History of Filipino Americans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Filipinos in what is now the United States were first documented in the 16th century, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration did not begin until the early 20th century, and for a period the History of the Philippines merged with that of the United States. After the independence of the Philippines from the United States, Filipino Americans continued to grow in population and had events that are associated to them.

Immigration history[edit]

Researchers have looked upon the patterns of immigration of Filipinos to the United States and have recognized four significant waves. The first was connected to the period when the Philippines was part of New Spain and later the Spanish East Indies; Filipinos, via the Manila galleons, would migrate to North America, some finding their way to the United States, others remaining in Mexico. This would end around 1906 with the end of the Spanish East Indies due to the Spanish and Philippine American Wars.[1]

The second wave of immigration was during the American colonial period when Filipinos were U.S. Nationals, and were unrestricted from immigrating to the US by laws that restricted other Asians.[1] This wave of immigration has been referred to as the manong generation.[2][3][4] Filipinos of this wave came for different reasons, but the majority were laborers, predominantly Ilocano and Visayan.[1] This wave of immigration was distinct from other Asian Americans, due to American influences, and education, in the Philippines; thefore they did not see themselves as aliens when they immigrated to the United States.[5] During the Great Depression, Filipino Americans were also affected, losing jobs, and being the target of race based violence.[6] This wave of immigration ended due to the Philippine Independence Act in 1934, which restricted immigration to 50 persons a year.[1]

Later, due to basing agreements with the Philippines, Filipinos were allowed to enlist in the U.S. Navy, this continued a practice of allowing Filipinos to serve in the Navy that began in 1901.[7] Before the end of World War I Filipino sailors were allowed to serve in a number of ratings, however due to a rules change during the interwar period Filipino sailors were restricted to officers' stewards and mess attendants.[8] This ended in 1946, following the independence of the Philippines from the United States, but resumed in 1947 due to language inserted into the Military Base Agreement between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines.[7] In 1973, Admiral Zumwalt removed the restrictions on Filipino sailors, allowing them to enter any rate they qualified for;[9] in 1976 there were about 17,000 Filipinos serving in the United States Navy;[7] they created a distinct Navy-related Filipino American immigrant community.[10]

The third wave of immigration followed the events of World War II. Filipinos who had served in World War II had been given the option of becoming U.S. Citizens, and many took the opportunity,[11] upwards of 10,000 according to Barkan.[12][13] Filipina War brides were allowed to immigrate to the United States due to War Brides Act and Fiancée Act, with approximately 16,000 Filipinas entering the United States in the years following World War II.[14] This immigration was not limited only to Filipinas and children; between 1946 and 1950, there was recorded one Filipino Groom granted immigration under the War Brides Act.[15] A source of immigration was opened up with the Luce-Celler Act of 1946 that gave the Philippines a quota of 100 persons a year; yet records show that 32,201 Filipinos immigrated between 1953 to 1965.[16] This wave ended in 1965.[1]

The fourth and present wave of immigration began in 1965 with passing of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 into law. It ended national quotas into law, and provided an unlimited number of visas for family reunification.[1] By the 1970s and 1980s Filipina wives of service members reach annual rates of five to eight thousand.[17] Navy based immigration stopped with the expiration of the military bases agreement in 1992;[18] yet it continues in a more limited fashion.[19] Many Filipinas of this new wave of migration have migrated here as professionals due to a shortage in qualified nurses.[20]

Timeline[edit]

  • 1573 to 1811, Roughly between 1556 and 1813, Spain engaged in the Galleon Trade between Manila and Acapulco. The galleons were built in the shipyards of Cavite, outside Manila, by Filipino craftsmen. The trade was funded by Chinese traders, manned by Filipino sailors and "supervised" by Mexico City officials. In this time frame, Spain recruited Mexicans to serve as soldiers in Manila. Likewise, they drafted Filipinos to serve as soldiers in Mexico. Once drafted, the trip across the ocean sometimes came with a "one way" ticket.
  • 1587, First Filipinos ("Luzonians") to set foot in North America arrive in Morro Bay, (San Luis Obispo) California on board the Manila-built galleon ship Nuestra Senora de Esperanza under the command of Spanish Captain Pedro de Unamuno.[21][22]
  • 1720, Gaspar Molina, a Filipino from Pampanga province, oversees the construction of El Triunfo de la Cruz, the first ship built in California.
