History of Brisbane
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Brisbane's recorded history dates from 1799, when Matthew Flinders explored Moreton Bay on an expedition from Port Jackson, although the region had long been occupied by the Jagera and Turrbal aboriginal tribes. The town was conceived initially as a penal colony for British convicts sent from Sydney. Its suitability for fishing, farming, timbering, and other occupations, however, caused it to be opened to free settlement in 1838. The town became a municipality in 1859 and a consolidated metropolitan area in 1924.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Aboriginal occupation and European exploration
- 3 1824 colony
- 4 Free settlement
- 5 Development in the early years of the colony of Queensland
- 6 Brisbane during the Second World War
- 7 Post-War Brisbane
- 8 Brisbane's historical timeline
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, is named for Sir Thomas Brisbane (1773–1860), British soldier and colonial administrator born in Ayrshire, Scotland. Sir Thomas Brisbane was Governor of New South Wales at the time that Brisbane was named.
Aboriginal occupation and European exploration
Prior to European settlement, the Brisbane region was occupied by aboriginal tribes, notably the Jagera and Turrbal Aboriginal clans. Before European settlement, the land, the river and its tributaries were the source and support of life in all its dimensions. The river's abundant supply of food included fish, shellfish, crab, and shrimp. Good fishing places became campsites and the focus of group activities. The district was characterized by open woodlands with rainforest in some pockets or bends of the Brisbane River.
A resource-rich area and a natural avenue for seasonal movement, Brisbane was a way station for groups traveling to ceremonies and spectacles. The region had several large (200–600 person) seasonal camps, the biggest and most important located along waterways north and south of the current city heart: Barambin or 'York's Hollow' camp (today's Victoria Park) and Woolloon-cappem (Woolloongabba/South Brisbane), also known as Kurilpa. These camping grounds continued to function well into historic times.
The region was first explored by Europeans in 1799, when Matthew Flinders explored Moreton Bay during his expedition from Port Jackson north to Hervey Bay. He made a landing at what is now Woody Point in Redcliffe, and also touched down at Coochiemudlo Island and Pumicestone Passage. During the fifteen days he spent in Moreton Bay, Flinders was unable to find the Brisbane River.
A permanent settlement in the region was not founded until 1823, when New South Wales Governor Thomas Brisbane was petitioned by free settlers in Sydney to send their worst convicts elsewhere and the area chosen became the city of Brisbane.
On 23 October 1823, Surveyor General John Oxley set out with a party in the cutter "Mermaid" from Sydney to "survey Port Curtis (now Gladstone), Moreton Bay, and Port Bowen, with a view to forming convict settlements there". The party reached Port Curtis on 5 November 1823. Oxley suggested that the location was unsuitable for a settlement, since it would be difficult to maintain.
As he approached Point Skirmish by Moreton Bay, he noticed several indigenous Australians approaching him and in particular one as being "much lighter in colour than the rest". The white man turned out to be a shipwrecked lumberjack by the name of Thomas Pamphlett who, along with John Finnegan, Richard Parsons, and John Thompson had left Sydney on 21 March 1823 to sail south along the coast and bring cedar from Illawarra but during a large storm were pushed north. Not knowing where they were, the group attempted to return to Sydney, eventually being shipwrecked on Moreton Island on 16 April. They lived with the indigenous tribe seven months.
After meeting with them, Oxley proceeded approximately 100 km up what he later named the Brisbane River in honour of the governor. Oxley explored the river as far as what is now the suburb of Goodna in the city of Ipswich, about 20 km upstream Brisbane's central business district. Several places were named by Oxley and his party, including Breakfast Creek (at the mouth of which they cooked breakfast), Oxley Creek, and Seventeen Mile Rocks.
In 1824, the first convict colony was established at Redcliffe Point under Lieutenant Miller. Meanwhile, Oxley and Allan Cunningham explored further up the Brisbane River in search of water, landing at the present location of North Quay. Only one year later, in 1825, the colony was moved south from Redcliffe to a peninsula on the Brisbane River, site of the present central business district, called "Meen-jin" by its Turrbul inhabitants.
At the end of 1825, the official population of Brisbane was "45 males and 2 females". Until 1859, when Queensland was separated from the state of New South Wales, the name Moreton Bay was used to describe the new settlement and surrounding areas. Edenglassie was the name first bestowed on the growing town by Chief Justice Francis Forbes, a portmanteau of the two Scottish cities Edinburgh and Glasgow. The name soon fell out of favour with many residents and the current name in honour of Governor Thomas Brisbane was adopted instead.
