History of Barcelona
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2007)|
The history of Barcelona stretches back well over 2000 years to its origins as an Iberian village named Barkeno. Its easily defensible location on the coastal plain between the Collserola ridge (512 m) and the Mediterranean sea, the coastal route between central Europe and the rest of the Iberian peninsula, has ensured its continued importance, if not always preeminence, throughout the ages.
Barcelona is currently a city of 1,620,943, the second largest in Spain, and the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia. Its wider urban region is home to three-quarters of the population of Catalonia and one-eighth of that of Spain.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Barcelona under the Spanish monarchy
- 3 Franquism
- 4 Modern Barcelona
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
The origins of the city of Barcelona are unclear. The coastal plain near Barcelona conserves remains from the late Neolithic and early Chalcolithic periods. Later, in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, the area was settled by the Laietani, a Thracian-Ιberian people, at Barkeno on the Táber hill (in the present-day Ciutat Vella, or "Old City") and at Laie (or Laiesken), believed to have been located on Montjuïc. Both settlements struck coinage which survives to this day. Some historians have maintained that a small Greek colony, Kallipolis (Καλλίπολις), was founded in the vicinity at around the same period, but conclusive archaeological evidence to support this has not been found.
It is sometimes asserted that the area was occupied c. 230 BC by Carthaginian troops under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, but this is disputed. The alleged military occupation is often cited as the foundation of the modern city of Barcelona, although the northern limit of the Punic territories up to that time had been the Ebro river, located over 150 km to the south. There is no evidence that Barcelona was ever a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, Barcino, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
Legends about the foundation
At least two founding myths have been proposed for Barcelona by romantic historians since the 15th century. One credits the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, with the foundation of the city around 230 BC, giving it the name Barkenon. Despite the similarities between the name of this Carthaginian family and that of the modern city, it is usually accepted that the origin of the name "Barcelona" is the Iberian Barkeno.
The second myth attributes the foundation of the city to Hercules before the foundation of Rome. During the fourth of his Labours, Hercules joins Jason and the Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece, travelling across the Mediterranean in nine ships. One of the ships is lost in a storm off the Catalan coast, and Hercules sets out to locate it. He finds it wrecked by a small hill, but with the crew saved. The crew are so taken by the beauty of the location that they found a city with the name Barca Nona ("Ninth Ship").
Information about the period from 218 BC until the 1st century BC is scarce. The Roman Republic contested the Carthaginian control of the area, and eventually set out to conquer the whole of the Iberian peninsula in the Cantabrian Wars, a conquest which was declared complete by Caesar Augustus in 19 BC. The north-east of the peninsula was the first region to fall under Roman control, and served as a base for further conquests. While Barcelona was settled by the Romans during this period under the name of Barcino (see below), it was considerably less important than the major centres of Tarraco and Caesaraugusta, known today as Zaragoza.
The name Barcino was formalised around the end of the reign of Caesar Augustus (AD 14). It was a shortened version of the name which had been official up until then, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino (also Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino) and Colonia Faventia. As a colonia, it was established to distribute land among retired soldiers. The Roman geographer Pomponius Mela refers to Barcino as one of a number of small settlements near Tarraco, a town wealthy in maritime resources. However, Barcino's strategic position on a branch of the Via Augusta allowed its commercial and economic development, and it enjoyed immunity from imperial taxation.
At the time of Caesar Augustus, Barcino had the form of a castrum, with the usual central forum and perpendicular main streets: the Cardus Maximus (Carrer de la Llibreteria) and the Decumanus Maximus (Carrer del Bisbe) intersecting at the top (25 m) of the Táber hill (Mons Táber), site of the Iberian Barkeno. The perimeter walls were 1.5 km long, enclosing an area of 12 ha.
By the 2nd century, the city had the form of an oppidum and a population of 3500–5000. The main economic activity was cultivation of the surrounding land, and its wine was widely exported. The archeological remains from the period (sculptures, mosaics, and amphorae) indicate a relatively prosperous population, although the city lacked the major public buildings (theatre, amphitheatre, circus) found in more important Roman centres such as Tarraco. The forum's most impressive building was the temple dedicated to Caesar Augustus, probably constructed at the start of the 1st century. It was quite large for a city the size of Barcino, measuring 35 m by 17.5 m, and built on a podium surrounded by Corinthian columns.
The first raids by the Germanic tribes started around 250, and the fortifications of the city were substantially improved in the later years of the 3rd century under Claudius II. The new double wall was at least two meters high, up to eight meters in some parts, and was punctuated by seventy-eight towers measuring up to eighteen meters high. The new fortifications were the strongest in the Roman province of the Tarraconensis, and would increase the importance of Barcino compared to Tarraco.