  • 1763, First permanent Filipino settlements established in North America near Barataria Bay in southern Louisiana.[23][24]
  • 1781, Antonio Miranda Rodriguez chosen a member of the first group of settlers to establish the City of Los Angeles, California. He and his daughter fell sick with smallpox while en route, and remained in Baja California for an extended time to recuperate. When they finally arrived in Alta California, it was discovered that Miranda Rodriguez was a skilled gunsmith. He was reassigned in 1782 to the Presidio of Santa Barbara as an armorer.[25][26]
  • 1796, The first American trading ship to reach Manila, the Astrea, was commanded by Captain Henry Prince.
  • 1814, During the War of 1812, Filipinos from Manila Village (near New Orleans) were among the "Baratarians" who fought against the British under the command of Jean Lafitte in the Battle of New Orleans.[27]
  • 1870, Filipinos mestizos studying in New Orleans form the first Filipino Association in the United States, the "Sociedad de Beneficencia de los Hispanos Filipinos."[28]
José Rizal around the time of his visit to the United States
Philippine Village at the Pan-American Exposition in 1901
  • 1901, United States Navy begins recruiting Filipinos.[32]
  • 1902, Philippine–American War ends.
  • 1902, Philippine Bill of 1902 passed by the U.S. Congress; makes it illegal for Filipinos to own property, vote, operate a business, live in an American residential neighborhood, hold public office and become a naturalized American citizen;[33][verification needed] it provided for a Bill of Rights, and established a bicameral legislature[34][verification needed]
  • 1903, First Pensionados, Filipinos invited to attend college in the United States on American government scholarships, arrive.[35]
  • 1906, First Filipino laborers migrate to the United States to work on the Hawaiian sugarcane and pineapple plantations, California and Washington asparagus farms, Washington lumber, Alaska salmon canneries. About 200 Filipino "pensionados" are brought to the U.S. to get an American education.
  • 1910, First Filipino, Vicente Lim, attends West Point.[36][37]
  • 1912, Filipino Association of Philadelphia (Now known as Filipino American Association of Philadelphia, Inc./FAAPI) is founded by Agripino Jaucian; it is perhaps the oldest Filipino organization in continuous existence in the United States. The name change came about to include the growing number of American wives.[38][39]
  • 1913, On June 15 The Battle of Bud Bagsak ends the Moro Rebellion
  • 1917, Philippine National Guard mustered into federal service
  • 1920s, Filipino labor leaders organize unions and strategic strikes to improve working and living conditions.
  • 1924, Filipino Workers’ Union (FLU) shuts down 16 of 25 sugar plantations.
  • 1927, Anti-Filipino riots occur in the Yakima Valley, Washington.[40][41]
  • 1928, Filipino Businessman Pedro Flores opens Flores yo-yos, which is credited with starting the yo-yo craze in the United States. He came up with and copyrighted the word yo-yo.[42] He also applied for and received a trademark for the Flores Yo-yo, which was registered on July 22, 1930.[42] His company went on to be become the foundation of which would latter become the Duncan yo-yo company.[42] Anti-Filipino riots occur in the Wenatchee Valley.[40][43]
  • 1929, Anti-Filipino riot occurs in Exeter, California.[41]
  • 1930, Anti-Filipino riots break out in Watsonville and other California rural communities, in part because of Filipino men having intimate relations with White women which was in violation of the California anti-miscegenation laws enacted during that time.[41][44][45]
  • 1933, After the Supreme Court of California found in Roldan v. Los Angeles County that existing laws against marriage between white persons and "Mongoloids" did not bar a Filipino man from marrying a white woman,[46] California's anti-miscegenation law, Civil Code, section 60, was amended to prohibit marriages between white persons and members of the "Malay race" (e.g. Filipinos).[47][48][49]
  • 1934, The Tydings–McDuffie Act, known as the Philippine Independence Act limited Filipino immigration to the U.S. to 50 persons a year (not to apply to persons coming or seeking to come to the Territory of Hawaii).[50]
  • 1936, Philippines becomes self-governing. Commonwealth of the Philippines inaugurated.
Company labor camp for Filipino farm laborers on Ryer Island in 1940
The building where Domingo and Viernes were assassinated.
  • 1981, Filipino American labor activists Silme Domingo and Gene Viernes are both assassinated June 1, 1981 inside a Seattle downtown union hall.[66]
  • 1981, International Hotel in Manilatown, San Francisco is demolished.[67]
  • 1987, Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Lt. Governor of a state of the Union.
