • Pembroke 700
  • Steuben 697
  • Beals 663
  • Cutler 588
  • Perry 571
  • Harrington 553
  • Jonesboro 448
  • Robbinston 396
  • Columbia Falls 367
  • Dennysville 278
  • Whiting 269
  • Vanceboro 263
  • Marshfield 227
  • Charlotte 199
  • Topsfield 177
  • Alexander 169
  • Columbia 162
  • Whitneyville 155
  • Roque Bluffs 153
  • Wesley 110
  • Cooper 88
  • Meddybemps 76
  • Crawford 74
  • Waite 70
  • Northfield 57
  • Beddington 32
  • Talmadge 25
  • Deblois 20
  • Centerville 19

Unincorporated territory reported 1,522 residents. This consisted of 524 residents in organized plantations, and 998 residents in unorganized territory. An additional 600 residents lived on Indian reservations.

1980[edit]

County Total: 34,963

  • Calais (city) 4,262
  • Machias 2,458
  • Baileyville 2,188
  • Lubec 2,045
  • Eastport (city) 1,982
  • Jonesport 1,512
  • Milbridge 1,306
  • East Machias 1,233
  • Machiasport 1,108
  • Addison 1,061
  • Princeton 994
  • Cherryfield 983
  • Steuben 970
  • Pembroke 920
  • Harrington 859
  • Danforth 826
  • Perry 737
  • Cutler 726
  • Beals 695
  • Jonesboro 553
  • Columbia Falls 517
  • Robbinston 492
  • Marshfield 416
  • Alexander 385
  • Whiting 335
  • Charlotte 300
  • Dennysville 296
  • Columbia 275
  • Whitneyville 264
  • Vanceboro 256
  • Roque Bluffs 244
  • Topsfield 240
  • Wesley 140
  • Waite 130
  • Meddybemps 110
  • Cooper 105
  • Northfield 88
  • Crawford 86
  • Deblois 44
  • Talmadge 40
  • Beddington 36
  • Centerville 28

Unincorporated territory reported 1,746 residents. This consisted of 728 residents in organized plantations, and 1,018 residents in unorganized territory. An additional 972 residents lived on Indian reservations.

1990[edit]

County Total: 35,308

  • Calais (city) 3,963
  • Machias 2,569
  • Baileyville 2,031
  • Eastport (city) 1,965
  • Lubec 1,853
  • Jonesport 1,525
  • Milbridge 1,305
  • East Machias 1,218
  • Cherryfield 1,183
  • Machiasport 1,166
  • Addison 1,114
  • Steuben 1,084
  • Princeton 973
  • Harrington 893
  • Pembroke 852
  • Cutler 779
  • Perry 758
  • Danforth 710
  • Beals 667
  • Jonesboro 585
  • Columbia Falls 552
  • Robbinston 495
  • Alexander 478
  • Marshfield 461
  • Columbia 437
  • Whiting 407
  • Dennysville 355
  • Charlotte 271
  • Whitneyville 241
  • Topsfield 235
  • Roque Bluffs 234
  • Vanceboro 201
  • Wesley 146
  • Meddybemps 133
  • Cooper 124
  • Waite 119
  • Northfield 99
  • Crawford 89
  • Deblois 73
  • Talmadge 62
  • Beddington 43
  • Centerville 30

Unincorporated territory reported 1,641 residents. This consisted of 484 residents in organized plantations, and 1,157 residents in unorganized territory. An additional 1,189 residents lived on Indian reservations.

2000[edit]

County Total: 33,941

  • Calais (city) 3,447
  • Machias 2,353
  • Baileyville 1,686
  • Lubec 1,652
  • Eastport (city) 1,640
  • Jonesport 1,408
  • East Machias 1,298
  • Milbridge 1,279
  • Addison 1,209
  • Machiasport 1,160
  • Cherryfield 1,157
  • Steuben 1,126
  • Princeton 892
  • Harrington 882
  • Pembroke 879
  • Perry 847
  • Danforth 629
  • Cutler 623
  • Beals 618
  • Columbia Falls 599
  • Jonesboro 594
  • Robbinston 525
  • Alexander 514
  • Marshfield 494
  • Columbia 459
  • Whiting 430
  • Charlotte 324
  • Dennysville 319
  • Roque Bluffs 264
  • Whitneyville 262
  • Topsfield 225
  • Meddybemps 150
  • Vanceboro 147
  • Cooper 145
  • Northfield 131
  • Wesley 114
  • Crawford 108
  • Waite 105
  • Talmadge 70
  • Deblois 49
  • Beddington 29
  • Centerville 26

