Historical earthquakes

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This article is about Historical earthquakes (before 1901). For Earthquakes in the twentieth century, see List of 20th century earthquakes. For Earthquakes after 2000, see List of 21st century earthquakes.

Historical earthquakes is a list of significant earthquakes from before the 20th century. As the events listed here occurred before routine instrumental recordings, they rely mainly on the analysis of written sources. There is often significant uncertainty in location and magnitude and sometimes date for each earthquake. The number of fatalities is also often highly uncertain, particularly for the older events.

Pre-11th century[edit]

Date Time‡ Place Latitude Longitude Fatalities Magnitude Comments Sources
1831 BC Xia China
see Mount Tai earthquake
 ?  ? Listed in the Bamboo Annals [1][2]
464 BC Sparta, Greece
see 464 BC Sparta earthquake
 ? 7.2 (approx) Ms Led to a helot uprising and strained relations with Athens, one of the factors that led to the Peloponnesian War [3]
226 BC Rhodes, Greece
see 226 BC Rhodes earthquake
 ? Destroyed Colossus of Rhodes and city of Kameiros [4]
60 BC Portugal and Galicia coasts  ? 8.5 Caused a tsunami [5]
17 AD At night Asia minor
see 17 AD Lydia earthquake
37.85 27.3  ? Destroyed 13 cities in Asia (minor) Described by the historians Tacitus and Pliny the Elder
February 5, 62 Bay of Naples, Italy
see 62 Pompeii earthquake
 ? 5–6 Brought down a large part of Pompeii, caused severe damage in Herculaneum and Nuceria. Seneca describes it in his "Quaestiones Naturales VI" [6]
110 Dian Kingdom, Yunnan, southwestern China probably thousands - Flooded administrative centre of the Dian Kingdom [7]
December 13, 115 Antioch
see 115 Antioch earthquake
36.1 36.1 ~260,000 7.5 Ms [8]
382 Cape St. Vincent, Portugal 7.5 According to Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus, the earthquake and corresponding tsunami sank two islets that were situated near Cape St. Vincent. Ammianus Marcellinus
July 21, 365 Crete (Greece)
see 365 Crete earthquake
"thousands" XI Destruction also in Cyrene & Alexandria (by tsunami). Uplifted Crete by 9 metres. Ammianus Marcellinus[9] and numerous other late Antiquity writers[10]
May 19, 526 Antioch, Turkey
see 526 Antioch earthquake
250,000 VIII   The city of Antioch was greatly damaged, and some decades later the city's population was just 300,000. Procopius, II.14.6; sources based on John of Ephesus
July 6, 551 Beirut, Tyre, Tripoli
see 551 Beirut earthquake
33.9 35.5 30,000 7.5 Mw Triggered a devastating tsunami, all the cities of the Phoenician coast from Tyre to Tripoli were reduced to ruins [11]
January 18, 749[12][13] The Levant
see The Seventh Earthquake
7 to 7.5 (approx) The cities of Tiberias, Beit She'an, Hippos and Pella were largely destroyed while many other cities across the Levant region were heavily damaged. [12]
November 24, 847 Damascus, Syria
see 847 Antioch earthquake
33.5 36.3 70,000 X   [11][14]
December 856 Corinth, Greece 37.9 22.9 45,000   [14][15]
December 22, 856 (aftershocks for about a year) Qumis, Iran. From Khuvar to Bustam and Gurgan. The town of Damghan hardest hit.