  • 1990, David Mercado Valderrama becomes first Filipino American elected to a state legislature on the mainland United States serving Prince George's County in Maryland. Immigration reform Act of 1990 is passed by the U.S. Congress granting U.S. citizenship to Filipino World War II veterans resulting in 20,000 Filipino veterans take oath of citizenship.
  • 1991, Seattle's Gene Canque Liddell becomes first Filipino American woman to be elected mayor serving the suburb of Lacey City.
  • 1992, Velma Veloria becomes first Filipino American and first Asian American elected to the Washington State Legislature.
  • 1993, Mario R. Ramil appointed Associate Justice to the Hawai'i Supreme Court, the second Filipino American to reach the court.
  • 1994, Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Governor of a state of the Union.
  • 1995, The nation's largest Filipino mural, Gintong Kasaysayan, Gintong Pamana (Filipino Americans: A Glorious History, A Golden Legacy) in Los Angeles is unveiled and dedicated with over 600 people attending.[68][69]
  • 1999, US Postal worker Joseph Ileto murdered in a hate crime by Aryan Nations member Buford Furrow.
  • 1999, First permanent museum display honoring a Filipino American, the Carlos Bulosan Memorial Exhibit opens in Seattle's Eastern Hotel in the International District, honoring Filipino American literary great Carlos Bulosan.[70]
  • 2000, Robert Bunda elected Hawai'i Senate President and Simeon R. Acoba, Jr. appointed Hawai'i State Supreme Court Justice.
  • 2000, 'Price of Freedom' (100' x 30') US Veterans War Memorial mural near Vandenberg Air Force Base in Lompoc, California includes the Philippine–American War[71]
  • 2001, Bataan Death March Memorial, a federally funded project, was dedicated in Las Cruces, New Mexico.[72][73]
  • 2003, Philippine Republic Act No. 9225, also known as the Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 enacted, allowing natural-born Filipinos naturalized in the United States and their unmarried minor children to reclaim Filipino nationality and hold dual citizenship.[74][75]
  • 2006, Congress passes legislation that commemorates the 100 Years of Filipino Migration to the United States.;[76] Hawaii celebrates the centennial of Filipinos in Hawaii.[77]
  • 2006, First monument dedicated to Filipino soldiers who fought for the United States in World War II unveiled in Historic Filipinotown, Los Angeles, California.[78]
  • 2007, First American public park built with Filipino themed design features unveiled in LA's Historic Filipinotown.[79]
  • 2009, Steve Austria becomes "the first, first-generation Filipino to be elected to the United States Congress."[80]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Yo, Jackson (2006). Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology. SAGE. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-4129-0948-8. Retrieved September 27, 2009. 
  2. ^ "Filipino American History". Northern California Pilipino American Student Organization. California State University, Chico. January 29, 1998. Retrieved June 7, 2011. "These Filipino pioneers were known as the "manong generation" since most of them came from Ilokos Sur, Iloilo, and Cavite in the Philippines." 
  3. ^ "Learn about our culture". Filipino Student Association. Saint Louis University. Retrieved June 7, 2011. "These Filipino pioneers were known as the "manong generation" since most of them came from Ilokos Sur, Iloilo, and Cavite in the Philippines." 
  4. ^ Jackson, Yo (2006). Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-4129-0948-8. Retrieved June 7, 2011. "Included in this group were Pensionados, Sakadas, Alaskeros, and Manongs primarily from the Illocos and Visayas regions." 
  5. ^ Starr, Kevin (2009). Golden dreams: California in an age of abundance, 1950–1963. New York: Oxford University Press US. p. 450. ISBN 978-0-19-515377-4. Retrieved April 27, 2011. "They were, however, officially under the protection of the United States, which governed the Philippines, and herein they took a distinctive characteristics. First of all, they had been inculcated in the Philippines, through the American-sponsored education system and through the general point of view of a colonial society strongly under American influence, in the belief that all men were created equal, in fact and under the law, and that included them. Second, they spoke English, excellently in many cases, thanks once again to the American sponsored educational system in the Philippines. Filipino migrant workers did not see themselves as aliens." 
  6. ^ Austin, Joe; Michael Willard (1998). Generations of youth: youth cultures and history in twentieth-century America. New York: NYU Press. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-8147-0646-6. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c Hooker, J.S. (July 7, 2006). "Filipinos in the United States Navy". Navy Department Library. United States Navy. Retrieved September 27, 2009. 