The first Christian communities in the Tarraconense were founded during the 3rd century, and the diocese of Tarraco was already established by 259, when the bishop Saint Fructuosus (Fructuós) and the deacons Augurius and Eulogius were burned alive on the orders of the governor Aemilianus under an edict issued by the emperor Valerian. The Christian community in Barcino appears to have been established in the latter half of the 3rd century.
The persecution of the Christians under Diocletian at the start of the 4th century would lead to at least one martyr dying in the region of Barcino: Saint Cucuphas (Catalan: Sant Cugat). Apparently of African origin, Cucuphas had evangelised in several areas of the Tarraconense, including Barcino, Egara (modern Terrassa) and Iluro (modern Mataró), before being killed at Castrum Octavium (modern Sant Cugat del Vallès, just over the Collserola ridge from Barcino/Barcelona). Saint Eulalia (Catalan: Santa Eulàlia) is also often considered as a martyr from Barcino.
The Edict of Milan in 313 granted a greater freedom of religion to Christians in the Roman Empire and put an end to widespread persecution. The first recorded bishop of Barcino was Prætextatus (Pretextat) (d. 360), who attended the Council of Sardica in 343. He was succeeded by Saint Pacian (Catalan: Sant Pacià, c. 310–390) and Lampius (Lampi) (d. 400). Pacian is particularly known for his works De baptismo ("On baptism") and Libellus exhortatorius ad poenitentium, about the penitential system. The first major Christian church in Barcino, the Basílica de la Santa Cruz, was constructed around the end of the 4th century at the site where the medieval Barcelona Cathedral now stands; its baptistry can be seen in the subterranean part of the nearby Museum of the City (Museu de la Cité).
At the start of the 5th century, the Western Roman Empire suffered ever more serious attacks at the hands of various Germanic peoples, notably the Goths and the Vandals. Alaric's stepbrother and successor Ataulf led the Visigoths into southern Gaul, and after a defeat at the hands of the Roman forces at Narbona (modern Narbonne) in 414, moved across the Pyrenees into the Tarraconensis. Ataulf established his court at Barcino, where he was murdered by one of his own troops in 415.
The death of Ataulf, who had imprisoned then married Galla Placidia, daughter of the emperor Theodosius I, changed the relations between the Visigoths and the Romans. Under Wallia (415–419), the Visigoths became fœderati, allies charged with the control of the other Germanic tribes who had invaded Hispania. Wallia was notably successful in this task, and the emperor Honorius extended the area of Visigoth control to include Aquitania and Gallia Narbonensis. Wallia established his capital at Tolosa (modern Toulouse) in 417.
Barcino would remain an important, if provincial, centre of the Visigoth kingdom, notably because of its excellent defensive walls. After the death of Alaric II at the Battle of Vouillé against the Franks in 507, his successor Gesalec (507–511) moved the capital from Tolosa to Barcino. Amalaric (511–531) ruled from Narbona, but was murdered by his troops in Barcino, from where his successor Theudis ruled until 548. Barcino returned to its role as a provincial centre with the establishment of the Visigoth capital in Toledo by Leovigildus in 573.
The Visigoths formed only a minority of the population of the city, occupying the positions of authority. The first rulers were Arians until the adoption of Catholic Christianity as the state religion in 589, but the practice of Catholicism by the city population was tolerated. The religious centre moved from the Basílica de la Santa Cruz, which had been converted into an Arian church, to the Church of Saint Justus and Pastor (Església dels Sants Just i Pastor). Christian Councils were held in 540 under bishop Nebridi and in 599 in the reconsecrated Basilica under bishop Ugnas, whose name does not appear as a signatory of the unique document known as De fisco Barcinonensi. This letter to the treasurers of the city, a unique document traditionally associated with the council of 592, describes the provincial tax system administered from Barcelona. It is the most informative historical source on the Visigothic system of taxation.
The language spoken at the time was undoubtedly Vulgar Latin, including by the Visigoth rulers who were rapidly Latinised. Over time, the spelling of the Latin Barcino (declined as Barcinone, Barcinonem, Barcinonam, Barcinona) gradually came to include an intercalated "h" to represent the hard /k/ sound (as in modern Italian), and the use of the different Latin cases declined.
The Jewish population of Barcino/Barchinona dates from the mid-4th century at the latest. While the Jewish religion had been tolerated by the Romans, Jews suffered varying degrees of discrimination and persecution under the Visigoths. In his general law code of 654, the Visigothic king Recceswinth outlawed many essential Jewish practices, including circumcision of males, dietary laws (kashrut), marriage laws and ceremonies, and the celebration of Passover.
