Historical urban community sizes

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Estimated populations of historical cities over time.

Neolithic settlements[edit]

Further information: Neolithic architecture
Town 7000 BCE 6000 BCE 5000 BCE 4000 BCE 3800 BCE 3700 BCE
'Ain Ghazal 2,500[1]
Beidha 1,000[2]
Çatalhöyük 1,650 - 10,000[3]
2,500[1]
1,000[2]
3,000[2]
Choirokoitia[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] 300-600 2,000
Jericho 400 - 2,000[3]
Lepenski Vir 150 - 1,000[11][12][13][14][15][16]
Nea Nikomedeia 500 - 700[17]
Vinča-Belo Brdo 2,000 - 2,500[18][19]
Sesklo 1,000 - 5000[20][21][22][23]
Dobrovody 16,000[24] 10,000-16,000[25][26][27]
Fedorovka 6,000[28]
Mehrgarh 1,000- 10,000[29]
Maydanets 10,000[30] 10,000[31]
Nebelivka 17,000[32]
Talianki 15,000-25,000-30,000[33][34][35] 10-15,000[36]
Tell Brak 4,000[2] 5,000[2]
Uruk 5,000[2]

Bronze Age[edit]

Further information: Cities of the Ancient Near East
Table 1: 3700-2600 BCE
City 3700 BC 3400 BC 3100 BC 2800 BC 2600 BC
Adab 11,000 [37]
Anshan 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37]
Bad-tibira 16,000 [37]
Eridu 6,000-10,000 [37]
Habuba Kabira 6,000-8,000 [37]
Harappa 35,000 [38]
Kish 40,000 [37]
Lagash 40,000 [39]
Larak/Larsa 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37]
Manika, Greece[40][41][42][43][44][45][46] 6,000-13,500 6,000-13,500
Memphis 30,000 [47]
Mohenjo-daro 41,250 [38]
Nekhen 5,000-10,000 [37]
Nippur 13,000 [37]
Shahr-i Sokhta 20,000 [1]
Shuruppak 20,000 [37]
Suheri 13,000 [37] 10,000 [37]
Susa 8,000[2]
Tell Brak 8,000[2] 22,000 [37] 20,000 [37]
Thebes, Greece 4,000

6,000[48]

Umma 26,000 [37]
Ur 6,000 [37]
Uruk 8,000[2]
14,000 [37]
20,000 [37] 40,000 [39]

50,000 [37]

80,000 [37] 80,000 [39]
Table 2: 2500-1200 BCE
City 2500 BCE 2300 BCE 2000 BCE 1800 BCE 1600 BCE 1360 BCE 1200 BCE
Athens[49][50][51] 10,000 10,000-15,000
Akrotiri (Santorini)[52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61] 8,000-15,000-30,000
Adab 13,000 [37] 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37]
Akkad 36,000 [37]
Amarna
Anshan 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37]
Avaris/Pi-Ramses 100,000 [39] 160,000 [39]
Babylon 65,000[2] 80,000[2]
Dur-Kurigalzu
Ebla 30,000 [37]
Erlitou 24,000[2]
35,000 [37]
Harappa 10,000 [37]
Hattushash
Hazor
Heliopolis
Heracleopolis
Isin 40,000 [37] 20,000 [37]
Kerma
Kesh 11,000 [37]
Kish 25,000 [37] 10,000 [37] 40,000 [39]
Knossos[62][63][64]

[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73]

1,300

2,000

18,000 20,000-40,000-100,000 30,000
Lagash 40,000 [37] 10,000 [37] 30,000 [37][39] 10,000 [37]
Larak/Larsa 10,000 [37] 40,000 [37] 20,000 [37]
Manika, Greece[74] 6,000

13,500

6,000

13,500

Malia 5,000-10,000-12,500[75][76]
Mari
Memphis 30,000 [37]
35,000[2]
60,000 [2][37][39] 30,000 [37]
Mohenjo-daro 20,000 [37] 20,000 [37] 10,000 [37]
Mozah 15,000 [37] 15,000 [37]
Mycenae 30,000[77][78]
Namazga-Tepe 14,000 [37] 14,000 [37]
Nekhen 21,000 [79]
Niniveh
Nippur 20,000 [37] 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37]
Palaikastro 18,000[80][81]
Shahr-i Sokhta 20,000 [37] 20,000 [37]
Shuruppak 17,000 [37]
Suheri 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37]
Susa 25,000 [37] 25,000 [37]
Taosi 10,000[2] 14,000[2]
Tell Brak 15,000 [37] 15,000 [37]
Tell Churra 20,000 [37]
Tell Leilan 20,000 [37] 20,000 [37]
Thebes 40,000 [37] 40,000 [37] 80,000 [2] 80,000[2]
Thebes, Greece[82][83][84] 4,000