Unincorporated territory reported 1,757 residents. This consisted of 442 residents in organized plantations, and 1,315 residents in unorganized territory. An additional 1,316 residents lived on Indian reservations.

Plantations[edit]

As of 1900, Washington County contained six plantations: Codyville, Kossuth, Grand Lake Stream, Lambert Lake, Plantation No. 14, and Plantation No.21 (the last two were in an area originally laid out as sequentially numbered townships, and had simply kept their numbers when they organized as plantations). Kossuth had been incorporated as a town for a time in the 19th century, but had disincorporated and changed to a plantation form of government prior to 1900.

Of the six plantations in existence in 1900, only two remain today, Codyville and Grand Lake Stream. Kossuth and Lambert Lake apparently dissolved during the 1920s, while No. 21 did so in 1983 and No. 14 in 1986. On the other hand, an additional plantation has been added: the former town of Baring, which organized as a plantation in 1961 (Baring had disincorporated as a town in early 1940s). Topsfield also operated as a plantation for a brief period following its disincorporation as a town in 1940; it was reported as a plantation in the 1940 Census, but surrendered its organization as a plantation the following year (1941). Some sources also suggest that Edmunds and Brookton may have briefly operated as plantations following their disincorporations as towns; if they did, their existence as plantations must have been very brief, and did not last long enough for them to be reported as such in a decennial census.

1900

  • Grand Lake Stream 221
  • Lambert Lake 113
  • No. 21 86
  • No. 14 77
  • Codyville 68
  • Kossuth 46

1910

  • Grand Lake Stream 290
  • Lambert Lake 104
  • No. 14 82
  • No. 21 81
  • Codyville 69
  • Kossuth 44

1920

  • Grand Lake Stream 231
  • Lambert Lake 119
  • Codyville 80
  • No. 21 79
  • No. 14 74
  • Kossuth 40

1930

  • Grand Lake Stream 240
  • Codyville 89
  • No. 21 88
  • No. 14 73

1940

  • Topsfield 221
  • Grand Lake Stream 216
  • No. 21 110
  • No. 14 99
  • Codyville 79

1950

  • Grand Lake Stream 294
  • No. 21 84
  • No. 14 80
  • Codyville 62

1960

  • Grand Lake Stream 219
  • No. 14 63
  • No. 21 56
  • Codyville 38

1970

  • Grand Lake Stream 186
  • Baring 181
  • No. 21 83
  • Codyville 45
  • No. 14 29

1980

  • Baring 308
  • Grand Lake Stream 198
  • No. 21 127
  • No. 14 52
  • Codyville 43

1990

  • Baring 275
  • Grand Lake Stream 174
  • Codyville 35

2000

  • Baring 273
  • Grand Lake Stream 150
  • Codyville 19

Unorganized Territory[edit]

Like all of Maine's interior and northern counties, Washington County contains a significant amount of unorganized territory. Most of the unorganized territory in Washington County is in areas which have historically been very sparsely populated. The southern and southeastern parts of the county, along the coast, were historically fully incorporated. Further inland, lower-lying areas with access to lakes and rivers have generally been incorporated or organized, while more mountainous or remote areas have often never had any significant population and have remained unorganized. The area along the western edge of the county, bordering Hancock County, is largely unorganized, down to a point just a few towns away from the coast.

Historically, about two-thirds of the county’s land area was incorporated or organized, leaving the remaining one-third unorganized. There are approximately 25 townships in the county which have never been organized, along with a few others which never advanced beyond the plantation stage. Washington County saw one town disincorporation as early as 1895 (Kossuth), followed by another in 1924 (Forest City).