With the death of Recceswinth in 672, Wamba (672–680) was elected as his successor. His reign was spent mostly in warfare; those he fought against included the general Flavius Paulus who, together with Randsind, duke of Tarragona, Hilderic, count of Nîmes, and Argebald, bishop of Narbonne, had incited all of Septimania and part of Tarraconensis to rebellion. The Jews opposed Wamba in the expectation that he would perpetuate his predecessor's anti-Jewish policies, and had an important political and military role in this revolt. The Jewish population of Barchinona was considerable enough to prompt Wamba to issue limited expulsion orders against them. The rebellion of Paulus was promptly quelled and punished, and Wamba regained possession of Barcelona, Gerona, and Narbonne, which were among the chief centres of disaffection. Wamba was a political realist, however, and his understanding of the vital Jewish place in the economic structure of the provinces allowed him to reach a reconciliation with them. In 680, Wamba was dethroned as a result of a conspiracy headed by Erwig, one of the nobles, with the assistance of the Metropolitan of Toledo. Besides persecuting the partisans of Wamba, Erwig made new laws against the Jews, subjecting the converts to minute regulations assuring their religious faith. These laws, although severe, were less so than those of Receswinth.
The Moorish forces arrived in the Iberian peninsula in 711, ostensibly to assist Achila II in the civil war which opposed him against Roderic. The Arabs saw in the civil war an opportunity to invade the Iberian peninsula, and won the victory at the Battle of Guadalete, owing to the treachery of a part of the Visigothic army, which had been persuaded to change sides by the the partisans of Achila. The throne of Achila was usurped in 713 in favour of Ardo, and from 716 to 718, the new governor of Al-Andalus, Al-Hurr ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Thaqafi, suppressed Christian resistance in virtually all of Visigothic Hispania, and quickly expanded the territory under Moorish control as far as the Pyrenees. After the conquest and devastation of Tarraco in 717, Barchinona surrendered peacefully and was hence spared from major destruction. The vestigial Visigothic kingdom ruled by Ardo (713-720) in Septimania was conquered by the invading Arabs in 720.
Moorish rule in Barshiluna (also transliterated as Medina Barshaluna, Madinat Barshaluna, Bargiluna and Barxiluna) lasted less than a century. While the cathedral was converted into a mosque and taxes levied on non-Muslims, religious freedom and civil government was largely respected. The local Walī was mostly concerned with military matters, with the count and the local bishop having large day-to-day control of the local population.
Barcelona in the Spanish March
Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne, captured Barcelona in 801 after a siege of several months. It was to be the most southerly gain of territory from the Moors as he was pushed back from Tortosa, and the rivers Llobregat and Cardener marked the boundaries of the Carolingian possessions. The border regions were organised into the Spanish Marches (Marca Hispanica), administered by a number of counts appointed by the King, until Charles the Bald formally converted the territory into the hereditary County of Barcelona in 865.
The first Carolingian Counts of Barcelona were little more than royal administrators, but the position steadily gained in power and independence from the central rule with the weakening of the Carolingian kings. At the same time, several of the counties of the Spanish Marches came to be ruled by the same individual. The last Count of Barcelona to be appointed by the Carolingian authorities was Wilfred the Hairy (Catalan: Guifré el Pelós) at the Assembly of Troyes in 878: Wilfred, who was already Count of Cerdanya and Urgell, also received the counties of Girona and Besalú. At his death in 897, Wilfred's possessions were divided between his sons Wilfred II Borrel, Sunyer and Miró the Younger, marking the beginning of a hereditary regime. Wilfred II Borrell was the last of the Counts of Barcelona to pledge fidelity to the Carolingian court, although the de jure feudal link was not abolished until 1258 with the Treaty of Corbeil.
The preeminence of the Counts of Barcelona among the nobility of the Spanish Marches was in part due to their ability to expand their territory by conquests from the Moorish walís. They also repopulated their inland realms, whose population had plummeted after two centuries of war. The city of Barcelona, easily defensible and with excellent fortifications, prospered with the increasing power of its overlords, while the other Marcher counties had more limited prospects.
Barcelona under the Crown of Aragon
While Alfonso II of Aragon inherited the Crown of Aragon in 1162 thanks to the marriage in 1137 Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, Count of Barcelona, with Petronila of Aragon, future Queen of Aragon, the administrations of Aragon and Catalonia remained mostly separate. The city of Barcelona was by far the largest settlement in Catalonia, at least four times larger than Girona, and a vital source of royal income. The royal court passed much of its time from town to town, to ensure the continued loyalty of the local nobility, and steadily developed into a representative body known as the Corts of Catalonia.