6,000

8,000
Tiryns[85][86][87][88] 1,200

1,800

10,000 10,000-15,000
Umma 34,000 [37] 20,000 [37] 10,000 [37] 20,000 [37]
Ur 60,000[2]
65,000 [79]
Uruk 50,000 [2][37] 75,000[2]
Yin (Anyang) 50,000[2]
120,000 [39]
Zabala 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37] 10,000 [37]
Zhengzhou 35,000[2]

Iron Age[edit]

Table 1: 1000-400 BCE
City 1000 BCE 900 BCE 800 BCE 700 BCE 650 BCE 600 BCE 500 BCE 430 BCE 400 BCE
Anuradhapura
Anyi 100,000 [39] 100,000 [39]
Athens 168,000 [89]
160,000[90]
Ayodhya
Babylon 100,000[91]

45,000 [92]

47,000 [92] 125,000[2] 150,000[2] 200,000 [79] 150,000[2]
Benares
Calah / Nimrud
Cerveteri 25,000

40,000[93][94][95][96][97]

Chicheng
Cuicuilco
Ecbatana
Haojing 100,000 [91] 125,000 [39] 125,000 [39] 33,000 [79][92]
Hastinapur
Jerusalem
Kerch
Kingchow
Kalḫu (Nimrud) 75,000[2]
Kosambi 55,000 [92]
Kweiteh / Shangqiu
Linzi 55,000[2]
100,000 [39]
80,000 [92]
100,000 [39]
65,000[2]
100,000 [39]
80,000[2]
100,000 [39]
60,000 [92]
200,000 [39]
100,000[2]
200,000 [39]
Luoyang 35,000[2]
55,000 [92]
100,000 [98][99]
40,000[2] 45,000[2]
50,000 [92]
55,000[2]
100,000 [39]
70,000 [92]
100,000 [39]
65,000[2]
100,000 [39]
200,000 [39] 200,000 [39] 100,000[2]
240,000[39]
Marib 45,000 [92]
Memphis 100,000[91]
Miletus
Niniveh 100,000[2]
Pataliputra / Patna
Populonia 25,000

40,000[100][101][102][103]

Pyongyang
Tarquinia 20,000

25,000

40,000[104][105][106][107]

Qufu 100,000 [39] 100,000 [39]
Sais
Shangqiu 100,000 [39] 130,000 [39]
Sravasti
Susa
Suzhou 100,000 [39]
Syracuse
Thebes 120,000 [91]

50,000[2]

50,000[2]
Vaisali
Veii 25,000

40,000

100,000[108][109][110][111][112][113][114]

Volsinii 13,000

25,000

40,000[115][116][117][118]

Vulci 15,000

25,000

40,000[119][120][121][122]

Xiadu 100,000 [39] 100,000 [39] 320,000 [39] 300,000 [39]
Xintian 100,000 [39]
Xinzheng 100,000 [39]
Xue
Yong 100,000 [39]
Table 2: 300 BCE-400 CE
City 300 BCE 200 BCE 100 BCE CE 1 CE 100 CE 200 CE 300 CE 361 CE 400
Alexandria 150,000[2] 300,000 [2][79]

600,000 [39]