Between 1935 and 1945, a large number of municipalities in Maine dissolved and reverted to unorganized townships. In Washington County, this included six communities which had historically been towns (Edmunds, Marion, Topsfield, Baring, Brookton and Trescott). Since that time, Piscataquis County has both gained and lost municipalities. In the 1960s, Topsfield re-incorporated as a town, and the former town of Baring organized as a plantation. In the 1980s, two plantations dissolved (No. 14 and No. 21), and in 2004 the town of Centerville disincorporated.

The areas of Hancock County that are entirely unorganized cover about 1,000 square miles (2,600 km2), with a population of about 1,300. This covers about 40% of the county’s land area, but includes less than 4% of its population. Six unorganized townships have large enough populations to maintain a registrar and clerk to conduct elections for state and federal offices, although they do not have true organized municipal governments: Brookton, Centerville, Edmunds, No. 14, No.21 and No. 27. All except No. 27 were incorporated towns or organized plantations at one time.

Over the years, the U.S. Census Bureau has used different methods to compile data for unorganized territory in Maine. From 1900 to 1950, data was tabulated for each individual unorganized entity. In 1960, a single catch-all “Unorganized Territory” listing was provided for each Maine county, generally with no further breakdown. Since 1970, the Census has grouped contiguous areas in each county into one or more “unorganized territories”. As of the 2000 Census, two such areas are recognized within Hancock County:

  • North Washington Unorganized Territory: the bulk of the historically unorganized territory in the county, covering much of the northern and western parts of the county. The Territory is irregularly shaped and encompasses approximately 29 unorganized townships. This includes the former towns of Brookton, Forest City and Kossuth, as well as the former Lambert Lake Plantation and Plantation No. 21. The former town of Centerville was also added when it disincorporated in 2004.
  • East Central Washington Unorganized Territory: a group of six unorganized townships in the east central part of the county: the former towns of Trescott, Edmunds and Marion; the former Plantation No. 14 (also known as T14 ED); T18 ED; and T19 ED. The Territory is irregularly shaped, and completely surrounded by organized municipalities except for an ocean boundary in the former town of Trescott.

The roster of Unorganized Territories in Washington County has not changed since Unorganized Territories were first created for the 1970 Census.

The listings below provide population figures for 1) all unincorporated territory, including plantations; 2) organized plantations, for which breakouts are available in the main tables above; and 3) unorganized territory, with any available breakouts provided.

1900

All unincorporated territory 841

Organized plantations 611

Unorganized territory 230

  • Indian Twp. 87
  • Forest Twp. (T10R3) 46
  • Dyer Twp. (T1R2) 30
  • T31 MD 18
  • T18 ED 15
  • T19 MD 9
  • T27 ED 8
  • T11R3 7
  • T5 ND 6
  • T6 ND 2
  • Devereaux Twp. (T29 MD) 2

1910

All unincorporated territory 862

Organized plantations 670

Unorganized territory 192

  • Indian Twp. 94
  • Forest Twp. (T10R3) 48
  • T5 ND 12
  • T11R3 8
  • T6R1 7
  • T31 MD 7
  • T18 ED 6
  • T27 ED 5
  • Devereaux Twp. (T29 MD) 5

1920

All unincorporated territory 836

Organized plantations 623

Unorganized territory 213

  • Indian Twp. 136
  • Forest Twp. (T10R3) 57
  • T5 ND 11
  • T18 ED 5
  • Devereaux Twp. (T29 MD) 2
  • T31 MD 2

1930

All unincorporated territory 992

Organized plantations 490

Unorganized territory 502

  • Indian Twp. 154
  • Lambert Lake Twp. (T1R3) 126
  • Forest Twp. (T10R3) 80
  • Forest City Twp. (T9R4) 70
  • Kossuth Twp. (T7R2) 54
  • T18 ED 9
  • T5 ND 5
  • T31 MD 3
  • Devereaux Twp. (T29 MD) 1

1940

All unincorporated territory 1,716

Organized plantations 725

Unorganized territory 991

  • Edmunds Twp. 342
  • Indian Twp. 195
  • Lambert Lake Twp. (T1R3) 172
  • Marion Twp. 89
  • Forest Twp. (T10R3) 69
  • Kossuth Twp. (T7R2) 48
  • Forest City Twp. (T9R4) 47
  • T18 ED 29