  8. ^ Le Espiritu, Yen (2003). Home Bound: Filipino American Lives across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. University of California Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780520235274. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  9. ^ Ramon J. Farolan (July 21, 2003). "From Stewards to Admirals: Filipinos in the U.S. Navy". Asian Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  10. ^ Le Espiritu, Yen (2003). Home Bound: Filipino American Lives across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. University of California Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780520235274. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b California's Filipino Infantry. The California State Military Museum. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  12. ^ Posadas, Barbara Mercedes (1999). The Filipino Americans. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-313-29742-7. Retrieved May 19, 2011. 
  13. ^ Barkman, Elliot R. (1983). "Whom Shall We Integrate?: A Comparative Analysis of the Immigration and Naturalization Trends of Asians Before and After the 1965 Immigration Act (1951–1978)". Journal of American Ethnic History (University of Illinois Press) 3 (1): 29–57. JSTOR 27500294. 
  14. ^ Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898–1946. New York: NYU Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8147-9109-7. Retrieved June 10, 2011. 
  15. ^ Daniels, Roger (2010). Immigration and the legacy of Harry S. Truman: Volume 6 of Truman legacy series. Truman State Univ Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-931112-99-4. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  16. ^ Segal, Uma Anand (2002). A framework for immigration: Asians in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-231-12082-1. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  17. ^ Min, Pyong Gap (2006). Asian Americans: contemporary trends and issues. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press. p. 14. ISBN 1-4129-0556-7. Retrieved February 14, 2011. 
  18. ^ MC3 Rialyn Rodrigo (March 1, 2009). "Philippine Enlistment Program Sailors Reflect on Heritage". Navy News Service. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  19. ^ Service Officer (October 8, 2008). "USN Recruiters to Visit Philippines October 09, 2008". United States Military Activities Office Davao City, Philippines. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  20. ^ Daniels, Roger (2002). Coming to America: a history of immigration and ethnicity in American life. HarperCollins. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-06-050577-6. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Historic Site, During the Manila". Michael L. Baird. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  22. ^ Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1989". Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 
  23. ^ Loni Ding (2001). "Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS AND SETTLERS". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved May 19, 2011. "Some of the Filipinos who left their ships in Mexico ultimately found their way to the bayous of Louisiana, where they settled in the 1760s. The film shows the remains of Filipino shrimping villages in Louisiana, where, eight to ten generations later, their descendants still reside, making them the oldest continuous settlement of Asians in America." 
  24. ^ Loni Ding (2001). "1763 FILIPINOS IN LOUISIANA". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved May 19, 2011. "These are the "Louisiana Manila men" with presence recorded as early as 1763." 
  25. ^ "Original Settlers (Pobladores) of El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles, 1781". laalmanac.com. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  26. ^ Cordova, Fred (1998). "The Legacy: Creating a Knowledge Base on Filipino Americans". In Pang, Valerie Ooka; Lilly Cheng, Li-Rong. Struggling to Be Heard: The Unmet Needs of Asian Pacific American Children. Social Context of Education. SUNY Press. p. 167. ISBN 9780791438398. Retrieved October 2, 2012. 
  27. ^ Nancy Dingler (June 23, 2007). "Filipinos made immense contributions in Vallejo". Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  28. ^ "Manila Village". Filipino American Heritage Website. Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program. 2006. Retrieved April 28, 2011. "On July 24, 1870, the Spanish-speaking residents of St. Malo founded the first Filipino social club called Sociedad de Beneficencia de los Hispano Filipinos to provide relief and support for the group's members, including the purchasing of a burial places for their deceased." 
  29. ^ Tiongson, Antonio T.; Edgardo Valencia Gutierrez; Ricardo Valencia Gutierrez (2006). Positively no Filipinos allowed: building communities and discourse. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-59213-122-8. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  30. ^ José Rizal. "The Philippines a Century Hence". joserizal.info. Retrieved 2008-01-17.  (Translated by Charles E. Derbyshire, first published in La Solidaridad, Madrid, between September 30, 1889, and February 1, 1890)
    "... Perhaps the great American Republic, whose interests lie in the Pacific and who has no hand in the spoliation of Africa, may dream some day of foreign possession. This is not impossible, for the example is contagious, covetousness and ambition are among the strongest vices, and Harrison manifested something of this sort in the Samoan question. ..."