400,000[2] 250,000 [92] 125,000 [92]
Antioch 120,000 [79] 400,000[123] 150,000 [92] 150,000 [92]
Anuradhapura 68,000 [79][92] 130,000 [79] 72,000 [92]
Anyi 100,000 [39]
Athens 258,000 [89]
431,000[124]
84,000[90]
10,000[123] 10,000[123]
250,000 [79]
Ayodhya 63,000 [92]
Carthage 150,000[79] 100,000[79]
Chang'an / Xi'an 100,000 [39]
250,000[2]
400,000 [79]
375,000[2]
400,000 [39]
246,000 (CE 2) [125]
400,000 [39]
500,000[2]
81,000 [79][92]
100,000 [39]
120,000[2] 140,000[2] 80,000 [92] 100,000 [39]
Chengdu 100,000 [39] 70,000 [92]
Byzantium 300,000 [92]
Ctesiphon 250,000 [92]
Cuicuilco 36,000 [92]
Datong 100,000 [39]
Ephesus 250,000 [126]
400,000 [127]
Izapa 35,000 [92]
Kaveri 59,000 [92]
Linzi 125,000[2]
350,000 [39]
100,000 [39] 100,000 [39] 100,000 [39] 100,000 [39]
Luoyang 125,000[2]
240,000 [39]
60,000 [92] 200,000 [39] 420,000 [39][92] 140,000[2]
250,000 [39]
200,000 [39]
Nanjing 56,000 [92] 78,000 [92] 100,000 [39] 150,000 [92] 300,000 [39]
Paithan 60,000 [92] 84,000 [92]
Patala 73,000 [92]
Pataliputra 350,000 [79] 69,000 [79][92] 150,000 [92]
Peshawar 120,000[79]
Pingcheng 88,000 [92] 200,000[2]
Pyay 69,000 [92]
Qufu 100,000 [39]
125,000[2]
Rhodes (city)[128][129][130] 100,000

200,000

100,000
Rome 150,000 [92]
160,000 [79]
400,000[2] 800,000 (CE 2) [39]
1,000,000[2]
450,000 [79]
1,000,000 [2][39]
1,000,000[2] 800,000[2] 750,000 [92] 800,000[2]
Salona 60,000
Seleucia 200,000 [92] 400,000[123] 250,000 (CE 2) [79] 150,000 [79]

250,000 [92]

Shangqiu 100,000 [39]
Suzhou 100,000 [39] 66,000 [92] 95,000 [92] 58,000 [92]
Taxila 60,000 [92]
Teotihuacán 60,000-

80,000 [131]

90,000 [92]
Tikal 100,000[132][133][134]
Tres Zapotes 30,000 [92]
Ujjain 94,000 [92] 80,000 [92]
Wanxian 100,000 [39]
Xiadu 300,000 [39]
Xianyang 100,000 [39] 300,000 [79]

100,000 [39]

Xinzheng 120,000 [39]
125,000[2]
Xuchang 140,000[2]
Ye 140,000[2] 120,000 [92] 100,000 [39]

Middle Ages[edit]

Early Middle Ages: 500-999 CE
City 500 600 622 700 775 800 900
Aleppo 72,000 [92]
Alexandria 94,000 [92] 175,000 [92]
Angkor 90,000 [92]
Anhilpur 80,000 [92]
Antioch 150,000 [92]
Anuradhapura 70,000 [92]
Ayodhya 75,000 [92]
Badami 70,000 [92]
Baghdad 700,000 [47] 175,000[2]
700,000 [92]
2,000,000 [135]
900,000 [39][79]
2,000,000 [135]
Bakhalal 45,000 [92]
Basra 100,000 [92]
Benares 49,000 [92] 59,000 [92]
Carthage 100,000 [92]
Chang'an / Xi'an 95,000 [92]
100,000 [39]
400,000[79]
400,000 [39]
600,000[2]
400,000 [92] 1,000,000 [39] 1,000,000 [39][79][136] 600,000 [92]
800,000 [39]
1,000,000[2]
100,000 [39]
500,000 [92]
750,000[2]
800,000 [79]
Chengdu 94,000 [92] 100,000 [39] 100,000 [39]
Chenla 70,000 [92]
Chunar 72,000 [92]
Constantinople 450,000[2]
400,000 [79]
150,000[2] 350,000 [92] 125,000[2] 225,000 [79] 250,000 [92] 300,000 [79]
Copán 63,000 [92]
Córdoba 160,000 [92] 175,000[2]
200,000 [79]
Ctesiphon 400,000 [92] 500,000 [92]
Dali 100,000 [39]

90,000 [92]