The colony was originally established as a "prison within a prison"—a settlement, deliberately distant from Sydney, to which recidivist convicts could be sent as punishment. It soon garnered a reputation, along with Norfolk Island, as one of the harshest penal settlements in all of New South Wales. In July 1828 work began on the construction of the Commissariat Store. It remains intact today as a museum of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland and it only one two convict era buildings still standing in Queensland.
Over twenty years, thousands of convicts passed through the penal colony. Hundreds of these fled the stern conditions and escaped into the bush. Although most escapes were unsuccessful or resulted in the escapees perishing in the bush, some (e.g. James Davis) succeeded in living as "wild white men" amongst the aboriginal people.
During these decades, the local aboriginals tried to "starve out" the settlement by destroying its crops—most notably their "corn fields" at today's South Bank. In retaliation, colony guards shot and killed aboriginals entering the corn fields.
As a penal colony, Brisbane did not permit the erection of private settlements nearby for many years. As the inflow of new convicts steadily declined, the population dropped. From the early 1830s the British government questioned the suitability of Brisbane as a penal colony. Alan Cunningham's discovery of a route to the fertile Darling Downs in 1828, the commercial pressure to develop a pastoral industry, and increasing reliance on Australian wool, as well as the expense of transporting goods from Sydney, were the major factors contributing to the opening of the region to free settlement. In 1838, the area was opened up for free settlers, as distinct from convicts. An early group of Lutheran missionaries from Germany were granted land in what is now the north side suburb of Nundah.
In 1839 the first three surveyors, Dixon, Stapylton and Warner arrived in Moreton Bay to prepare the land for greater numbers of European settlers by compiling a trigonometrical survey. From the 1840s, settlers took advantage of the abundance of timber in local forests. Once cleared, land was quickly utilized for grazing and other farming activities. The convict colony eventually closed.
The free settlers did not recognise local aboriginal ownership and were not required to provide compensation to the Turrbul aboriginals. Some serious affrays and conflicts ensued—most notably resistance activities of Yilbung, Dundalli, Ommuli, and others. Yilbung, in particular, sought to extract regular rents from the white population on which to sustain his people, whose resources had been heavily depleted by the settlers. By 1869, many of the Turrbul had died from gunshot or disease, but the Moreton Bay Courier makes frequent mention of local indigenous people who were working and living in the district. In fact, between the 1840s and 1860s, the settlement relied increasingly on goods obtained by trade with aboriginals—firewood, fish, crab, shellfish—and services they provided such as water-carrying, tree-cutting, fencing, ring-barking, stock work and ferrying. Some Turrbul escaped the region with the help of Thomas Petrie, who gave his name to the suburb of Petrie in the Moreton Bay region north of Brisbane.
Development in the early years of the colony of Queensland
On 6 September 1859, the Municipality of Brisbane was proclaimed. The next month, polling for the first council was conducted. John Petrie was elected the first mayor of Brisbane. Queensland was formally established as a self-governing colony of Great Britain, separate from New South Wales, in 1859.
Originally the neighbouring city of Ipswich was intended to be the capital of Queensland, but it proved to be too far inland to allow access by large ships, so Brisbane was chosen instead. But it was not until 1902 that Brisbane was officially designated a city.
The 1893 Black February floods caused severe flooding in the region and devastated the city. Raging flood waters destroyed the first of several versions of the Victoria Bridge. Even though gold was discovered north of Brisbane, around Maryborough and Gympie, most of the proceeds went south to Sydney and Melbourne. The city remained an underdeveloped regional outpost, with comparatively little of the classical Victorian architecture that characterized southern cities.
A demonstration of electric lighting of lamp posts along Queen Street in 1882 was the first recorded use of electricity for public purposes in the world. The first railway in Brisbane was built in 1879, when the line from the western interior was extended from Ipswich to Roma Street Station. First horse-drawn, then electric trams operated in Brisbane from 1885 until 1969.