  31. ^ Rizal, Jose (1912). The Philippines a century hence. Philippine Education Company. p. 107. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  32. ^ Bureau of Naval Personnel (October 1976). "Filipinos in the United States Navy". Naval History & Heritage Command. United States Navy. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  33. ^ Leonard, George (1999). The Asian Pacific American heritage: a companion to literature and arts. Taylor & Francis. p. 541. ISBN 978-0-8153-2980-0. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  34. ^ Chris Antonette Piedad-Pugay. "The Philippine Bill of 1902: Turning Point in Philippine Legislation". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. 
  35. ^ Bevis, Teresa Brawqner; Christopher J. Lucas (2007). International students in American colleges and universities: a history. New York: Macmillan. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-230-60011-9. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  36. ^ Annual report of the Secretary of War. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1915. p. 11. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  37. ^ Marc Lawrence. "Filipino Martial Arts in the United States". South Bay Filipino Martial Arts Club. Retrieved April 27, 2011. "In 1910 the U.S. began sending one outstanding Filipino soldier per year to West Point, and by 1941 some of these men had risen to the rank of senior officers." 
  38. ^ "Filipino American Association of Philadelphia, Inc.". Retrieved March 2011. 
  39. ^ "Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia Inc.". Asian Journal. February 1, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2012. "The organization drafted its constitution and by-laws and became charted in the city of Philadelphia and incorporated in the State of Pennsylvania in 1917. FAAPI is the oldest ongoing organization of Filipinos and Filipino-Americans in the Delaware Valley and perhaps in the U.S." 
  40. ^ a b "IV. Timeline: Asian Americans in Washington State History". Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  41. ^ a b c Lott, Juanita Tamayo (2006). Common destiny: Filipino American generations. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7425-4651-6. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  42. ^ a b c Lucky Meisenheimer, MD. "Pedro Flores". nationalyoyo.org. Archived from the original on December 19, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  43. ^ Jamieson, Stuart Marshall (1946). Labor unionism in American agriculture. Ayer Publishing. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-405-09508-5. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Remembering the Watsonville Riots". modelminority.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-27. [dead link]
  45. ^ Starr, Kevin (2009). Golden dreams: California in an age of abundance, 1950–1963. New York: Oxford University Press US. p. 451. ISBN 978-0-19-515377-4. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  46. ^ Min, Pyong-Gap (2006), Asian Americans: contemporary trneds and issues, Pine Forge Press, p. 189, ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5 
  47. ^ Irving G. Tragen (September 1944). "Statutory Prohibitions against Interracial Marriage". California Law Review 32 (3): 269–280. doi:10.2307/3476961. , citing Cal. Stats. 1933, p. 561.
  48. ^ Association of American Law Schools (1950). Selected essays on family law. Foundation Press. pp. 279. "The second disttinct change came in 1933 when the word "Malay" was added to the prohibited class,. Cal. Stats. 1933, p. 561." 
  49. ^ University of California; Berkeley. School of Law; University of California; Berkeley. School of Jurisprudence (1944). California law review. School of Jurisprudence of the University of California. pp. 272. "All marriages of white persons with Negros, Mongolians, members of the Malay race, of mulattos are illegal and void." 
  50. ^ The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act). Chanrobles Law Library. March 24, 1934. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  51. ^ Filipino Americans. Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs. Archived from the original on September 23, 2006. Retrieved 2007-12-27. [dead link]
  52. ^ Mark L. Lazarus III. "An Historical Analysis of Alien Land Law: Washington Territory & State 1853–1889". Seattle University School of Law. Seattle University. Archived from ""washington+supreme+Court"+unconstitutional+Filipino+"Alien+Land+Law"" the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011. "Finally, the only other reported case on alien land rights went before the Washington Supreme Court in early 1941. The court held that a 1937 amendment to the alien land law was unconstitutional inasmuch as it might disable citizens of the Philippines.30'" 
  53. ^ Espiritu, Yen le (1993). Asian American panethnicity: bridging institutions and identities. Temple University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-56639-096-5. Retrieved March 18, 2011. 
  54. ^ Takaki, Ronald (1998). Strangers from a different shore: a history of Asian Americans. Little, Brown. p. 591. ISBN 978-0-316-83130-7. Retrieved April 28, 2011. "Filipinos wore buttons saying, 'I am Filiipino'."" [dead link]
  55. ^ "An Untold Triumph". Asian American Studies. California State University, Sacramento. Retrieved April 27, 2011. "Facing discrimination and hard times here in California and all along the west coast, thousands of Filipinos worked in agricultural fields, in the service industry, and in other low paying jobs. The war provided the opportunity for Filipinos to fight for the United States and prove their loyalty as Americans." 