Datong 200,000 [39]
El Tajín 40,000 [92] 40,000 [92] 50,000 [92]
Fanyang (Youzhou) 100,000 [39]
Fustat 100,000 [92] 150,000 [92]
Gao 72,000 [92]
Guangzhou 200,000 [39] 200,000 [39]
Gwalior 65,000 [92]
Jiankang 500,000 [39]
Jinyang (Taiyuan) 100,000 [39] 100,000 [39]
Kannauj 120,000 [92] 80,000 [92] 80,000 [92]
Kanchi 56,000 [92] 70,000 [92] 51,000 [92]
Kyoto 200,000 [79] 200,000 [92]

100,000 [39]

200,000 [39][79]
Lhasa 100,000 [39][92]
Luoyang 200,000 [92]

500,000 [39]

500,000 [39] 200,000 [92] 500,000 [39] 400,000 [39]

300,000 [92]

200,000 [39]

150,000 [92]

Madurai 70,000 [92] 70,000 [92]
Mandsaur 63,000 [92]
Manyakheta 100,000 [92]
Nanjing 500,000 [39]

150,000 [92]

Nara 100,000 [39]
Patna / Pataliputra 74,000 [92]
Prambanan 60,000 [92] 62,000 [92]
Pyay 73,000 [92] 100,000 [92]
Ray 68,000 [92]
Rome 500[137]
0[138]
50,000[139]
Sialkot 85,000 [92]
Suzhou 70,000 [92] 120,000 [39] 100,000 [39] 100,000 [39]

84,000 [92]

100,000 [39]

81,000 [92]

Teotihuacán 125,000 [92][131] 60,000 [92]
Tikal 45,000 [92] 40,000 [92]
Tula 41,000 [92] 50,000 [92]
Wuchang 100,000 [39] 84,000 [92]
Ye 200,000 [39]
Later Middle Ages: 1000-1399
City 1000 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350
Angkor 200,000 [92] 125,000 [92] 140,000 [92]
1,000,000[140]
150,000 [92]
Ani 100,000 [141]
200,000 [142]
Anhilpur 100,000 [92] 100,000 [92] 135,000 [92]
Bagan 100,000 [92] 150,000 [92] 180,000 [92] 180,000 [92]
Baghdad 125,000 [79]
1,200,000 [39]
150,000 [92] 250,000[2] 150,000 [79]

1,000,000 [39]

Beijing 130,000 [92] 140,000 [92] 401,000 [92] 400,000 [92]
Cairo 135,000 [79] 150,000 [92] 175,000 [92] 200,000 [92]
250,000[2]
300,000 [92] 400,000 [2][92] 350,000 [92]
Chang'an / Xi'an 118,000 [92] 114,000 [92]
Chunar 66,000 [92]
Constantinople 300,000 [79] 200,000 [92]
250,000[2]
200,000 [92] 150,000 [92]
250,000[2]
100,000 [79]
Córdoba 200,000[2]
450,000 [79]
Cuttack 100,000 [92] 90,000 [92] 90,000 [92]
Dali 100,000 [39]

90,000 [92]

100,000 [92]
Delhi 80,000 [92] 100,000 [92] 125,000 [92]
Dhar 80,000 [92]
Fanyang (Youzhou) 100,000 [39]
Fes 125,000 [92] 160,000 [92] 200,000 [92] 200,000 [92] 150,000 [92] 125,000 [92]
Florence 110,000 [143]
Gaur 60,000 [92] 90,000 [92] 100,000 [92]
Genoa 80,000 [143] 100,000 [144]
Guangzhou 140,000 [92] 150,000 [92] 150,000 [92]
Hangzhou 80,000 [92] 90,000 [92] 145,000 [92]
800,000[2]
255,000 [92]
1,000,000[2]
320,000 [92]
1,000,000[39]
432,000 [92]
800,000[2]
432,000 [92]
Jinzhou 85,000 [92]
Kaifeng 400,000 [39][92]
432,000[79]
1,000,000[2]
442,000 [92]
1,000,000[2]
150,000 [92] 1,000,000 [39]
Kalburgi 70,000 [92]
Kalyan 150,000 [92] 125,000 [92]
Kannauj 72,000 [92] 80,000 [92] 92,000 [92]
Khajuraho (Kalinjar) 50,000 [92]
Khambhat 50,000 [92] 60,000 [92]
Kollam 60,000 [92]
Kyoto 300,000 [79]

175,000 [39]

