History of CNN (1980–2003)

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Cable News Network (CNN), an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner,[1] was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner and 25 other original members,[2][3] who invested $20 million into the network.[4] Upon its launch, CNN was the first channel to provide 24-hour television news coverage,[5] and the first all-news television network in the United States.[6] This article discusses the history of CNN, beginning with the June 1980 launch of the channel.

Early history (1980–1989)[edit]

Launch[edit]

Ted Turner's WTBS was one of the original satellite-distributed television channels, leasing a transponder on RCA's Satcom 1 geostationary satellite. The Cable News Network was intended to be distributed on RCA's new Satcom 3, which was lost on its launch date of December 7, 1979. Because replacement transmission capacity was not readily available, Turner Broadcasting System filed suit against RCA seeking use of another communications satellite and $35.5 million in damages. On March 5, Turner announced that a consent order had been worked out with RCA in Federal court allowing CNN to begin operations on June 1 as scheduled, using a transponder on Satcom 1.[7]

The network launched on Sunday, June 1, 1980 at 5:00 p.m. ET with 25 original staff members based at its headquarters in Atlanta, and bureaus in Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco and Washington, D.C. The inaugural broadcast on the channel was an introduction by Ted Turner who announced:

"We won't be signing off until the world ends. We'll be on, we'll be covering it live, and that will be our last, last event. We'll play the national anthem for one time on the first of June, and that's all. When the end of the world comes, we'll play "Nearer My God to Thee" before we sign off."

Then, after CNN played a pre-recorded version of "The Star-Spangled Banner", the husband and wife team of Dave Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast.[8] Among the first segments was an interview of then-President Jimmy Carter by Daniel Schorr.[9]

Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television networks, several web sites, specialized closed-circuit networks (such as CNN Airport Network), and a radio network. The network has 36 bureaus (10 domestic, 26 international), more than 900 affiliated local stations, and several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The network's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for the Time Warner conglomerate's eventual acquisition of Turner Broadcasting System in 1996.

After five years, CNN outgrew its home, a former country club on the outskirts of midtown Atlanta. Turner purchased the Omni International hotel from developer Tom Cousins and moved CNN's headquarters there. The complex was rechristened the CNN Center. As Omni International, the complex had never succeeded. Cousins sold it to Turner along with the Atlanta Hawks. CNN moved into the end of the tower that once housed The World of Sid and Marty Krofft. Turner was instrumental in the revival of Atlanta's downtown.

Original shows[edit]

Moneyline[edit]

Moneyline premiered in 1980 and was CNN's main financial show for more than 20 years. As the show, hosted by Lou Dobbs, moved more towards general news and economic and political commentary, it was renamed Moneyline with Lou Dobbs, Lou Dobbs Moneyline and then Lou Dobbs Tonight. In 2010, Dobbs – the last remaining original host from the network's launch in 1980 – resigned amid controversy over his questioning of whether President Barack Obama was a native-born U.S. citizen – a qualification for the presidency required under the U.S. Constitution.

Evans & Novak[edit]

The political discussion show Evans and Novak was created in 1980, with Rowland Evans and Robert Novak as its hosts, it became one of the cable network's most-watched discussion programs. Only a short time after, Al Hunt and Mark Shields joined the show as occasional panelists; the name of the program was eventually changed to Evans, Novak, Hunt & Shields in 1998 when Al Hunt and Mark Shields were permanently added to the show.

Crossfire[edit]

In June 1982,[10] the channel launched a late night political debate show, Crossfire, a program that featured discussions on political issues from opposing viewpoints that was hosted by liberal Tom Braden and conservative Pat Buchanan. The idea of the program came about when the two debated on a daily radio show in 1978. The show soon became popular and was moved into primetime. In 1985, Buchanan left the show to become the communications director for the Ronald Reagan presidential administration. His replacement was conservative columnist Robert Novak, who had already co-hosted another political program on CNN, Evans & Novak and was at the time also a regular on The McLaughlin Group. Buchanan returned to the show in 1987, replacing Novak. In 1989, Braden was replaced by Michael Kinsley, a liberal columnist for Time, and magazine editor for The New Republic.

Larry King Live[edit]

In June 1985, CNN launched a primetime interview show hosted by Larry King. Larry King Live featured interviews with one or more prominent individuals, mainly celebrities, politicians and businesspeople. The show became the longest-running program on CNN, lasting for 25 years until King's retirement from the network in 2010.[11] It was the highest rated news show on television until 2001, when The O'Reilly Factor on rival Fox News Channel surpassed Larry King Live in the ratings and has remained the highest-rated cable news program ever since.