In 1887, the Yungaba Immigration Centre was established at Kangaroo Point. The two-story brick building is listed on the Queensland Heritage Register. Tramway employees stood down for wearing union badges on 18 January 1912 sparked Australia's first General strike, the 1912 Brisbane General Strike which lasted for five weeks. The first ceremony to honour the fallen soldiers at Gallipoli was held at St John's Cathedral on 10 June 1915. The tradition would later grow into the popular Anzac Day ceremony.
In an effort to prevent overcrowding and control urban development, the Parliament of Queensland passed the Undue Subdivision of Land Prevention Act 1885, preventing congestion in Queensland cities relative to others in Australia. This legislation, in addition to the construction of efficient public transport in the form of steam trains and electric trams, encouraged urban sprawl. Although the initial tram routes reached out into established suburbs such as West End, Fortitude Valley, New Farm, and Newstead, later extensions and new routes encouraged housing developments in new suburbs, such as the western side of Toowong, Paddington, Ashgrove, Kelvin Grove and Coorparoo.
This pattern of development continued through to the 1950s, with later extensions encouraging new developments around Stafford, Camp Hill, Chermside, Enoggera and Mount Gravatt. Generally, these new train lines linked established communities, although the Mitchelton line (later extended to Dayboro) and before being cut back to Ferny Grove) did encourage suburban development out as far as Keperra.
Subsequently, as private motor cars became affordable, land between tram and train routes was developed for settlement, resulting in the construction of Ekibin, Tarragindi, Everton Park, Stafford Heights, and Wavell Heights.
Amalgamation of local government areas
In 1924, the City of Brisbane Act was passed by the Queensland Parliament, consolidating the City of Brisbane and the City of South Brisbane; the Towns of Hamilton, Ithaca, Sandgate, Toowong, Windsor, and Wynnum; and the Shires of Balmoral, Belmont, Coorparoo, Enoggera, Kedron, Moggill, Sherwood, Stephens, Taringa, Tingalpa, Toombul, and Yeerongpilly to form the current City of Greater Brisbane, now known simply as the City of Brisbane, in 1925.
To accommodate the new, enlarged city council, the current Brisbane City Hall was opened in 1930. Many former shire and town halls were then remodelled into public libraries, becoming the nucleus of Greater Brisbane's branch system. During the Great Depression, a number of major projects were undertaken to provide work for the unemployed, including the construction of the William Jolly Bridge and the Wynnum Wading Pool.
Brisbane during the Second World War
Due to Brisbane's proximity to the South West Pacific Area theatre of World War II, the city played a prominent role in the defence of Australia. The city became a temporary home to thousands of Australian and American servicemen. Buildings and institutions around Brisbane were given over to the housing of military personnel as required.
The present-day MacArthur Central building became the Pacific headquarters  of U.S. General Douglas MacArthur, and the University of Queensland campus at St Lucia was converted to a military barracks for the final three years of the war. St Laurence's College and Somerville House Girls' School in South Brisbane were also used by American forces.
Brisbane was used to mark the position of the "Brisbane Line", a controversial defence proposal allegedly formulated by the Menzies government, that would, upon a land invasion of Australia, surrender the entire northern part of the country. The line was, allegedly, at a latitude just north of Brisbane and spanned the entire width of the continent. Surviving from this period are several cement bunkers and gun forts in the northern suburbs of Brisbane and adjacent areas (Sunshine Coast/ Moreton Bay islands).
On 26 November and 27 November 1942, rioting broke out between US and Australian servicemen stationed in Brisbane. By the time the violence had been quelled one Australian soldier was dead, and hundreds of Australian and US servicemen were injured along with civilians caught up in the fighting. Hundreds of soldiers were involved in the rioting on both sides. This incident, which was heavily censored at the time and apparently was not reported in the US at all, is known as the Battle of Brisbane.
Immediately after the war, the Brisbane City Council, along with most governments in Australia, found it difficult to raise finances for much-needed repairs and development. Even where funds could be obtained materials were scarce. Adding to these difficulties was the political environment encouraged by some aldermen, led by Archibald Tait, to reduce the city's rates (land taxes). Ald Tait successfully ran on a slogan of "Vote for Tait, he'll lower the rate." Rates were indeed lowered, exacerbating Brisbane's financial difficulties.
Although Brisbane's tram system continued to be expanded, roads and streets remained unsealed. Water supply was limited, although the City Council built and subsequently raised the level of the Somerset Dam on the Stanley River. Despite this, most residences continued to rely heavily on rainwater stored in tanks.