London [145] 5,000-10,000 10,000-20,000 50,000-100,000 25,000-50,000
Madurai 60,000 [92]
Manyakheta 71,000 [92]
Marrakech 150,000 [92] 150,000 [92] 150,000 [92] 125,000 [92]
Merv 200,000 [92]
Milan 150,000 [143]
Nabadwip 85,000 [92]
Nanjing 130,000 [92] 130,000 [92] 130,000 [92] 95,000 [92]
Nishapur 125,000 [92]
Palermo 150,000 [92]
Paris 80,000 [146]

160,000 [92]

228,000 [92] 215,000 [92]
Polonnaruwa 75,000 [92]
Puri 78,000 [92] 72,000 [92]
Ramavati 75,000 [92]
Rome 20,000[147] 17,000[148] 15,000[149]
Sarai 120,000 [92]
Shangjing 140,000 [39]
Suzhou 100,000 [39] 96,000 [92]
Tabriz 125,000 [92] 100,000 [92]
Thanjavur 88,000 [92]
Venice 45,000 [144] 110,000 [92]
Vijayanagar 100,000 [92]
Warangal 63,000 [92] 80,000 [92]
Renaissance: 1400-1599
City 1400 1450 1500 1550 1575
Agra 200,000 [92]
Ahmedabad 100,000 [92] 140,000 [92]
Ahmednagar 70,000 [92]
Antwerp 100,000 [92]
Bago 150,000 [92] 175,000 [92]
Beijing 150,000 [92] 600,000 [92] 672,000 [47][92]

1,000,000 [39]

690,000 [92] 706,000 [92]
Bursa 130,000 [92]
Bruges 40,000 [92] 40,000 [92] 40,000 [92] 40,000 [92] 40,000 [92]
Cairo 125,000[2]
360,000 [92]
380,000 [92] 400,000 [2][79] 360,000 [92] 275,000 [92]
Chan Chan 60,000 - 100,000[150] 5,000 - 10,000[151]
Chang'an / Xi'an 127,000 [92]
Constantinople / Istanbul 200,000 [79] 660,000 [92] 680,000 [92]
Cuttack 75,000 [92] 100,000 [92] 140,000 [92] 90,000 [92]
Cusco 300,000[152][153][154][155]
Delhi 80,000 [92]
Fes 125,000 [92] 130,000 [92]
Florence 45,000 [143] 60,000 [143]
Gao 60,000 [92]
Gaur 150,000 [92] 200,000 [92]
Genoa 80,000 [143] 150,000 [143]
Granada 165,000 [92]
Guangzhou 150,000 [92] 175,000 [92] 150,000 [92] 160,000 [92] 170,000 [92]
Gwalior 80,000 [92]
Hangzhou 1,500,000[39]

235,000 [92]

250,000 [92] 250,000[79] 260,000 [92] 260,000 [92]
Jaunpur 100,000 [92]
Kalburgi 90,000 [92]
Kano 50,000 [92]
Khambhat 60,000 [92]
Kollam 60,000 [92]
London [145] 50,000-100,000
Mandu 70,000 [92]
Milan 125,000 [144] 80,000 [143]
Nanjing 487,000 [92] 150,000 [92] 157,000 [92] 182,000 [92] 188,000 [92]
Naples 209,000 [92] 215,000 [92]
Oyo-Ile 60,000 [92]
Paris 275,000 [144]

280,000 [92]

150,000 [92] 185,000 [79] 210,000 [92] 220,000 [92]
Samarkand 130,000 [92]
Seoul 125,000 [92]
Seville 15.000[156] 60.000[156] 129.400 [156]
Suzhou 129,000 [92]
Tabriz 150,000 [92] 200,000 [92] 250,000 [92]
Tenochtitlan 200,000-250,000 [157][158][159][160]
Texcoco 60,000 [92]
Venice 120,000 [143] 110,000 [144] 171,000 [92]
Vijayanagar 400,000 [92] 455,000 [92] 500,000 [79] 480,000 [92]

Early Modern era[edit]

City 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1825 1850 1875
Agra 500,000 [92]
Ahmedabad 380,000 [92]
Amsterdam 60,000[161] 140.000[161] 219,000 [92]
Ayutthaya 1,000,000[39]
Beijing 706,000 [79]

1,000,000 [39]