Unlike many interviewers, Larry King had a direct, non-confrontational approach. His interview style was characteristically frank, but with occasional bursts of irreverence and humor. His approach attracted some guests who would not otherwise appear. King, who was known for his general lack of pre-interview preparation, once bragged that he never pre-read the books of authors who appeared on his show. Critics have claimed that Larry King asked "soft" questions in comparison to other interviewers, which allowed him to reach guests who would be averse to interviewing on "tough" talk shows.

On February 24, 1987, King suffered a major heart attack and had to undergo a quintuple-bypass surgery. It was a life-altering event as previously, smoking was one of his trademarks and he was unashamed of his addiction. King was a three-pack-a-day smoker and kept a lit cigarette during his interviews, so he would not have to take time to light up during breaks. He now encourages curbing smoking to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Variety shows[edit]

Early coverage[edit]

Space Shuttle Challenger disaster[edit]

On January 28, 1986, CNN was the only network to provide live coverage of the launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger to the public. However, NASA TV provided the live coverage to schools nationwide. The Space Shuttle Challenger abruptly disintegrated just 73 seconds after lift-off. Seven astronauts, including schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe, were killed in the disaster.

Then President Ronald Reagan postponed the State of the Union Address that evening. He addressed the nation in the time of tragedy and grief from the Oval Office. On January 31, 1986, two days after the tragedy, CNN provided live coverage of the memorial service for the Challenger crew members at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

Baby Jessica rescue[edit]

On October 14, 1987, an 18-month-old toddler named Jessica McClure fell down a well in Midland, Texas. CNN quickly reported on the story, and the event helped make its name. The New York Times ran a retrospective article in 1995 on the impact of live video news. "If a picture is worth a thousand words, then a moving picture is worth many times that, and a live moving picture makes an emotional connection that goes deeper than logic and lasts well beyond the actual event. This was before correspondents reported live from the enemy capital while American bombs were falling. Before Saddam Hussein held a surreal press conference with a few of the hundreds of Americans he was holding hostage. Before the nation watched, riveted but powerless, as Los Angeles was looted and burned. Before O. J. Simpson took a slow ride in a white Bronco, and before everyone close to his case had an agent and a book contract. This was uncharted territory just a short time ago."[12]

Leadership under Tom Johnson (1990–2000)[edit]

In 1990, Tom Johnson, who formerly served as publisher of the Los Angeles Times for 13 years, was named as the president of CNN.

Coverage of the Gulf War[edit]

The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the network past the "big three" American networks for the first time in its history, largely due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the American bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman, and Peter Arnett.

The moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Bernard Shaw on January 16, 1991 as follows:[13]

This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let’s describe to our viewers what we’re seeing...The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We’re seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky.

The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of previously obscure, low-paid reporters. Many of these reporters now comprise CNN's "old guard." Bernard Shaw became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer (now host of The Situation Room) and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as the ruthless reporter "Adriana Cruz" in the film Three Kings (1999). Fellow Time Warner-owned network HBO later produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about the network's coverage of the first Gulf War.

CNN was criticized for excessively pushing 'human interest' stories and avoiding depictions of violent images; the result of all this being an alleged 'propagandistic' presentation of news.[14] A report by Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting quotes an unnamed CNN reporter as describing "the 'sweet beautiful sight' of bombers taking off from Saudi Arabia."[15]

The CNN effect[edit]

Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s (particularly the infamous Battle of Mogadishu) led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.

John Kiesewetter explained:

"CNN has changed news. Before CNN, events were reported in two cycles, for morning and evening newspapers and newscasts. Now news knows no cycle. When a plane has crashed, or shots are fired in school, we expect to see it immediately on all-news channels. We don't depend on the Big Three broadcast networks. The turning point came shortly after CNN's 10th birthday, when Bernard Shaw, Peter Arnett and John Holliman provided play-by-play of the 1991 Gulf War from a Baghdad hotel. The Gulf war proved how CNN had changed the world. U.S. military leaders chose their words carefully during televised press briefings, knowing that Sadam Hussein was watching CNN, too."[4]

Shows created[edit]

Both Sides with Jesse Jackson[edit]

Both Sides with Jesse Jackson was a political talk show, hosted by civil rights leader and two-time presidential candidate Jesse Jackson, that aired on Sundays. Each program began with a short taped report on the topic by CNN correspondent John Bisney. The show ran from 1992 to 2000.[16]

Capital Gang[edit]

Capital Gang is one of cable news' longest-running programs, which featured discussions of the week's political news stories. The original panelists were Pat Buchanan, Al Hunt, Mark Shields, and Robert Novak. When Buchanan left the network to run for president, Margaret Warner, Mona Charen, and later Margaret Carlson and Kate O'Beirne became regular panelists. The Capital Gang aired Saturday nights at 7 p.m. ET from 1988 to 2005.

Burden of Proof[edit]

Burden of Proof was a show that discussed legal issues of the day, hosted by Greta Van Susteren and Roger Cossack. It debuted in 1995 and was canceled in 2001.