The economy of Barcelona during this period was increasingly directed towards trade. In 1258 James I of Aragon allowed the merchant guilds of Barcelona to draw ordinances regulating maritime trade in the city's port, and in 1266, he permitted the city to appoint representatives known as consuls to all the major Mediterranean ports of the period.
Barcelona under the Spanish monarchy
The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1469 united the two royal lines. Madrid became the center of political power while the colonisation of the Americas reduced the financial importance (in relative terms) of Mediterranean trade.
The unification of the Spanish kingdoms and the riches of the New World were not without political repercussions for Europe, leading ultimately to the War of the Spanish Succession from 1701 to 1714. The Catalan nobility sided with the Habsburgs against the Bourbon Philip V, which led to the abolition of Catalan autonomy with the last of the Nueva Planta decrees in 1716, and to the diminution of the political influence of the city of Barcelona in Spain.
However, from the end of the 18th century, the position of Barcelona as a Mediterranean port and the proximity of lignite deposits in the Berguedà became important factors in the Industrial Revolution. Catalonia as a whole, and Barcelona in particular, became important industrial centres, with an increase in wealth (if not political power).
During the 18th century, a fortress was built at Montjuïc overlooking the harbour. On 16 March 1794, even though France and Spain were at war, the French astronomer Pierre François André Méchain was given leave to enter the fortress to make observations that were to be used to measure the distance from Dunkirk to Barcelona, two cities lying on approximately the same longitude as each other and also the longitude through Paris. Using this measurement and the latitudes of the two cities they could calculate the distance between the North Pole and the Equator in classical French units of length and hence produce the first prototype metre which was defined as being one ten millionth of that distance. The definitive metre bar, manufactured from platinum, was presented to the French legislative assembly on 22 June 1799.
In 1812, Barcelona was annexed by Napoleonic France and incorporated into the First French Empire as part of the department Montserrat (later Bouches-de-l'Èbre–Montserrat), where it remained for few years until Napoleon's defeat. In 1888, Barcelona hosted the Exposición Universal de Barcelona, which led to a great extension of its urbanised area from Parc de la Ciutadella to Barceloneta. In 1897, the city absorbed six surrounding municipalities and the new district of the Eixample (literally "the extension") was laid out. The annexed towns included Sants, Les Corts, Sant Gervasi de Cassoles, Gràcia, Sant Andreu de Palomar and Sant Martí de Provençals. Horta was annexed in 1904 and Sarrià in 1924. The relative prosperity of the city restored its role as a cultural centre, as is witnessed by the architecture of Antoni Gaudí still visible around Barcelona.
In summer 1909, political clashes took place in Barcelona known as the Tragic Week.
A second major international exhibition was organised in 1929, leading to the urbanisation of the area around Plaça Espanya and providing the impetus for the construction of the metro, inaugurated in 1924.
The Second Republic and civil war
The city had prepared to host the People's Olympics during the summer of 1936, building the Olympic Stadium and developing the Montjuïc area, but the insurrection of the army in July 1936 plunged Spain into civil war. Several of the athletes who had arrived for the Games stayed to form the first of the Republican International Brigades, made famous by the writers Ernest Hemingway and George Orwell (Homage to Catalonia).
The city, and Catalonia in general, were resolutely Republican. Many enterprises and public services were "collectivised" by the CNT and UGT unions. As the power of the Republican government and the Generalitat diminished, much of the city was under the effective control of anarchist groups. The anarchists lost control of the city to their own allies, the Stalinists and official government troops, after the street fighting of the Barcelona May Days.
Barcelona was bombarded for three days beginning on March 16, 1938, at the height of the Spanish Civil War. Under the command of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, Italian aircraft stationed on Majorca attacked 13 times dropping 44 tons of bombs, aimed at the civil population. These attacks were at the request of General Franco as retribution against the Catalan population. The medieval Cathedral of Barcelona was bombed and more than one thousand people died, including many children. The number of people injured is estimated to be in the thousands.
The city finally fell into Nationalist hands on January 26, 1939.
The resistance of Barcelona to Franco's coup d'état was to have lasting effects after the defeat of the Republican government. The autonomous institutions of Catalonia were abolished and the use of the Catalan language in public life was suppressed and forbidden, although its use was not formally illegalised as often claimed. Barcelona remained the second largest city in Spain, at the heart of a region which was relatively industrialised and prosperous, despite the devastation of the civil war.