470,000 [92] 650,000 [79] 900,000 [92] 1,100,000 [39][79] 1,350,000 [92] 1,648,000 [92]
Berlin 6,500[162] 90,000[162] 172,000[162] 419,000[162] 1,122,330 [92]
966,900[162]
Cairo 200,000 [92]
Copenhagen 29,000 65,000 80,000 100,000 150,000 260,000
Edo(Tokyo) 60,000 [92]
500.000 (1609)[163]
688,000 [92]
1,000,000 (1721)[164]
1,100,000[79]
685,000 [92]
Esfahān 350,000 [92] 350,000 [92]
Guangzhou 180,000 [92] 200,000 [92] 200,000 [92] 400,000 [92] 1,000,000 [39]

800,000 [92]

900,000 [92] 875,000 [92]
Hangzhou 270,000 [92] 281,000 [92] 303,000 [92] 340,000 [92] 387,000 [92] 410,000 [92]
Constantinople/Istanbul 400,000[2]
700,000 [92]
700,000 [92] 600,000[2]
700,000 [92]
625,000 [92] 570,000 [92] 675,000 [92] 785,000 [92]
Kagoshima 67,000 [92]
Kanazawa 67,000 [92]
Kyoto 300,000 [92] 350,000[165] 400,000+[163][166]

350,000 [92]

526,225[165] 377,000 [79]
Lahore 360,000 [92]
Liverpool 375.955 (1851) [167]
London

200,000 [145]

410,000 [92]
350,000 [145]
550,000 [92][145]
600,000[2]
676,000 [92]
700,000 [145]
861,000 [92]
959,300 (1801) [145]
1,335,000 [92] 2,320,000 [92]
2,363,000 (1851) [145]
4,241,000 [92]
Madrid 400.000[163]
Manchester 303.385 (1851) [167]
Mexico City 170.000[167]
Milan [144] 150,000 125,000 160,000
Moscow 248,000[92] 373.800[167]
Nagoya 65,000 [92] 92,000 [92]
Nanjing 194,000 [92] 178,000 [92]
Naples 224,000 [92] 400,000 [168][169] 207,000 [144] 310,000 [92] 430,000 [92] 350,000 [92] 413.000 [167]
New York City 202.000 (1830) [170] 515.594 [171] 1,900,000 [92]
Osaka 360,000 [92] 350,000+[166]
380,000 [92]
400.000 (1749) [163] 383,000 [79]
500.000 (1783) [163]
Paris 245,000[92] 455,000[92] 530,000[92] 556,000[92] 547,756[92][172] 855,000 [92] 1,314,000 [92] 2,250,000 [92]
Philadelphia 161.000 (1830) [170] 409.353[171]
Rome 150,000[144]
Saint Petersburg 74.273 [163] 217.948 [163] 438,000 [92] 532.241 (1852) [167] 1,035,000
Seoul 150,000 [92] 158,000 [92] 187,000 [92]
Sunpu 100,000 [92]
Suzhou 243,000 [92] 302,000 [92]
Venice [144] 180,000 145,000 160,000
Vienna[173][174] 50,000 113,000 175,400 235,098 401,200 551,300 1,162,591
Xi'an 138,000 [92] 167,000 [92] 195,000 [92] 224,000 [92] 259,000 [92]
Yamaguchi 80,000 [92]

Current[edit]