see 856 Damghan earthquake
36.23 54.14 45,000–200,000. The city of Damghan was half destroyed and had 45,096 casualties. [14][16]
July 13, 869 Sendai, Japan
see 869 Jogan Sanriku earthquake
38.5 143.8 ~1,000 8.6-9.0 Ms [17]
March 23, 893 Ardabil, Iran
see 893 Ardabil earthquake
38.28 48.30 150,000 Regarded as a 'fake earthquake', due to misunderstanding of original Armenian sources for the 893 Dvin event.[18][19][20][21]
December 28, 893 Dvin, Armenia
see 893 Dvin earthquake
40.0 44.6 30,000 Mislocated in India [22]

11th–18th centuries[edit]

Date Time‡ Place Latitude Longitude Fatalities Magnitude Comments Sources
August 12, 1042 Palmyra, Baalbek, Syria 35.1 38.9 50,000 7.2 (>VIII)   [11][14]
March 18, 1068 Near East
see 1068 Near East earthquake
20,000 ≥ 7.0   [23][24]
October 11, 1138 Aleppo, Syria
see 1138 Aleppo earthquake
36.1 36.8 230,000 XI   [11][25]
August 12, 1157 08:15 Hama, Syria
see 1157 Hama earthquake
35.1 36.3 "Tens of thousands" 7.2 Ms Largest in a sequence lasting from late 1156 to early 1159 [11][25][26]
February 4, 1169 Sicily
see 1169 Sicily earthquake
37.3 15.0 15,000 X   [27]
June 29, 1170 06:29 Eastern Mediterranean 34.4 36.4 5,000[28]-80,000 in Aleppo
25,000 in Hama
7.3-7.5[29] -7.7[30] Syria, Lebanon, central southern Turkey Numerous sources from Crusader times[25][26]
July 5, 1201 and/or May 20, 1202 Eastern Mediterranean; see 1202 Syria earthquake 1,100,000 (includes famine/disease deaths) 7.6 Damage across a wide area from Syria to Upper Egypt
May 11, 1222 06:15 Cyprus
see 1222 Cyprus earthquake
34.7 32.6 7.0-7.5 Caused damage at Paphos, Limassol and Nicosia [31]
1268 Cilicia, Anatolia (Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia)
see 1268 Cilicia earthquake
37.5 35.5 60,000 7 (approx)
September 27, 1290 Chihli (Hopeh), China
see 1290 Chihli earthquake
41.5 119.3 100,000 6.8 Ms [32]
May 26, 1293 Kamakura, (now in Kanagawa Prefecture, Kantō region,) Japan 35.2 139.4 23,024 7.1   [33]
August 8, 1303, 06:00 1303 Crete earthquake, Greece 35 27 up to 10,000 ~8 Triggered a major tsunami that devastated Alexandria in Egypt [34]
January 25, 1348 15:00 Friuli, Venice, Rome
see Earthquake of 1348
46.37 13.58 10,000 6.9 [14]
October 18, 1356 Basel, Switzerland
see 1356 Basel earthquake
47.5 07.6 1,000 6.2 Mw [35]
May 21, 1382 Canterbury, UK  ? 5.8 Struck during synod - later called "Earthquake Synod" - called to condemn heresy of John Wycliffe - some saw as portentous [36][37]
February 2, 1428 Catalonia (now Spain)
Catalan earthquake of 1428
42.4 2.2 1,000s VIII–IX Sometimes called the terratrèmol de la candelera because it took place during the Candlemas. [14][38][39]
3 May 1481 03:00 Rhodes
see 1481 Rhodes earthquake
36.0 28.0 30,000 7.1 Largest of a series that lasted 10 months [40]
September 20, 1498 08:00 local time Honshu
see 1498 Meiō Nankaidō earthquake
34.0 138.1 31,000 8.6 Ms [41]
September 10, 1509 22:00 Istanbul, Turkey
see 1509 Istanbul earthquake
40.9 28.7 10,000 7.2 Ms [42]
January 26, 1531 04:30 Lisbon, Portugal
see 1531 Lisbon earthquake
38.9 -09.0 30,000 6.9   [43]
January 23, 1556 Shaanxi, China
see Shaanxi Earthquake
34.5 109.7 830,000+ 8.2–8.3 Deadliest earthquake in recorded history USGS
November 16–17, 1570 19:10 Ferrara, Italy