The result was a large-scale immigration from poorer regions of Spain (particularly Andalucia, Murcia and Galicia), which in turn led to rapid urbanisation. The district of Congrés was developed for the International Eucharistic Congress in 1952, while the districts of El Carmel, Nou Barris, El Verdum and Guinardó were developed later in the same decade. Barcelona's suburbs, such as L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Bellvitge, Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Sant Adrià de Besòs, and Badalona, also saw a dramatic population increase, often tenfold over a single decade.
The increase in the population led to the development of the metro network, the tarmacking of the city streets, the installation of traffic lights and the construction of the first rondas or ringroads. The provision of running water, electricity and street lighting also had to be vastly improved, if not always fast enough to keep pace with the rising population.
The massive immigration not only left a city which was extremely densely populated (1,557,863 inhabitants, 15,517 per km², in 1970), often housed in very poor quality accommodation, but also contributed to the decline in the specifically Catalan culture of Barcelona. While the use of Catalan in private was tolerated in the later years of the dictatorship, the immigrants to Barcelona spoke only Spanish. Catalan-language education was unavailable, even if there had been any social pressure to learn the local language (which was far from the case in urban areas).
The death of Franco in 1975 brought on a period of democratisation throughout Spain. Pressure for change was particularly strong in Barcelona, which considered (with some justification) that it had been punished during nearly forty years of Franquism for its support of the Republican government. Massive, but peaceful, demonstrations on 1977-09-11 assembled over a million people in the streets of Barcelona to call for the restoration of Catalan autonomy. It was granted less than a month later.
The development of Barcelona was promoted by two events in 1986: Spanish accession to the European Community, and particularly Barcelona's designation as host city of the 1992 Summer Olympics. The process of urban regeneration has been rapid, and accompanied by a greatly increased international reputation of the city as a tourist destination. The increased cost of housing has led to a slight decline (−16.6%) in the population over the last two decades of the 20th century as many families move out into the suburbs. This decline has been reversed since 2001, as a new wave of immigration (particularly from Latin America and from Morocco) has gathered pace.
- Joan de Déu Prats (2009). Llegendes històriques de Barcelona. L'Abadia de Montserrat. p. 11. ISBN 978-84-9883-064-4.
- INE (25 March 2013). "Population of Barcelona". Instituto Nacional de Estadistica.
- "Cecas ibéricas en la zona catalana". Tesorillo.com. Madrid, Spain: Numismática Antigua. 15 July, 2010. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Leandre Villaronga (1 January 1998). Les dracmes ibèriques i llurs divisors. Institut d'Estudis Catalans. p. 154. ISBN 978-84-7283-418-7.
- Josep Padró i Parcerisa (1983). Egyptian-type Documents: From the Mediterranean Littoral of the Iberian Peninsula Before the Roman Conquest. Brill Archive. p. 3. ISBN 90-04-06133-9.
- Valeriano Bozal Fernández; Valeriano Bozal (1973). Historia del arte en España: Desde los orígenes hasta la Ilustración. Ediciones AKAL. p. 28. ISBN 978-84-7090-025-9.
- Pierson Dixon (Sir.); Pierson Dixon (1940). The Iberians of Spain and Their Relations with the Aegean World. Oxford University Press. p. 40.
- Antonio Ballesteros Beretta (1918). Historia de España y su influencia en la historia universal. P. Salvat. p. 212.
- William H. Robinson; Jordi Falgàs; Carmen Belen Lord (2006). Barcelona and Modernity: Picasso, Gaudí, Miró, Dalí. Yale University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-300-12106-3.
- P.F. Collier & Son Corporation (1957). Collier's encyclopedia. Collier. p. 48.
- Michael Dietler; Carolina López-Ruiz (15 October 2009). Colonial Encounters in Ancient Iberia: Phoenician, Greek, and Indigenous Relations. University of Chicago Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-226-14848-9.
- Luis R. Corteguera (2002). For the Common Good: Popular Politics in Barcelona, 1580-1640. Cornell University Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-8014-3780-6.
- The World and Its Peoples: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, Gibraltar. Greystone Press. 1969. p. 73.
- A. E. J Morris (2 December 2013). History of Urban Form Before the Industrial Revolution. Routledge. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-317-88514-6.
- Incr. ap. Gruter, p. 426, nos. 5, 6.
- Pliny (the Elder.) (1893). The Natural History of Pliny. H. G. Bohn. p. 167.
- Pomponius Mela (1998). Pomponius Mela's Description of the World. University of Michigan Press. p. 93. ISBN 0-472-08452-6.
- Cèsar Carreras Monfort; Josep Guitart i Duran (2009). Barcino I: marques i terrisseries d'àmfores al pla de Barcelona. Institut d'Estudis Catalans. p. 77. ISBN 978-84-92583-45-4.