See List of cities by population for current data.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Yuri E. Berezkin: http://www.arkeologi.uu.se/afr/projects/BOOK/berez.pdf
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch Ian Morris: Social development Stanford university 2010
  3. ^ a b World Prehistory: Class 9 Jericho and Çatal Hüyük
  4. ^ Choirokoitia http://www.worldheritagesite.org/sites/choirokoitia.html
  5. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=6BKlnz-TResC&pg=PA25
  6. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=RpWQKnu97BcC&pg=PT137
  7. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=lnCbDAacAfsC&pg=PA161
  8. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=ldSQLD985i4C&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23
  9. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=dKcQPBV0UdQC&pg=PA8
  10. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=vohWAAAAMAAJ&q=Khirokitia+with+600+people&dq=Khirokitia+with+600+people&hl=da&sa=X&ei=vr1wU5X7KonbPP7LgPAI&ved=0CC4Q6AEwADgK
  11. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=pwUoAQAAIAAJ&q=Lepenski+Vir+with+a+population+of+1000+individuals&dq=Lepenski+Vir+with+a+population+of+1000+individuals&hl=da&sa=X&ei=P7ZwU8DaCseROPTsgNAN&ved=0CF0Q6AEwBg
  12. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=LaASAQAAIAAJ&q=Lepenski+Vir+with+a+population+of+150+-+300+people&dq=Lepenski+Vir+with+a+population+of+150+-+300+people&hl=da&sa=X&ei=G7VwU6vRO8ntPIKlgdAJ&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAQ
  13. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=m9IdAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA63
  14. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=M4lSAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA523
  15. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=h0BIkXNZJZsC&pg=PA123
  16. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=NrLq1EBd9jAC&pg=PA177
  17. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=gcGSn0eVs2oC&pg=PA182&lpg=PA182&dq=karanovo+tell+in+size+500+people&source=bl&ots=e38iOPj7Qj&sig=z1-vUculOdJVPEfG6x59uaFvRh4&hl=da&sa=X&ei=PxamUuvWGIvLtAagr4DABA&ved=0CGwQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=karanovo%20tell%20in%20size%20500%20people&f=false
  18. ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/rise-metallurgy-eurasia
  19. ^ http://www.duncancaldwell.com/Site/Prehistory_Shows.html
  20. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=rs_A5w2QWa4C&pg=PA58&dq=sesklo+settlement&hl=da&sa=X&ei=ncmoUvzqJZORhQeNkYGIBg&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=sesklo%20settlement&f=false
  21. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=rg4rTjo0OCQC&pg=PA146&lpg=PA146&dq=sesklo+settlement+2,000+people&source=bl&ots=XCBxOPWs0W&sig=IxYRCej5tZ3JjO2i96Y-JnKtHXo&hl=da&sa=X&ei=s8WoUrzUII2qhAfrrIC4Dg&ved=0CHUQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=sesklo%20settlement%202%2C000%20people&f=false
  22. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=0HrHXbVNuvgC&pg=PT90&lpg=PT90&dq=dimini+settlement+5,000+people&source=bl&ots=qxGSbCTEDm&sig=PhzJnlZ2f-12cYfWHDhTD_4Q7Sg&hl=da&sa=X&ei=XMyoUviPHMmphAfWsoC4CQ&ved=0CGwQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=dimini%20settlement%205%2C000%20people&f=false
  23. ^ http://projectsx.dartmouth.edu/history/bronze_age/lessons/les/2.html
  24. ^ http://www.chronikajournal.com/resources/Harper.pdf
  25. ^ Л.Панченко. Паланка (історико-краєзнавчий нарис). Умань. 2003 ISBN 966-7659-30-5
  26. ^ Шмаглій М. М., Дудкін В. П. Зіньковський К. В. Про комплексне вивчення трипільських поселень. Археологія № 10. Київ. 1973
  27. ^ А.І.Кузьмінський, Г. В. Суховершко, В. Я. Чудновський. Наш рідний край. Хрестоматія з історії Черкащини. Київ. 1993
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  29. ^ http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=wNlsRZh3rwgC&pg=PA146&lpg=PA146&dq=mehrgarh+estimated+population&source=bl&ots=VKAfjSdw1a&sig=Wbw-nmtOnQhffn1sp0TOOdhVAac&hl=en&sa=X&ei=c4FTU5-eL8aN0AWEkoHQAw&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=mehrgarh%20estimated%20population&f=false
  30. ^ http://www.chronikajournal.com/resources/Harper.pdf
  31. ^ Dobrovody and Maydanets Suggested to be housing up to 10,000 people in Modelski'w text (pp. 24–25), The estimate is based on the author's personal communication with Mikhail Videiko, Institute of Archaeology, Kiev, October 2002 (p. 75). The previous estimates by S. I. Kruts for Maydanets and Talianki are 8,000 (1,575 housed within 270 ha) and 14,000 (2,700 houses within 450 ha), respectively (Pitskhelauri, K. N., and Chernykh, E. N. Eds., Kavkaz v sisteme paleometallicheskikh kultur Evrazii, Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1989, pp. 146–156.).
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  33. ^ http://www.chronikajournal.com/resources/Harper.pdf
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  38. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica. The Indus Civilization - Population.
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  44. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=0dZurnUo6hgC&pg=PA107&lpg=PA107