TalkBack Live[edit]

TalkBack Live was a talk show on CNN that lasted from 1994 to 2003. The program, which was broadcast from the first floor of CNN Center and allowed questions and comments from audience members and calls from viewers, aired from 3 to 4 p.m. Eastern Time each weekday and was hosted at various times by Susan Rook, Bobbie Battista, Karyn Bryant and Arthel Neville.

End of the monopoly[edit]

Following the launch of CNN, other cable news channels launched attempting to capitalize on the channel's growing success such as Satellite News Channel, which often had marginal to no success in competing with CNN. In 1996, CNN received its first major competitors with the launch of MSNBC, originally a joint venture between NBC and Microsoft, and News Corporation's Fox News Channel; despite this, CNN remained #1 in the ratings among the cable news channels and Larry King Live remained its most-watched news show.

Although Johnson was still leading the network, Rick Kaplan served as president of CNN from 1997 to 2000. He is a personal friend of Bill Clinton, who was President of the United States during Kaplan's tenure. According to the Media Research Center, Kaplan's friendship, and political affinity, with Clinton affected the way the network covered the Monica Lewinsky scandal: "As the Lewinsky scandal broke, Kaplan leapt into action at CNN with two-hour specials attacking any and all Clinton critics. The programs included Media Madness, which asked 'what the hell are you people doing' probing Bill Clinton’s sex life?; and Investigating the Investigator, which described Ken Starr as 'suspect' over his 'religious and Republican roots.'"[17] Conservative commentator John Fund wrote that "During Mr. Kaplan's CNN tenure, there were no obvious examples of his coming to Mr. Clinton's aid," but that CNN's "executives create a perception problem when they hobnob with politicians."[18]

In 1998, CNN, in partnership with corporate sister Time magazine, ran a report that Operation Tailwind in 1970 in Vietnam included use of Sarin gas to kill a group of defectors from the United States military. The Pentagon denied the story. Skeptics deemed it improbable that such an extraordinary and risky atrocity could have gone unnoticed at the height of the Vietnam War's unpopularity. CNN, after a two-week inquiry, issued a retraction.[19] The story's producers were summarily fired, and one of them has been highly critical of CNN's handling of the story, saying that CNN bowed to pressure from high-ranking officials to kill the story.[20]

Post Tom Johnson (2001–2003)[edit]

In 2000 and 2001, CNN hired many key people such as Anderson Cooper, Aaron Brown, Paula Zahn and (rehired) Lou Dobbs. The leadership of the network also changed. Kaplan left CNN in 2000, and moreover Tom Johnson retired as head of CNN in 2001 after 10 years.[21] Directly after his retirement lead to the network decline.

New shows[edit]

NewsNight with Aaron Brown[edit]

Created in 2001, NewsNight with Aaron Brown focused on investigative journalism and had a strong emphasis on interviews. It included segments such as "The Whip" (which quickly previewed segments from four reporters at large), "On The Rise" and "Segment 7". The Morning Papers segment, known as "The Rooster", featured a brief preview of compelling or interesting headlines from the next day's newspapers around the world. The segment concluded with the weather forecast in Chicago as provided in the Chicago Sun-Times.

Paula Zahn Now[edit]

The primetime show that aired in the timeslot preceding Larry King Live, Paula Zahn Now, which debuted in 2003, was never very popular. It competed against Fox News Channel's The O'Reilly Factor, which had grown to become the highest-rated cable news program. The program lasted for four years before being cancelled on August 2, 2007.

Connie Chung Tonight[edit]

Launched in 2002, Connie Chung Tonight was a short-lived show, hosted by Connie Chung, that was canceled after one year on the air.

The Point w/Greta Van Susteran[edit]

Greta Van Susteren, who had been with CNN as a correspondent for over a decade, began hosting her own primetime news and interview show in 2001, called The Point; the program was canceled after a year, with Van Susteren joining Fox News Channel shortly afterward.

The Spin Room[edit]

The Spin Room, a debate show that aired in the 10:30 p.m. ET timeslot, debuted in 2001 and was hosted by Tucker Carlson and Bill Press; the program was canceled after a few months and replaced by Greenfield at Large.

Greenfield at Large[edit]

Launched in 2001 and hosted by Jeff Greenfield, Greenfield at Large, which replaced The Spin Room in the 10:30 p.m. slot, was also short-lived; it was cancelled in 2002 and replaced by an expanded NewsNight with Aaron Brown.

Coverage[edit]

9/11 attacks[edit]

CNN was the first major network to break the news of the September 11 attacks in 2001.[22] Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event. She broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. ET and said:

This just in. You are looking at obviously a very disturbing live shot there. That is the World Trade Center, and we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story, obviously calling our sources and trying to figure out exactly what happened, but clearly something relatively devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan. That is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center.