The limited water supply and lack of funding also meant that despite the rapid increase in the city's population, little work was done to upgrade the city's sewage collection, which continued to rely on the collection of nightsoil. Other than the CBD and the innermost suburbs, Brisbane was a city of "thunderboxes" (outhouses) or of septic tanks.
What finances could be garnered by the Council were poured into the construction of Tennyson Powerhouse, and the extension and upgrading of the powerhouse in New Farm Park to meet the growing demands for electricity. Brisbane's first modern apartment building, Torbreck at Highgate Hill, was completed in 1960.
Work continued slowly on the development of a town plan, hampered by the lack of experienced staff and a continual need to play "catch-up" with rapid development. The first town plan was adopted in 1964.
1961 saw the election of Clem Jones as Lord Mayor. Ald Jones, together with the town clerk J.C. Slaughter sought to fix the long term problems besetting the city. Together they found cost-cutting ways to fix some problems. For example new sewers were laid 4 feet deep and in footpaths, rather than 6 feet deep and under roads. In the short term, "pocket" or local sewerage treatment plants were established around the city in various suburbs to avoid the expense of developing a major treatment plants and major connecting sewers.
They were also fortunate in that finance was becoming less difficult to raise and the city's rating base had by the 1960s significantly grown, to the point where revenue streams were sufficient to absorb the considerable capital outlays.
Under Jones' leadership, the City Council's transport policy shifted significantly. The City Council hired American transport consultants Wilbur Smith to devise a new transport plan for the city. They produced a report known as the Wilbur Smith "Brisbane Transportation Study" which was published in 1965. It recommended the closure of most suburban railway lines, closure of the tram and trolley-bus networks, and the construction of a massive network of freeways through the city. Under this plan the suburb of Woolloongabba would have been almost completely obliterated by a vast interchange of three major freeways.
Although the trams and trolley-buses were rapidly eliminated between 1968 and 1969, only one freeway was constructed, the trains were retained and subsequently electrified. The first train line to be so upgraded was the Ferny Grove to Oxley line in 1979. The train line to Cleveland, which had been cut back to Lota in 1960, was also reopened.
Brisbane has been inundated by five severe floods of the Brisbane River: in 1864, 1893, 1897, 1974, 2011 and 2013. A comprehensive flood mitigation scheme was instituted for the Brisbane River catchment area in the aftermath of the 1974 flood. Since then the city remained largely flood free, until the floods in January 2011 and 2013 floods.
Brisbane hosted the Commonwealth Games in 1982 and the World's Fair in 1988. Between the late 1970s and mid-1980s, Brisbane was the focus of early land rights protests (e.g. during the Commonwealth Games)and several well-remembered clashes between students, union workers, police and the then-Queensland government. Partly from this context, innovative Brisbane music groups emerged (notably Punk groups) that added to the city's renown.
Later in that decade, emission control regulation had a major effect on improving the cities air quality. The banning of backyard incinerators in 1987, together with the closure of two local coal fired power stations in 1986 and a 50% decrease in lead levels found in petrol, resulted in a lowering of pollution levels.
Brisbane's historical timeline
- 1770 Captain James Cook sails up Queensland coast with botanist Joseph Banks; names Cape Moreton, Point Lookout and Glass House Mountains. Takes possession of eastern Australia, naming it New South Wales.
- 1799 Captain Matthew Flinders explores Moreton and Hervey bays; names Red Cliff Point (now Redcliffe), Pumice-stone River (now Pumicestone Passage). Also lands on Coochiemudlo Island.
- 1823 Emancipated convicts John Finnegan, Richard Parsons, and Thomas Pamphlett were shipwrecked off Moreton Island while looking for timber (a fourth person, John Thomson, died at sea). Following a quarrel, Parsons continues north while others stay on the island.
- 1823 Surveyor-general John Oxley arrives at Bribie Island to evaluate Moreton Bay as a site for penal settlement. Discovers Finnegan and Pamphlett who guide him to the Brisbane River; names Peel Island, Pine River and Deception Bay.
- 1824 Oxley discovers Parsons and returns him to Sydney.
- 1824 First commandant Lt. Henry Miller arrives at Red Cliffe Pt from Sydney with soldiers, a storekeeper and their families, John Oxley, botanist Allan Cunningham, stock and seeds.