  45. ^ http://www.gtp.gr/TDirectoryDetails.asp?id=14792
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  47. ^ a b c Matt T. Rosenberg, Largest Cities Through History.
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  53. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=KtIVAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA118
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  55. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=7dil67ESF6EC&pg=PA311
  56. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=bdF9SYJ7hsQC&pg=PA73
  57. ^ http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/greece/gr2040e.shtml
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  63. ^ Unicity Europe .:|:. Home
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  65. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=Qcr9AQAAQBAJ&pg=PA172
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  74. ^ http://www.pia-journal.co.uk/article/view/pia.225
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  90. ^ a b Garnsey, Peter. Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World. (Cambridge, 1988:90)
  91. ^ a b c d Modelski’s list of the world’s largest cities treats Thebes and Haojing as the top cities with 100,000 inhabitants (p. 218), though the same list on the next page (p. 219) as well as Table 2 (c) place the population of Thebes at 120,000, while that for Haojing as well as Memphis and Babylon at 100,000 (pp. 33-34).
  92. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz ma mb mc md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mq mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz na nb nc nd ne nf ng nh ni nj Site with some numbers from Chandler, some interpolated (etext.org)
  93. ^ Pounds, N.J.G. (1976). An Historical Geography of Europe 450 B.C.-A.D. 1330 (del 1330). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521291262. 
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  95. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=n5g3h5G16EkC&pg=PT1774&dq=Tarquinia+40,000+people&hl=da&sa=X&ei=CiNDU-uiNIva4QTpuYGABA&ved=0CFIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Tarquinia%2040%2C000%20people&f=false
  96. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=owY4AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=etruscan+city+cerveteri+30,000+people&source=bl&ots=JTRazd9s9f&sig=5ucAndGMhwMeRGJ0fEeQWFNjjgk&hl=da&sa=X&ei=1ydDU92EC8PMygOp3YLIBw&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=etruscan%20city%20cerveteri%2030%2C000%20people&f=false
  97. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=3QZXvUhGwhAC&pg=PA110&dq=Caere,+had+about+25,000+inhabitants+in+600+bc&hl=da&sa=X&ei=nUFxU8X9As3KOYXsgfAI&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Caere%2C%20had%20about%2025%2C000%20inhabitants%20in%20600%20bc&f=false
  98. ^ Chandler listed Thebes, Haoqing, and Chengzhou (Luoyang) as the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd largest cities (p. 460), though Luoyang is supposed to pass 100,000 in 1000 B.C. (p. 541).
  99. ^ When the city first passed 100,000, suggested by Richard Forstall (pp. 541-542).
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  102. ^ http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=etruscan_studies
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  105. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=owY4AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=etruscan+city+cerveteri+30,000+people&source=bl&ots=JTRazd9s9f&sig=5ucAndGMhwMeRGJ0fEeQWFNjjgk&hl=da&sa=X&ei=1ydDU92EC8PMygOp3YLIBw&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=etruscan%20city%20cerveteri%2030%2C000%20people&f=false
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  113. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=isuTDpkqdk8C&pg=PA96&dq=etruscan+city+Veii+++100,000&hl=da&sa=X&ei=liaBU-nRJ4HrPJjOgNAK&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=etruscan%20city%20Veii%20%20%20100%2C000&f=false
  114. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=FWAMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA151&dq=etruscan+city+Veii+++100,000&hl=da&sa=X&ei=qiaBU9yiFIfZPP-DgLAM&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=etruscan%20city%20Veii%20%20%20100%2C000&f=false
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  118. ^ Production, consumption and society in north Etruria during the archaic and classical periods by Hilary Wills Becker. Google Books.
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  121. ^ http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=etruscan_studies
  122. ^ Production, consumption and society in north Etruria during the archaic and classical periods by Hilary Wills Becker. Google Books.
  123. ^ a b c d Ian Morris. "The growth of Greek cities in the first millennium BC". Stanford, 2005.
  124. ^ Raphael Sealey, The Athenian Republic: Democracy or Rule of Law? (University Park and London: Penn State U Press, 1987), p. 6
  125. ^ zh:汉书
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