- Rufo Festo Aviano, Or. Mar. 520: Et Barcilonum aoena sedes ditium.)
- Nicola Mackie (1983). Local Administration in Roman Spain, A.D. 14-212. British Archaeological Reports. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-86054-220-9.
- Sir William Smith (1854). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography: Abacaenum-Hytanis. Little, Brown and Company. p. 379.
- Lluís Cortada i Colomer (1998). Estructures territorials, urbanisme i arquitectura poliorcètics a la Catalunya preindustrial: De l'antiguitat al segle XVII. Institut d'Estudis Catalans. p. 59. ISBN 978-84-7283-438-5.
- Arantza Blanco Ganuza (2 March 1985). Spain: a Phaidon cultural guide. Prentice-Hall. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-13-824145-2.
- Robert Hughes (7 December 2011). Barcelona. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-0-307-76461-4.
- Michael Raeburn; Arts Council of Great Britain (1985). Homage to Barcelona: The City and Its Art, 1888-1936 : Hayward Gallery, London, 14 November 1985-23 February 1986. Arts Council of Great Britain. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-7287-0478-7.
- Johannes Assmann (1905). De coloniis oppidisque romanis: quibus imperatoria nomina vel cognomina imposita sunt .... Typis Julii Beltzii. p. 52.
- Josep María Camarasa; Unesco. Programme on Man and the Biosphere (16 December 1999). Encyclopedia of the Biosphere: Mediterranean woodlands. Gale Group. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-7876-4511-3. "Initially it was a simple military camp (a castrum) but by the second century A.D. it was a town of 4,000-5,000 inhabitants."
- Kurt A. Raaflaub; Mark Toher (1993). Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and His Principate. University of California Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-520-08447-6.
- Josep Puig i Cadafalch; Antoni de Falguera; José Goday y Casals (1934). L'arquitectura romana a Catalunya. Institut d'Estudis Catalans. pp. 94–99. GGKEY:SUSYS955SFU.
- Kimberly Diane Bowes; Michael Kulikowski (2005). Hispania in Late Antiquity: Current Perspectives. Brill. p. 319. ISBN 978-90-04-14391-3.
- Alberto Balil (1961). Las murallas bajoimperiales de Barcino. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Instituto español de arqueología "Rodrigo Caro". p. 124.
- Alban Butler; Paul Burns (1995). Butler's Lives of the Saints. Burns & Oates. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-8146-2377-0.
- Iberian Fathers. CUA Press. 1 February 1999. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8132-0099-6.
- Mercè Vallejo; David Escamilla (1 January 2007). La Barcelona del viento. Ediciones Robinbook. p. 148. ISBN 978-84-96924-26-0.
- Antoni Pladevall (1 January 2007). Història de l'Església a Catalunya. Editorial Claret. p. 289. ISBN 978-84-9846-002-5.
- Ramon Corts i Blay; Joan Galtés i Pujol; Albert Manent (1 January 1998). Diccionari d'història eclesiàstica de Catalunya. Generalitat de Catalunya. pp. 199, 206. ISBN 978-84-393-4613-5.
- Julio Caro Baroja (1979). El Carnaval: análisis histórico-cultural. Taurus Ediciones, S.A.-Grupo Santillana. p. 169. ISBN 978-84-306-3502-3.
- Anna Maria Adroer i Tasis (2005). A Pau Verrié. L'Abadia de Montserrat. p. 50. ISBN 978-84-8415-748-9.
- Jean S. Forward (1 January 2001). Endangered Peoples of Europe: Struggles to Survive and Thrive. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-313-31006-5.
- Joan Mervyn Hussey (1966). The Cambridge Medieval History. CUP Archive. p. 403. GGKEY:W8456N5J140.
- Barbara Hanawalt (1998). The Middle Ages: An Illustrated History. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-510359-5.
- Daniel Coit Gilman; Harry Thurston Peck; Frank Moore Colby (1906). The New international encyclopaedia. Dodd, Mead and company. p. 75.
- Heinrich Joseph Wetzer; Benedikt Welte; Isidore Goschler (1860). Dictionnaire encyclopédique de la théologie catholique: rédigé par les plus savants professeurs et docteurs en théologie de l'Allemagne catholique moderne .... Gaume frères et J. Duprey. p. 459.
- Mr Frank Riess (28 December 2013). Narbonne and its Territory in Late Antiquity: From the Visigoths to the Arabs. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-4724-0827-3.
- Ferran Soldevila (1963). Història de Catalunya. Editorial Alpha. p. 26. GGKEY:WN6PGFTYDS4.