see 1570 Ferrara earthquake
44.817 11.633 70-200 5.5 Azariah de Rossi's Kol Elohim [14][44]
December 16, 1575 18:30 Valdivia, Chile
see 1575 Valdivia earthquake
-39.8 -73.2 ? 8.5 [14][45]
November 24, 1604 12:30 local time Arica, Chile -18.500 -70.400 ? 8.5 MI [46]
February 3, 1605 20:00 local time Shikoku, Honshu, Japan
see 1605 Keichō Nankaido earthquake
33.5 138.5 thousands 7.9 Ms [47]
July 13, 1605 Qiongshan, Hainan, China 19.9 110.5 3,000 7.5 (X)   [48]
February 5, 1663 Quebec, Canada
see 1663 Charlevoix earthquake
47.6 70.1 0 7.3 — 7.9 Landslides were the primary feature [49]
April 6, 1667 Dubrovnik, Croatia 42.3 18.1 3,000 7.2 [50]
November 25, 1667 Shamakhi, Azerbaijan
see 1667 Shamakhi earthquake
40.6 48.6 80,000 6.9 Ms [32]
01668-08-17August 17, 1668 Anatolia, Turkey 40 36 8,000 8 USGS
October 20, 1687 11:30 Lima, Peru
see 1687 Peru earthquake
-15.2 -75.9 5,000 8.2 [14]
September 13, 1692 11:00 Salta Province, Argentina
see 1692 Salta earthquake
-25.40 -64.80 ~13 7.0 The small village of Talavera del Esteco was completely destroyed. [51]
June 7, 1692 11:43 local time Port Royal, Jamaica
see 1692 Jamaica earthquake
17.9 -76.8 2,000+ 7 (approx) (X)   [52][53]
January 11, 1693 Catania Province, Sicily
see 1693 Sicily earthquake
60,000 7.5  
September 5, 1694 11:40 Irpinia, Italy
see 1694 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake
40.88 15.35 6,000 6.9 Mw [54]
01700-01-26January 26, 1700 ~21:00 Cascadia subduction zone
see 1700 Cascadia earthquake
9 M (Satake et al., 1996) USGS
January 14, 1703 18:00 Norcia, Italy
see 1703 Apennine earthquakes
42.7 13.07 6,240–9,761 6.7 Mw [14][55]
February 2, 1703 11:05 L'Aquila, Italy
see 1703 Apennine earthquakes
42.43 13.3 2,500–5,000 6.7 Mw [14][55]
December 31, 1703 17:00 Kanto region, Japan
see 1703 Genroku earthquake
35.0 140.0 5,233 8.2 Ms [56]
October 28, 1707 14:00 local time Japan
see 1707 Hōei earthquake
33.0 136.0 5,000+ 8.6   [57]
November 18, 1727 Tabriz, Iran
see 1727 Tabriz earthquake
38.0 46.3 77,000 VIII   [58]
July 8, 1730 08:45 Valparaiso, Chile
see 1730 Valparaiso earthquake
-32.5 -71.5  ? 8.7   [59]
September 30, 1730 10:00 local time Beijing, China 40.0 116.2 100s 6.5   [60][61]
October 16, 1737 15:30 local time Kamchatka, Russia 51.1 158.0 8.3 Ms See Kamchatka earthquakes [62][63]
October 28, 1746 22:30 local time Lima & Callao, Peru
see 1746 Lima-Callao earthquake
-11.35 -77.28 4,000–5,000 8.6–8.8 Mw [64]
May 25, 1751 1:00 local time Concepción, Chile
see 1751 Concepción earthquake
-36.830 -73.030 8.5 MI USGS
June 7, 1755 Northern Persia 34.0 51.5 1,200
40,000[65]
5.9   [61][66]
01755-11-01November 1, 1755 10:16 Lisbon, Portugal
see 1755 Lisbon earthquake
36 -11 80,000 8.7 Caused a huge tsunami USGS
November 18, 1755 09:11 Boston, Massachusetts, USA
see Cape Ann earthquake
42.7 -70.2 0 5.9 Mw [67][68]
November 25, 1759 19:23 local time Eastern Mediterranean
see Near East earthquakes of 1759
33.7 35.9 1,000s 7.4 Ms Earthquake in same area on October 30 considered to be a foreshock [11]
April 2, 1762 Northeastern Bay of Bengal
see 1762 Arakan earthquake
22.0 92.0 200 up to 8.8 Mw [69]
October 21, 1766 Saint Joseph, Trinidad and Tobago 10.65 -61.43 7.9 Destroyed Spanish colonial capital of San Jose, Trinidad (now St. Joseph) [70]
