History Museum of Armenia
|History Museum of Armenia|
|Հայաստանի պատմության թանգարան|
The History Museum and the National Gallery
|Collection size||Archaeological, Numismatic, Ethnographic|
The History Museum of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի պատմության թանգարան, Hayastani patmut'yan t'angaran) is a museum in Armenia that specializes in the fields of Archaeology, Numismatics and Ethnography. It is regarded as Armenia's national museum and is located on Republic Square in Yerevan.
On September 9, 1919, The History Museum of Armenia was founded by the Parliament in accordance with Law No. 439. Originally, the museum was called the Ethnographic-Anthropological Museum-Library. Since then, it has been renamed on several occasions. The museum started receiving visitors on August 20, 1921, under the directorship of Yervand Lalayan.
It was originally known as the Ethnographic-Anthropological Museum-Library. Its name was changed several times over the years: State Central Museum of Armenia (in 1926), the Historical Museum (in 1935), the State History Museum of Armenia (in 1962), the Cultural-Historical Museum (2000), and the History Museum of Armenia (since 2003).
The History Museum of Armenia was formed using the collections of the Armenian Ethnographical Association of the Caucasus, Nor Nakhijevan Museum of Armenian Antiquities, Museum of Antiquities of Ani, and the Vagharshapat Repository of Ancient Manuscripts (15,289 objects in all).
In 1935, separate museums were established by order of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia. These museums received items that were originally parts of collections within the History Museum of Armenia:
- The Museum of Art of the Armenian SSR was organized according to the History Museum’s Department of Art (the present-day National Gallery of Armenia), - 1660 objects were passed on to the newly founded Museum of Art.
- The Museum of Literature (the present-day Charents Museum of Literature and Art) was based on the History Museum’s Department of Literature - 301 objects and 1298 manuscripts were passed on to the newly founded Museum of Literature.
Founded in 1978, The State Museum of Ethnography received 1428 objects and 584 photographs. The museum is 100% subsidized by the State, which owns both the collection and the building. The History Museum of Armenia is entrusted with a national collection of 400,000 objects. The following departments are present within the museum: Archaeology (35% of the main collection), Ethnography (8%), Numismatics (45%), Documents (12%).
The History Museum of Armenia continually replenishes its collections from current-day excavations made at ancient Armenian sites. Such items are found from scientific expeditions conducted by the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, as well as the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia. Other objects are obtained through purchases and donations. The museum represents an integral picture of the history and culture of Armenia from the prehistory to the present day. The museum also presents rare traces of cultural interrelations between ancient eastern countries in the Armenian Highland. These nations include: Egypt, Mitanni, the Hittite kingdom, Assyria, Iran, the Seleucid state, Rome and the Byzantine Empire.
The History Museum of Armenia possesses a large collection of 3rd to 2nd millennia BC bronze specimens, which belong to the world treasury of masterpieces.
Other collections include: the historical-cultural heritage of Urartu, the powerful Armenian state in the Ancient East consisting of exceptional cuneiform inscriptions, bronze statuettes, wall-paintings, painted ceramics, arms and weapons with sculptural ornamentation, unique specimens of gold, silver and bone, excavated from Karmir Blur, Arin-Berd and Argishtikhinili; the cuneiform inscription of 782 BC about the foundation of the city of Erebuni (Yerevan), by the Urartian king Argishti I; and a collection of the most ancient evidence[Citation Needed] of the history of transport, 15th-14th century BC wooden carts and chariots, excavated from Lchashen, and their miniature models in bronze.
The History Museum also owns a collection of Miletian, Greek-Macedonian, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman, Sasanid, Byzantine, Arabic, Seljuk and other gold, silver and copper coins, circulating in Armenia. In addition, the museum has a collection of Armenian coins, issued in Tsopk; Minor Hayk (3rd century BC – 150 BC); coins of the Armenian Artaxiad dynasty (189 BC – 6 AD); of the Kiurike kingdom (11th century); and Armenian kingdom of Cilicia (1080-1375).
The History Museum of Armenia presents valuable specimens of peculiar transformation of the Hellenistic culture in Armenia, excavated from the archaeological sites of Garni, Artashat and Oshakan (sculpture, architectural details, jewelry and ceramics).
In addition, the History Museum of Armenia presents the 4th-5th-century Christian culture of Armenia with the unique architectural, sculptural and ceramic finds, excavated from the cities of Dvin and Ani, from the fortress of Amberd.
The History Museum of Armenia has carried out conservation and restoration work. In addition, it has published works on Armenian architecture, archaeology, ethnography, history and a series of reports on archaeological excavations since 1948. The museum carries out educational and scientific programs on history and culture as well.
- Yervand Lalayan (1919-1927)
- Karo Ghafadaryan (1940-1964)
- Morus Hasratian (1964-1975)
- Telemak Khachatrian (1983-1987)
The history museum participated in various international exhibitions. Included are Budapest (1968), Paris (1970), Leningrad (1974, 1985), Spokane (1975), Los Angeles (1977), Tartu (1979), Kiev (1980), Tsukuba (1984), and Venice (1987).
The History Museum of Armenia had exhibitions in connection with the celebration of the 1700th anniversary of the adoption of Christianity as the state religion in Armenia in the following cities: Bochum (1995), Paris (1996), Nantes (1996), Lyon (1997), Cairo (1997), Athens (1998), Bonn, Halle-Wittenberg (1998), Beijing (1998), Vatican (1999), Paris (2000), London (2001), Leiden (2001-2002), and Budapest (2002).
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