1950

All unincorporated territory 2,298

Organized plantations 520

Unorganized territory 1,778

  • Trescott Twp. 362
  • Edmunds Twp. 288
  • Topsfield Twp. 231
  • Indian Twp. 221
  • Brookton Twp. (T9R3) 206
  • Lambert Lake Twp. (T1R3) 158
  • Baring Twp. 157
  • Marion Twp. 57
  • Forest Twp. (T10R3) 47
  • Forest City Twp. (T9R4) 26
  • Kossuth Twp. (T7R2) 10
  • T18 ED 6
  • Dyer Twp. (T1R2) 5
  • T27 ED 2
  • T31 MD 2

1960

All unincorporated territory 2,081

Organized plantations 376

Unorganized territory 1,705

The 1960 Census reported all unorganized territory in Washington County under a single catch-all listing. No breakdown is available.

1970

All unincorporated territory 1,522

Organized plantations 524

Unorganized territory 998

  • North Washington Unorganized Territory 500
  • East Central Washington Unorganized Territory 498

1980

All unincorporated territory 1,746

Organized plantations 728

Unorganized territory 1,018

  • East Central Washington Unorganized Territory 625
  • North Washington Unorganized Territory 393

1990

All unincorporated territory 1,641

Organized plantations 484

Unorganized territory 1,157

  • East Central Washington Unorganized Territory 661
  • North Washington Unorganized Territory 496

2000

All unincorporated territory 1,757

Organized plantations 442

Unorganized territory 1,315

  • East Central Washington Unorganized Territory 768
  • North Washington Unorganized Territory 547

Note: the unorganized townships in Washington County are on several different grids:

  • Most of the southern part of the county was originally part of Bingham’s Penobscot Purchase, which was divided into a series of sequentially numbered townships designated ND (North Division), MD (Middle Division), SD (South Division) and ED (East Division). This numbering scheme also covered a significant portion of Hancock County, and extended into southern Penobscot County as well. Many of the remaining unorganized townships in Washington County are in the MD or ED sequences. The MD townships, which can be found in the southwestern part of the county, are numbered row-by-row south to north, then west to east within each row. For example, T18 MD is to the north of the town of Columbia; T30 MD is further north; and T42 MD even further directly north. The ED townships, further to the east, are numbered column-by-column east to west, then south to north within each column. The former plantations No. 14 and No. 21 were in the ED sequence. There are also two ND townships in Hancock County, to the north of the MD area (T5 ND and T6 ND). Most of the unorganized townships in these sequences are identified only by their survey numbers and have never developed informal township names.
  • To the northeast of the territory that was originally surveyed as part of Bingham’s Penobscot Purchase, a handful of townships were originally surveyed as part of Titcomb’s Survey (TS). A few of these remain unorganized, including T1R1 (also known as Fowler Twp.), T1R2 (also known as Dyer Twp.), and T1R3 (also known as Lambert Lake Twp.).
  • The area to the northwest of the territory that was originally surveyed as part of Bingham’s Penobscot Purchase, as well as the last few rows of townships at the northern edge of the county, were originally part of the NBPP (North of Bingham’s Penobscot Purchase) grid. This grid also extends into Penobscot County. The numbering of these townships is somewhat irregular, but all of the unorganized townships on this grid in Washington County are in rows 6 through 11 (numbered west to east) and in rows 1 through 4 (numbered south to north).

Indian Reservations[edit]

Maine contains three federally recognized Indian reservations. Two of these are in Washington County, both under the jurisdiction of the Passamaquoddy tribe. These are the Passamaquoddy Indian Township Reservation and the Passamaquoddy Pleasant Point Reservation. Maine currently treats Indian reservations as distinct entities, not part of any organized municipality or unorganized entity. This has not always been the case in the past; at one time, present-day reservation land was regarded as part of the municipalities or unorganized entities within which it is geographically located.