June 3, 1770 19:15 local time Port-au-Prince, Haiti 18.7 -72.63 200+ 7.5 Mw [71]
July 29, 1773 Guatemala
see 1773 Guatemala earthquake
14.6 -90.7 5-600 7.5
January 8, 1780 Iran 38.0 46.2 200,000 7.4 Ms [72][73]
February 4—5, March 28, 1783 12:00 Calabria, Italy
see 1783 Calabrian earthquakes
38.15 15.70 35,000 6.9 Mw First in a sequence of five earthquakes Mw ≥ 5.9 to hit Calabria in less than two months [74]
June 1, 1786 04:00 local time Sichuan, China
see 1786 Kangding-Luding earthquake
29.9 102.0 ~100,000 7.75 Mw Triggered a landslide that blocked the Dadu river - the collapse of the dam during an aftershock and subsequent flood caused most of the casualties [75]
February 4, 1797 12:30 Quito, Ecuador & Cuzco, Peru
see 1797 Riobamba earthquake
41,000 7.3 Mw [76]
February 10, 1797 Sumatra, East Indies (now Indonesia)
see 1797 Sumatra earthquake
-1.0 99.0 300 8.4   [77][78][79]
November 22, 1800 1:30 p.m. local time San Diego, California, USA 34.00 -117.18 Unknown 6.5 Resulted in varying levels of damage at Mission San Diego de Alcalá, Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, and Mission San Juan Capistrano [80]

19th century[edit]

Date Time‡ Place Latitude Longitude Fatalities Magnitude Comments Sources
October 26, 1802 10:55 Vrancea region, Moldavia, now Romania 45.7 26.6 3 in Bucharest 7.9 Serious damage in the area. All church steeples in Bucharest collapsed, as well as many houses and Colţea bell tower. [81][82]
February 16, 1810 22:15 Crete, Heraklion
see 1810 Crete earthquake
35.5 25.6 2,000 7.5 Mw [83]
01811-12-16December 16, 1811 08:00 New Madrid, Missouri, USA
see 1812 New Madrid earthquake
36.6 -89.6 8.1 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
01812-01-23January 23, 1812 15:00 New Madrid, Missouri, USA 36.6 -89.6 7.8 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
01812-02-07February 7, 1812 09:45 New Madrid, Missouri, USA 36.6 -89.6 8 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
December 8, 1812 9:45 a.m. local time Wrightwood, California, USA
see 1812 New Madrid earthquake
34.22 -117.39 42 7.0 Destroyed the "Great Stone Church" at Mission San Juan Capistrano Southern California Earthquake Data Center
December 21, 1812 11:00 a.m. local time Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA 34.12 -119.54 0 7.0 Destroyed the church at Mission Santa Barbara, caused near-total destruction at Mission La Purísima Concepción, and considerable damage at Mission Santa Inés Southern California Earthquake Data Center
June 16, 1819 18:45–18:50 local time Gujurat, India
see 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake
23.0 71.0 >1,543 7.7–8.2 Mw Formed an 80 km long ridge, the Allah Bund ('Dam of God') [84]
01823-06-02June 2, 1823 08:00 south flank of Kīlauea, Hawaii, USA 19.3 -155 7 MI (Klein and Wright, 2000) USGS
November 25, 1833 Sumatra, East Indies (now Indonesia)
see 1833 Sumatra earthquake
-2.5 100.5 "numerous victims" 8.8-9.2 Mw Huge tsunami flooded all southern part of western Sumatra [77][79][85]
01836-06-10June 10, 1836 15:30 south San Francisco Bay region, California, Mexico (now USA) 36.9 -121.5 6.5 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