- Ramón de Abadal y Vinyals; Francisco Javier Sánchez Cantón (1960). Del reino de Tolosa al reino de Toledo: discurso leído el día 27 de noviembre de 1960 en el acto de su recepción pública por el Excmo. Sr. D. Ramón de Abadal y de Vinyals y contestación por el Excmo. Sr. Director de la Real Academia D. Francisco J. Sánchez Cantón. Real Academia de la Historia. p. 66. GGKEY:EPB74UWLR2C.
- William Smith; Henry Wace (1887). A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects and Doctrines: Being a Continuation of 'The Dictionary of the Bible'. Little, Brown & Company. p. 1058.
- Margarita Diaz-Andreu; Simon Keay (2 December 2013). The Archaeology of Iberia: The Dynamics of Change. Routledge. p. 225. ISBN 978-1-317-79907-8.
- Rachel L. Stocking (2000). Bishops, Councils, and Consensus in the Visigothic Kingdom, 589-633. University of Michigan Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-472-11133-7.
- Chris Wickham (22 September 2005). Framing the Early Middle Ages:Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800. Oxford University Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-19-153261-0.
- Dominic Keown (2011). A Companion to Catalan Culture. Tamesis Books. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-85566-227-8.
- Saul Mercado (2008). Linguistic Citizenship: Language Policy, Social Cohesion, and Immigration in Barcelona, Spain. ProQuest. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-1-109-10062-4.
- Marjorie Trusted; Hispanic Society of America (October 2007). The arts of Spain: Iberia and Latin America 1450-1700. V&A Publications/The Hispanic Society of America. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-85177-523-1.
- John Edwards (2000). The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474-1520. Wiley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-631-22143-2.
- John Bagnell Bury (1913). The Cambridge Medieval History. Macmillan. p. 179.
- Bernard S. Bachrach (July 1977). Early Medieval Jewish Policy in Western Europe. University of Minnesota Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8166-5698-1.
- Jane S. Gerber (31 January 1994). Jews of Spain: A History of the Sephardic Experience. Simon and Schuster. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-02-911574-9.
- E. Michael Gerli (30 December 2002). Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 842. ISBN 978-1-136-77162-0.
- Philip Grierson; Mark Blackburn (2 July 2007). Medieval European Coinage: Volume 1, The Early Middle Ages (5th-10th Centuries). Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-521-03177-6.
- Paul Fouracre; Rosamond McKitterick (8 December 2005). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 1, C.500-c.700. Cambridge University Press. pp. 368–369. ISBN 978-0-521-36291-7.
- Joseph F. O'Callaghan (31 August 1983). A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-8014-9264-5.
- Bury 1913, p. 185
- Céline Martin (2003). La géographie du pouvoir dans l'Espagne visigothique. Presses Univ. Septentrion. p. 97. ISBN 978-2-85939-815-6.
- David James (25 February 2009). Early Islamic Spain: The History of Ibn Al-Qutiyah. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-134-02531-2.
- Rom Landau (16 October 2013). Islam and the Arabs. Routledge. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-134-53671-9.
- Muḥammad ibn ʻUmar Ibn al-Qūṭīyah (2009). Early Islamic Spain: The History of Ibn Al-Qūṭīya : a Study of the Unique Arabic Manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, with a Translation, Notes, and Comments. Taylor & Francis. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-415-47552-5.
- Roger Collins (1998). Charlemagne. University of Toronto Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8020-8218-3.
- Bernard F. Reilly (3 June 1993). The Medieval Spains. Cambridge University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-521-39741-4.
- Colin Smith (1988). Christians and Moors in Spain: Arabic sources (711-1501). Aris & Phillips. p. 201.
- Antonio Arjona Castro (1982). Anales de Córdoba musulmana, 711-1008. Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorros de Córdoba. p. 239.
- Richard Dübell (14 March 2013). Der letzte Paladin: Historischer Roman. Lübbe Digital. p. 205. ISBN 978-3-8387-2420-1.
- Joan de Déu Prats; Prats Matute, Joan de Déu (23 March 2007). Llegendes de Barcelona. L'Abadia de Montserrat. p. 25. ISBN 978-84-8415-887-5.
- David Levering Lewis (12 January 2009). God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570-1215. W. W. Norton. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-393-06790-3.
- Jim Bradbury (1992). The Medieval Siege. Boydell & Brewer. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-85115-357-5.
- Joseph F. O'Callaghan (15 April 2013). A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-8014-6871-1.
- Natalie Fryde; Dirk Reitz (2009). Walls, Ramparts, and Lines of Demarcation: Selected Studies from Antiquity to Modern Times. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 69. ISBN 978-3-8258-9478-8.