The Pleasant Point Reservation, the smaller of the two reservations, is an enclave in the town of Perry, with a short border with the city of Eastport. It covers less than half of a square mile. The larger Indian Township Reservation occupies an entire survey township, bordered by Grand Lake Stream Plantation and the towns of Waite and Princeton, along Grand Falls Lake. It has a land area of about 37 square miles (96 km2).

Treatment of the reservations by the State of Maine, and by the Census Bureau, has varied over time. The Passamaquoddy Pleasant Point Reservation was first recognized in the 1940 Census, where it was referred to simply as the “Passamaquoddy Indian Reservation”. The Census began referring to it by its present name in 1970. Prior to 1940, the population of the present-day reservation appears to have been included with the town of Perry.

Passamaquoddy Indian Township Reservation was first recognized by the Census under that name in 1970. Because it covers an area originally considered to be an entire survey township, however, its population can be tracked for all censuses from 1900 to 1950, though it was being treated as an unorganized township at the time, not as an Indian reservation (it was usually referred to in Census listings as “Indian Township” or “Indiantown Township”). See the “Unorganized Territory” section for population totals. In 1960, a separate breakout for Indian Township was not provided, as the Census had discontinued the practice of publishing totals for each individual unorganized township.

The population of the reservations has been recorded as follows:

1940

  • Passamaquoddy Indian Reservation 328

1950

  • Passamaquoddy Indian Reservation 354

1960

  • Passamaquoddy Indian Reservation 330

1970

Total: 600

  • Passamaquoddy Pleasant Point Reservation 307
  • Passamaquoddy Indian Township Reservation 293

1980

Total: 972

  • Passamaquoddy Pleasant Point Reservation 549
  • Passamaquoddy Indian Township Reservation 423

1990

Total: 1,189

  • Passamaquoddy Indian Township Reservation 617
  • Passamaquoddy Pleasant Point Reservation 572

2000

Total: 1,315

  • Passamaquoddy Indian Township Reservation 676
  • Passamaquoddy Pleasant Point Reservation 640

Notes[edit]

1970 Census

The Census Bureau made a number of revisions to 1970 census totals subsequent to their initial release:

  • The original 1970 Census reports did not provide breakouts for either of the Indian reservations in Washington County. The Passamaquoddy Pleasant Point Reservation was included in the total for the town of Perry (which was originally reported as 878), while Passamaquoddy Indian Township Reservation was included in the total for North Washington Unorganized Territory (which was originally reported as 793). The totals were later revised to break out the two Indian reservations, and the totals for Perry and North Washington Unorganized Territory were revised to those shown in the lists above.
  • The original 1970 Census Reports reported Baring as “Baring Unorganized Territory”. This appears to have been in error, as sources indicate that Baring had organized as a plantation in 1961. (Baring had previously disincorporated as a town; had Baring in fact been an unorganized township as of 1970, it would have been logical for it to be treated as its own unincorporated territory, as it did not border any other land within Washington County that is unorganized.) The 1980 Census reports note that Baring had been reported as an Unorganized Territory in 1970 but provide no further explanation.
  • The original 1970 Census reports did not contain a breakout for the Town of Topsfield, apparently treating it as part of North Washington Unorganized Territory. This appears to have been in error, as sources indicate that Topsfield had re-incorporated as a town in 1960. Later Census reports were revised to include a 1970 population total for Topsfield (177). Oddly, however, the total for North Washington Unorganized Territory was not adjusted to reflect this change. As a result, in the list above, adding together the totals for each municipality, Unorganized Territory and Indian reservation does not yield the county total, but comes out to 177 more (30,036). It would appear that the county total shown above (29,859) is in fact correct, and that the total for North Washington Unorganized Territory should actually be 177 less than what is shown above (323 instead of 500). The 1980 Census reports note that Topsfield had “reorganized” but provide no further explanation.

1990 Census

The 1990 Census reports show Baring as a town. This appears to have been in error, as both the 1980 and 2000 Census reports show Baring as a plantation, the 1990 Census reports make no other reference to this change, and the author of this article has found no other evidence suggesting that Baring was a town around the time of the 1990 Census. Until information to the contrary is discovered, this article assumes that Baring should have been shown as a plantation in 1990.

See also[edit]