January 1, 1837 16:00 local time Galilee, Palestine
see Galilee earthquake of 1837
33.0 35.5 6,000-7,000 >7.0 Ms [11][86]
01838-06-31June 1838 San Francisco Peninsula, California, Mexico (now USA) 37.3 -123.2 6.8 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01843-01-05January 5, 1843 02:45 Marked Tree, Arkansas, USA 35.5 -90.5 6.3 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
May 8, 1847 Around Zenkō-ji Temple, (now in Nagano Prefecture, Chūbu region,) Japan 36.7 138.2 more than 8,600 7.4 2,094 houses lost by fire with quake at Nagano [87]
23 December 1854 09:00 Honshu, Japan
see 1854 Ansei-Tōkai earthquake
34.0 137.8 2,000 8.4 Major tsunami [88]
24 December 1854 16:00 Honshu, Japan
see 1854 Ansei-Nankai earthquake
33.0 135.0 thousands 8.4 Major tsunami [88]
January 23, 1855 21:11 local time Wairarapa, New Zealand
see 1855 Wairarapa earthquake
-41.4 174.5 4 8.0 (approx) Raised sections of Wellington coastline by 2 metres
November 11, 1855 22:00 local time Edo (now Tokyo, Kantō region), Japan
see 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake
35.65 139.8 ~ 7,000 7.0 Ms 10,000 house destroyed in Edo 安政の大地震 in Japanese
01857-01-09January 9, 1857 16:24 Fort Tejon, California, USA (San Andreas fault from Parkfield to Wrightwood)
see 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake
1 7.9 M (Grant and Sieh, 1993; Stein and Hanks, 1998) USGS
01857-12-16December 16, 1857 21:00 Naples, Italy
see 1857 Basilicata earthquake
40.3 16 11,000 6.9 MI USGS
February 16, 1861 Sumatra, East Indies (now Indonesia)
see 1861 Sumatra earthquake
1.0 97,5 905 8.5 Caused major tsunami. [89][90]
01865-10-08October 8, 1865 20:46 San Jose, California, USA 37.2 -121.9 6.5 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01868-04-03April 3, 1868 02:25 Kau, southeast Hawaii, Hawaii, United States
see 1868 Hawaii earthquake
19.2 -155.5 77 7.9 MI (Klein and Wright, 2000) USGS
01868-04-03August 13, 1868 16:45 local time Arica, Chile
see 1868 Arica earthquake
-18.500 -70.350 25,000 9.0 MI USGS
01868-10-21October 21, 1868 15:53 Hayward, California, USA, Hayward Fault Zone
see 1868 Hayward earthquake
37.7 -122.1 30 6.8 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01871-02-20February 20, 1871 08:42 Molokai, Hawaii, USA 21.2 -156.9 6.8 MI (Klein and Wright, 2000) USGS
01872-03-26March 26, 1872 10:30 Owens Valley, California, USA
see 1872 Lone Pine earthquake
36.5 -118 27 7.6 M (Beanland and Clark, 1994) USGS
01872-12-15December 15, 1872 05:40 North Cascades, Washington, USA
see 1872 North Cascades earthquake
47.9 -120.3 7.3 MI (Malone and Bor, 1979; Rogers et al., 1983) USGS
01873-11-23November 23, 1873 05:00 California-Oregon coast, USA 42.2 -124.2 7.3 MI (Bakun, 2000) USGS
May 10, 1877 21:16 local time Iquique, Chile
see 1877 Iquique earthquake
-19.600 -70.230 2,541 8.8 Mw USGS
September 9, 1880 7:04 local time Zagreb, Croatia
see 1880 Zagreb earthquake
45.9 16.1 1 6.2 Ms [91]
3 April 1881 11:30 Chios, Çeşme, Alaçatı
see 1881 Chios earthquake
38.25 26.25 7,866 6.5 Mw [92]
01881-12-31December 31, 1881 01:49 India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
see 1881 Nicobar Islands earthquake
8.52 92.43 0 7.9 Mw [93]
01886-08-31August 31, 1886 02:51 Charleston, South Carolina, USA