  56. ^ a b Espiritu, Yen Le (1995). Filipino American lives. Temple University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-56639-317-1. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 
  57. ^ Treaty of General Relations Between the United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines. Signed at Manila, on 4 July 1946 (pdf). United Nations. Retrieved 2007-12-10. [dead link]
  58. ^ Bonus, Rick (2000). Locating Filipino Americans: ethnicity and the cultural politics of space. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-56639-779-7. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  59. ^ "20th Century – Post WWII". Asian American Studies. Dartmouth College. Retrieved April 27, 2011. "Filipino Naturalization Act grants US citizenship to filipinos who had arrived before March 24, 1943." 
  60. ^ Perez vs. Sharp – End to Miscegenation Laws in California. Los Angeles Almanac. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  61. ^ Lott, Juanita Tamayo (2006). Common destiny: Filipino American generations. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-7425-4651-6. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  62. ^ "Philippine American Collegiate Endeavor". Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  63. ^ Pilipino American Alliance ~ UC Berkeley[dead link]
  64. ^ Gonzalves, Theodore S. (2009). The Day the Dancers Stayed: Performing in the Filipino/American Diaspora. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-59213-729-9. Retrieved April 30, 2011. "Many Filipino student organizations have histories that coincide with the political awakenings of students on college campuses in the late 1960s and early 1970s, For example, San Francisco Statue University's Pilipino American Collegiate Endeavor (PACE) was founded in 1967; the Pilipino American Alliance (PAA) at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, was funded in 1969; Samahang Pilipino at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), was founded in 1972; and Kababayan at the University of California, Irvine, was founded in 1974." 
  65. ^ "First Fil-Am elected in the US Mainland: Larry Asera". Asian Journal. August 19, 2009. Retrieved March 10, 2011. 
  66. ^ "Filipino labor activists Gene Viernes and Silme Domingo are slain in Seattle on June 1, 1981". historylink.org. Archived from the original on http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&File_Id=412. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  67. ^ Sterngass, Jon (2006). Robert D. Johnston, ed. Filipino Americans. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7910-8791-6. Retrieved June 5, 2011. 
  68. ^ "Sunday, 24 April 2011 Login Edit Feedback Historic Filipinotown With Mural/ Adobo Nation's La Chika". TFC. Retrieved January 2011. 
  69. ^ "Famous Fil Am Muralist Returns to Filipinotown". INQUIRER. June 22, 2006. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  70. ^ "Bulosan Memorial Exhibit". Retrieved October 1999. 
  71. ^ "Major Commissioned Murals: The Price of Freedom". 
  72. ^ Gutierrez, Ricardo (April 10, 2009). "AMEDDC&S NCOs honor WWII heroes". Fort Sam Houston (United States Army). Retrieved June 26, 2009. 
  73. ^ Wilcox, Laura (May 24, 2008). "Veteran lobbies for Bataan Death March memorial". The Herald-Dispatch (Champion Publishing Inc.). Retrieved June 26, 2009. 
  74. ^ "Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003". Philippine Government, Bureau of Immigration. August 29, 2003. Archived from the original on February 8, 2005. Retrieved 2006-12-19. 
  75. ^ "Implementing Rules and Regulations for R.A. 9225". Philippine Government, Bureau of Immigration. Archived from the original on October 3, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-19. 
  76. ^ "109th Congress, H.CON.RES.218, Recognizing the centennial of sustained immigration from the Philippines to the United States ...". U.S. Library of Congress. December 15, 2005. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  77. ^ "The Filipino Century Beyond Hawaii". Center for Philippine Studies. University of Hawaii at Manoa. December 13–17, 2006. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  78. ^ Garcetti Unveils Nation’s First Filipino Veterans Memorial. Eric Garcetti, President, los Angeles city council. November 13, 2006. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  79. ^ Montoya, Carina Monica (2009). Los Angeles's Historic Filipinotown. Arcadia Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-7385-6954-3. 
  80. ^ "AUSTRIA STATEMENT FOR EVENT AT PHILIPPINES EMBASSY". Official House of Representatives website of Rep. Steve Austria. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]