- Barton Sholod (1966). Charlemagne in Spain: The Cultural Legacy of Roncesvalles. Librairie Droz. p. 44. ISBN 978-2-600-03478-4.
- Edgar Allison Peers (1938). Catalonia Infelix. Oxford University Press. p. 4.
- Henry Brougham Baron Brougham and Vaux (1843). Principles of government. Monarchical government. Society and Chapman & Hall. p. 611.
- Charles W. Previte-Orton (1975). The Later Roman Empire to the Twelfth Century. CUP Archive. p. 464. ISBN 978-0-521-09976-9.
- Hugh Chisholm (1911). The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. [Cambridge] University Press. p. 570.
- André Vauchez; Michael Lapidge (2000). Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages: A-J. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Incorporated. p. 254.
- Brian A. Catlos (2004). The Victors and the Vanquished: Christians and Muslims of Catalonia and Aragon, 1050-1300. Cambridge University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-139-45360-8.
- Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.) (1993). The Art of Medieval Spain, A.D. 500-1200. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-8109-6433-4.
- Havilland Le Mesurier Chepmell (1857). A Short Course of History. p. 399.
- C. Petit-Dutaillis (5 November 2013). The Feudal Monarchy in France and England. Routledge. p. 324. ISBN 978-1-136-20350-3.
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica: Macropædia. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1991. p. 464. ISBN 978-0-85229-529-8.
- James Minahan (1 January 2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-313-32109-2.
- Aryeh Graboïs (1 October 1980). The illustrated encyclopedia of medieval civilization. Octopus. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-7064-0856-0.
- Jaume Aurell; Jaume Aurell i Cardona (11 April 2012). Authoring the Past: History, Autobiography, and Politics in Medieval Catalonia. University of Chicago Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-226-03232-0.
- Richard Kenneth Emmerson; Sandra Clayton-Emmerson (2006). Key Figures in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 553. ISBN 978-0-415-97385-4.
- Henry John Chaytor (1933). A history of Aragon and Catalonia. Methuen & co., ltd. p. 278.
- Gary McDonogh (28 September 2010). Iberian Worlds. Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-135-93696-9.
- Stephen P. Bensch (4 July 2002). Barcelona and Its Rulers, 1096-1291. Cambridge University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-521-52589-3. "For its very survival the city came to depend upon its economic influence throughout Catalonia and the Mediterranean. Because of its growing size and wealth, the city became critical to the monarchy as both an administrative center and a source of income."
- Donald J. Kagay (January 2007). War, Government, and Society in the Medieval Crown of Aragon. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-7546-5904-4.
- J. N. Hillgarth (1976). The Spanish Kingdoms, 1250-1516: Precarious Balance. 1250-1410. Claredon Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-19-822530-0.
- Gerard J. Mangone (1997). United States Admirality Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 10. ISBN 90-411-0417-8.
- Norman John Greville Pounds (1979). An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840. Cambridge University Press. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-521-22379-9.
- John Michael Francis (2006). Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History : a Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 726. ISBN 978-1-85109-421-9.
- Dolores Luna Guinot (5 March 2014). From Al-Andalus to Monte Sacro. Trafford Publishing. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-4907-1158-4.
- José del Valle. A Political History of Spanish. Cambridge University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-107-27644-4.
- Stephen Jacobson (1 September 2009). Catalonia's Advocates: Lawyers, Society, and Politics in Barcelona, 1759-1900: Lawyers, Society, and Politics in Barcelona, 1759-1900. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-0-8078-9917-5.
- Adler, Ken (2002). The measure of all things – The seven year odyssey that transformed the world. Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11507-9.
- Joan Busquets; Harvard University. Graduate School of Design (2005). Barcelona: the urban evolution of a compact city. Nicolodi. p. 189. ISBN 978-88-8447-204-5. "Finally, all the municipalities in the Plain were annexed to Barcelona in 1897 except Horta, in 1904, and Sarria, even later."
- Tim Marshall (31 July 2004). Transforming Barcelona: The Renewal of a European Metropolis. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-134-44251-5.
- 1938 Bombardment of Barcelona
- Decree of 1938-04-05.
- The proportion of the population born outside of Spain rose from 3.9% in 2001 to 13.9% in 2006. http://www.bcn.es/estadistica/catala/dades/inf/guies/bcn.pdf
- "Barcelona", Spain and Portugal: handbook for travellers (3rd ed.), Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1908, OCLC 1581249
- "Barcelona", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
- Official site of the Barcelona city administration
- History of Barcelona
- Barcelona on-this-day historical almanac based on the 1848 Libro verde de Barcelona
- Barcelona timeline based on the 1848 Libro verde de Barcelona
- History of Barcelona Chronology, historical Google map of the city, historical accounts.