see 1886 Charleston earthquake
32.9 -80 60 7.3 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
September 1, 1888 04:10 local time North Canterbury, New Zealand
see 1888 North Canterbury earthquake
-42.6 172.4 7.0-7.3 First earthquake observed to be associated with mainly horizontal fault displacement
01889-07-28July 28, 1889 23:40 Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
see 1889 Kumamoto earthquake
32.8 130.7 20 6.3 [14]
01890-04-24April 24, 1890 11:36 Corralitos, California, USA 37 -121.8 6.3 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01891-10-27October 27, 1891 21:38 Mino-Owari (Gifu-Aichi Prefectures), Tōkai region, Japan
see Nōbi Earthquake
35.6 136.6 7,273 8 MS USGS
01892-04-19April 19, 1892 10:50 Vacaville, California, USA 38.5 -121.8 1 6.4 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01892-04-21April 21, 1892 17:43 Winters, California, USA 38.6 -122 6.4 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01893-11-17November 17, 1893 15:06 Quchan, Iran
see 1893 Quchan earthquake
37.2 58.4 18,000 6.6 Ms [94]
01895-10-31October 31, 1895 11:08 Charleston, Missouri, USA 37 -89.4 6.6 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
01896-06-15June 15, 1896 19:32 Off the Pacific coast of Sanriku, Iwate Prefecture, Tōhoku region, Japan
see 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake
39.5 144 22,000+ 8.0-8.1 (approx) Mw USGS
01897-06-12June 12, 1897 11:06 Assam, India
see 1897 Assam earthquake
26 91 1,500 8.3 USGS
01897-06-20June 20, 1897 20:14 Calaveras Fault, California, USA 37 -121.6 6.3 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01898-03-31March 31, 1898 07:43 Mare Island, California, USA 38.1 -122.4 6.3 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01898-04-15April 15, 1898 07:07 Mendocino County, California, USA 39.3 -123.9 6.8 MI (Bakun, 2000) USGS
01899-09-04September 4, 1899 00:22 Cape Yakataga, Alaska, USA 60 -142 7.9 MS USGS
01899-09-10September 10, 1899 21:41 Yakutat Bay, Alaska, USA 60 -142 8 MS USGS
01900-10-09October 9, 1900 12:28 Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA 57.1 -153.5 7.7 MS USGS

Source for all events with 'USGS' labelled as the source United States Geological Survey (USGS) [5] Note: Magnitudes are generally estimations from intensity data. When no magnitude was available, the maximum intensity, written as a Roman numeral from I to XII, is given.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bamboo Annals, listed under Xia chapters on King Fa's 7th year.
  2. ^ 吳階平, 喻滄, 季羨林. [2002] (2002) 世紀中國學術大典: 測繪學, 大氣科學, 固體地球物理學, 應用地球物理學, 海洋科學. 福建教育出版社. ISBN 7-5334-3446-3, ISBN 978-7-5334-3446-5. p 41.
  3. ^ Armijo, R.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Papanastassiou, D. (1991). "A possible normal-fault rupture for the 464 BC Sparta earthquake". Nature 351 (6322): 137–139. Bibcode:1991Natur.351..137A. doi:10.1038/351137a0. 
  4. ^ Erel, T. L.; Adatepe, F. (2007). "Traces of Historical earthquakes in the ancient city life at the Mediterranean region". J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 13: 241–252. 
  5. ^ Baptista, M.A.; Miranda, J.M. (2009). "Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9: 26, 34. doi:10.5194/nhess-9-25-2009. 