- 1824 First settler born in colony named Amity Moreton Thompson.
- 1825 Shipping channel via South Passage found; settlement moves to Brisbane River; first convict buildings built along William St.
- 1825 Edmund Lockyer of 57th Regiment explores Brisbane River. Notes flood debris 100 feet above river levels at Mount Crosby, finds first coal deposits. Names Redbank after soil colour.
- 1826 Captain Patrick Logan takes over as commandant of colony. Achieves extensive stone building program using convict labour. Discovers Southport bar and Logan River.
- 1827 Allan Cunningham leaves Hunter Region to seek link via New England Tableland to Darling Downs.
- 1827 Indigenous resistance leader "Napoleon" exiled to St Helena Island. Aborigines raid maize plots, resist advances. Frequent conflict until 1840s.
- 1828 Cunningham discovers gap in Great Dividing Range, providing access from Moreton Bay to Darling Downs. Also explores Esk-Lockyer basin and upper Brisbane Valley in 1829.
- 1829 Moreton Bay Aborigines seriously affected by smallpox.
- 1830 Captain Logan mysteriously murdered near Esk, commemorated in folk song, "The Convict's Lament".
- 1831 Moreton Bay settlement population reaches 1241, including 1066 convicts.
- 1833 Ship Stirling Castle wrecked on Swain Reef; first of many ships to wreck on Queensland coast over next 40 years.
- 1836 Quaker missionaries report Moreton Bay Indigenous population infected with venereal disease from American whalers.
- 1837 Brisbane's pioneering Petrie family arrives in Moreton Bay. Andrew Petrie (builder and stonemason) is clerk of government works; stays on with wife Mary and five children after penal settlement closes. Son John Petrie becomes Brisbane's first mayor; other son Tom writes sympathetically about local Indigenous people.
- 1839 Calls to cease convict transportation successful; Moreton Bay is closed as a penal settlement. 2062 men and 150 women served sentences at the settlement, half of them being Irish; 10 percent died, 700 fled, 98 never recaptured.
- 1840 Escaped convict John Baker surrenders after 14 years of living with Indigenous Australians.
- 1841 Indigenous people Merridio and Neugavil are executed at Wickham Terrace windmill for the murder of surveyor Stapylton and his assistant in Logan.
- 1842 New South Welsh Governor George Gipps proclaims Moreton Bay a free settlement. Land is offered for sale from Sydney.
- 1846 Squatter and entrepreneur Evan Mackenzie succeeds in making Brisbane a port independent from Sydney.
- 1846 Recorded population of Moreton Bay area is 4000 Aborigines and 2257 migrants.
- 1848 First 240 government-assisted British migrants arrive in Brisbane. First Chinese labourers arrive.
- 1849 Rev Dr J.D. Lang, local clergyman and journalist, brings his first English, Irish, Welsh and Scottish migrants with unauthorised promise of land grants. Government rations issued to prevent starvation. Lang envisages a colony of self-sufficient, thrifty and hard-working farmers, workers and artisans.
- 1849 Brisbane School of Arts established.
- 1849 William Pettigrew arrives in colony. He later becomes the mayor of Brisbane in 1870 and is a member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland between 1877–94.
- 1850 Areas beyond inner Brisbane suburbs, such as Bulimba, Coorparoo, Enoggera, Nundah, Sherwood and Stafford are used for agriculture and grazing until the 1880s.
- 1850 Displaced aborigines from Bribie Island, Redcliffe peninsula and Wide Bay make gunyah camps in Breakfast Creek/Eagle Farm region (until 1860s).
- 1850 Arthur Lyon sends sample of cotton from New Farm to The Great Exhibition in London.
- 1851 Influenza epidemic hits Brisbane (lasting in 1852).
- 1855 Nearly 1000 German migrants arrive in Brisbane after political unrest and the introduction of compulsory military training; most settle in the Nundah area.
- 1855 (5 January) Aboriginal resistance leader Dundalli hanged near current Post Office. Large-scale protests by Indigenous tribes.
- 1862 Old Government House is completed.
- 1866 11 September, food riots that were instigated by the recently retrenched workers.
- 1867 Parliament House opens.
- 1885 Horse drawn tram system commences operation.
- 1893 Brisbane flood.
- 1897 Electric trams introduced.