Daryn Kagan and Leon Harris were live on the air just after 9 a.m. ET as the second plane hit the World Trade Center and through an interview with CNN correspondent David Ensor, reported the news that U.S. officials determined "that this is a terrorist act."[23] Later, Aaron Brown anchored through the day and night as the attacks unfolded. Brown had just joined CNN from ABC to become a breaking news anchor for the channel.

Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president for finance and administration, was the first network employee on the air in New York City.[24] September 11, 2001 was also Paula Zahn's first day as a CNN reporter. She mentioned this as a guest clue presenter on a 2005 episode of Jeopardy!.

Amongst the criticisms levied against CNN, as well as the other major U.S. news channels, is the charge that CNN took a lenient approach to the Bush administration, particularly after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States. At the 2002 Newsworld Asia conference held in Singapore, the executive vice-president and general manager of CNN International, was quoted as saying: "Anyone who claims the US media didn’t censor itself is kidding you. It wasn’t a matter of government pressure but a reluctance to criticize anything in a war that was obviously supported by the vast majority of the people. And this isn’t just a CNN issue – every journalist who was in any way involved in 9/11 is partly responsible." [25]

Iraq War[edit]

In April 2003, Eason Jordan, CNN's chief news executive, wrote an op-ed piece in The New York Times stating that he had lobbied the Iraqi government for 12 years in order to maintain a CNN presence in Iraq. He also admitted to withholding what would be considered newsworthy information of the government's atrocities, citing fears that releasing news would potentially endanger the lives of Iraqis working for CNN in Baghdad, some of whom had already been subject to beatings and torture.[26] Critics take particularly strong exception to the handling of the Bush administration's rhetoric leading up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. CNN’s own veteran reporter Christiane Amanpour characterized the behavior of the news media as "self-muzzling" and as "cheerleaders for the Bush war drive against Iraq".[27] An editorial in the German publication Süddeutsche Zeitung compared CNN's war coverage to "live coverage of the Super Bowl", and the Qatar based Al Jazeera news network has criticized CNN for portraying U.S. soldiers as heroes.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Time Warner: Turner Broadcasting
  2. ^ Reese Schonfeld Bio. (January 29, 2001) MeAndTed.com. Retrieved 2007-06-18.[dead link]
  3. ^ Charles Bierbauer, CNN senior Washington correspondent, discusses his 19-year career at CNN. (May 8, 2000). CNN.com. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
  4. ^ a b KIESEWETTER: Television news
  5. ^ "CNN changed news – for better and worse". Taipei Times. May 31, 2005. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  6. ^ Kiesewetter, John (May 28, 2000). "In 20 years, CNN has changed the way we view the news". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  7. ^ "Ted Turner Cleared for News Cable". Los Angeles Times: E3. Mar 5, 1980. 
  8. ^ American Television News: The Media Marketplace and the Public Interest by Steve Michael Barkin, M.E. Sharpe, 2003
  9. ^ NPR: Journalism Legend Daniel Schorr Dies At 93
  10. ^ 'Crossfire' maintains its food-fight forum. Summary | BookRags.com
  11. ^ End Of Qtr Data-Q107 (minus 3 hours).xls
  12. ^ "DEATH ON THE CNN CURVE" By Lisa Belkin. New York Times Magazine, Sunday, July 23, 1995.
  13. ^ The Gulf War and its Consequences
  14. ^ Good News, Bad News | American Demographics | Find Articles at BNET
  15. ^ "Gulf War Coverage", Jim Naureckas, FAIR, 1991
  16. ^ Rev. Jesse Jackson. (October 2001). RainbowPush.org.'.' Retrieved 2007-06-18.[dead link]
  17. ^ "Bill Clinton Lapdog Is Now ABC’s Top Dog", Tim Graham, Media Research Center, June 10, 2003.
  18. ^ "Too Close for Comfort", John Fund, John Fund on the Trail, August 31, 2000
  19. ^ "CNN retracts Tailwind coverage", CNN.com, July 2, 1998
  20. ^ Into the Buzzsaw: Leading Journalists Expose the Myth of a Free Press, Kristina Borjesson, 2002
  21. ^ "CNN's Johnson to retire". CNN. June 28, 2001. 
  22. ^ "Greatest Moments in CNN History". 
  23. ^ CNN BREAKING NEWS Transcript – Terrorist Attack on United States
  24. ^ CNN.com (September 11, 2001) Available at archive.org. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
  25. ^ http://www.thememoryhole.org/media/cnn-war.htm[dead link]
  26. ^ The News We Kept To Ourselves – New York Times
  27. ^ "How the media sold Bush’s war", Lance Selfa Socialist Worker Online, October 3, 2003
  28. ^ "Media Reporting, Journalism and Propaganda", Anup Shah, August 1, 2007

External links[edit]