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Annotation to translation of the Wei Lue
  8. ^ National Geophysical Data Center. "Comments for the Significant Earthquake". Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  9. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, "Res Gestae", 26.10.15-19
  10. ^ For summaries of the sources, see Stiros, Stathis C. (2001). "The AD 365 Crete earthquake and possible seismic clustering during the fourth to sixth centuries AD in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review of historical and archaeological data". Journal of Structural Geology 23 (2–3): 545–562 [p. 557f., App. A]. Bibcode:2001JSG....23..545S. doi:10.1016/S0191-8141(00)00118-8. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Sbeinati, M. R.; Darawcheh, R.; Mouty, M. (2005). "The historical earthquakes of Syria: an analysis of large and moderate earthquakes from 1365 B.C. to 1900 A.D.". Annals of Geophysics 48: 347–435. 
  12. ^ a b Barkat, Amiram (August 8, 2003). "The big one is coming". Haaretz. 
  13. ^ Siegel-Itzkovich, Judy (October 14, 2007). "749 CE Golan quake shows another is overdue". Jerusalem Post. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l IISEENET (Information Network of Earthquake disaster Prevention Technologies) - Search Page
  15. ^ Milne, J. "A Catalog of Destructive Earthquakes, A.D. 7 to A.D. 1899". Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1911 (Portsmouth): 649–740. 
  16. ^ [2] Downloaded on 31 December 2002, from: [3]
  17. ^ Minoura, K.; Imamura F., Sugawara D., Kono Y. & Iwashita T. (2001). "The 869 Jōgan tsunami deposit and recurrence interval of large-scale tsunami on the Pacific coast of northeast Japan". Journal of Natural Disaster Science 23 (2): 83–88. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  18. ^ Ambraseys, N.N.; Melville, C.P. (2005). A History of Persian Earthquakes. Cambridge Earth Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-521-02187-6. Retrieved 29 September 2011. 
  19. ^ Gupta, H. (2011). Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences (2 ed.). Springer. p. 566. ISBN 978-90-481-8701-0. 
  20. ^ Berberian, M. 2006. Contribution to the Seismotectonics of Iran (Part III). Geological and Mining Survey of Iran.
  21. ^ Gates, A.E. & Ritchie D. 2007. Encyclopedia of Earthquakes and Volcanoes, 3rd Edition, Facts on File Inc. 365pp.
  22. ^ Ambraseys, N.N. 2004. Three little known early earthquakes in India. Current Science, 86, 506-508
  23. ^ Abdel Fattah, Ali K.; Hussein, Hesham M.; Ibrahim, Ezzeldien M.; Abu El Atta, Ahmad S. (December 1997), "Fault plane solutions of the 1993 and 1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquakes and their tectonic implications", Annali Di Geofisica (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica) XL (6): 1557 
  24. ^ Klinger, Y.; Avoua, J. P.; Dorbath, L.; Abou Karaki, N.; Tisnerat, N. (September 2000), "Seismic behaviour of the Dead Sea fault along the Araba valley, Jordan", Geophysical Journal International (Wiley-Blackwell) 142 (3): 772, doi:10.1046/j.1365-246x.2000.00166.x 
  25. ^ a b c Ambraseys, N. N., 2004 The 12th century seismic paroxysm in the Middle East: a historical perspective Annals of Geophysics, Vol. 47, N. 2/3, p. 743.
  26. ^ a b Khair, K., Karakaisis, G.F. & Papdimitriou, E.E. 2000. Seismic zonation of the Dead Sea Transform Fault area. Annali di Geofisica, 43, 61-79.
  27. ^ Guidoboni, E. & Traina, G. 1996. Earthquakes in medieval Sicily – a historical revision (7th-13th century). Annali di Geofisica, 39, 1201-1225.
  28. ^ Ayyubid Architecture, Chapter 7 by Terry Allen
  29. ^ LATE HOLOCENE PALEOSEISMIC TIMING AND SLIP RATE ALONG THE MISSYAF SEGMENT OF THE DEAD SEA FAULT IN SYRIA
  30. ^ The large earthquake on 29 June 1170 (Syria, Lebanon, and central southern Turkey)
  31. ^ Antonopoulos, J. (1980). "Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1000 to 1500 A.D.". Annali Di Geofisica 33: 179–198. 
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