- 1899 Queensland Museum leaves the old State Library Building to move into "Exhibition Hall" (later called the Old Museum), at Gregory Terrace, Bowen Hills.
- 1901 Celebrations held to mark Federation, on New Year's Day.
- 1901 Fire alarms and pillar hydrants introduced to Brisbane city streets.
- 1902 Central Railway Station in Ann Street, Brisbane completed.
- 1902 Brisbane officially designated city status by the Government of Queensland.
- 1909 Government House opens at Bardon
- 1909 University of Queensland opens near Parliament House.
- 1922 Queensland Government purchases privately owned tram system and establishes the Brisbane Tramways Trust.
- 1925 Amalgamation of 25 local government areas to form the City of Greater Brisbane.
- 1925 Queensland Government transfers responsibility for the tram system from the Brisbane Tramways Trust to the Brisbane City Council.
- 1927 Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary founded
- 1928 Sir Charles Kingsford Smith lands in Brisbane, from San Francisco, USA, after the first flight across the Pacific Ocean.
- 1930 Brisbane City Hall opened.
- 1939 Forgan Smith building completed at the St. Lucia campus of the University of Queensland. (Forgan Smith building was named after the, then, Premier of Queensland)
- 1940 Story Bridge completed
- 1942 General Douglas MacArthur arrives in Brisbane and takes offices in the AMP building (later called MacArthur Central) for the Pacific campaign during World War II
- 1946 Following a delay caused by World War II the University of Queensland began its move from George Street, Brisbane, to its St Lucia campus, which it completed in 1972.
- 1964 Adoption of first Brisbane Town Plan
- 1965 Queensland Institute of Technology (later Queensland University of Technology) established
- 1968 Brisbane City Council announces conversion of tram and trolley-bus systems to all-bus operations
- 1969 Tram and trolley bus systems close, new Victoria Bridge opened
- 1974 Brisbane River flooding, the result of continual heavy rain from "Cyclone Wanda", causes major damage across city
- 1982 Commonwealth Games
- 1984 Queensland Performing Arts Centre opened at the Queensland Cultural Centre
- 1986 Queensland Museum moves to the Queensland Cultural Centre
- 1986 Tennyson and Bulimba coal-fired power station closed down
- 1986 Gateway Bridge completed.
- 1988 State Library of Queensland leaves the old State Library Building to move to the Queensland Cultural Centre
- 1988 World Expo 88 held at reclaimed industrial land at South Brisbane
- 1989 Queensland Institute of Technology changed status to Queensland University of Technology.
- 1995 Treasury Casino opens
- 2001 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), scheduled for Brisbane, but postponed after heightened security concerns resulting from terrorist attacks on New York City. Instead it was held in Coolum in early 2002
- 2001 Goodwill Games
- 2011 Brisbane River flooding
- The Life of Captain Matthew Flinders
- Field's New South Wales p.89 (published 1925) see footnote
- Seeing South-East Queensland (2 ed.). RACQ. 1980. p. 7. ISBN 0-909518-07-6.
- Laverty, John (2009). The Making of a Metropolis: Brisbane 1823—1925. Salisbury, Queensland: Boolarong Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-0-9751793-5-2.
- "First surveys". History of Mapping and Surveying. Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland Government. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- Laverty, John (1974). "Petrie, John (1822–1892)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- Dunn, Col (1985). The History of Electricity in Queensland. Bundaberg: Col Dunn. p. 21. ISBN 0-9589229-0-X.
- "Yungaba Immigration Depot (entry 15020)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council.
- Tony Moore (16 July 2013). "Push to remember Brisbane clergyman's role in Anzac history". Brisbane Times (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Oz at War (1)
- Oz at War (2)
- McBride, Frank; et al (2009). Brisbane 150 Stories. Brisbane City Council Publication. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-876091-60-6.
- Allan Krosch (9 March 2009). "History of Brisbane's Major Arterial Roads: A Main Roads Perspective Part 1". Queensland Roads, Edition 7. Department of Transport and Main Roads. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Evans, Raymond (2007). A History of Queensland. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-521-87692-6.
- J.R. Cole, Shaping a City: Greater Brisbane 1925–1985, Brisbane 1984
- G. Greenwood and J. Laverty, Brisbane 1859–1959, BCC, 1959
- J. G. Steele (1975). Brisbane Town in convict days, 1824-1842. University of Queensland Press. ISBN 0702209252.
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